Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that work as molecular chaperones for cellular proteins essential for cell viability and growth as well as having numerous cyto-protective roles. They are sub-categorised based on their molecular weights; amongst which some of the most extensively studied are the HSP90 and HSP70 families. Important members of these two families; Heat shock proteins 70 and heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp70/90), are the glucose regulated proteins (GRP). These stress-inducible chaperones possess distinct roles from that of the other HSPs, residing mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, but they can also be translocated to other cellular locations. Their ability in adapting to stress conditions in the tumour microenvironment suggests novel functions in cancer. GRPs have been implicated in many crucial steps of carcinogenesis to include stabilization of oncogenic proteins, induction of tumour angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis and replicative senescence, and promotion of invasion and metastasis.
Prenatal stress may evoke considerable physiological consequences on the developing poultry embryos and neonates. The present study aimed to determine prenatal auditory stimulation effects on serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CPN), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), corticosterone (CORT), and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) regulations in developing chicken embryos and newly hatched chicks. Hatching eggs were subjected to the following auditory treatments; 1) control (no additional sound treatment other than the background sound of the incubator's compressors at 40 dB), 2) noise exposure (eggs were exposed to pre-recorded traffic noise at 90 dB) (NOISE), and 3) music exposure (eggs were exposed to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K 488 at 90 dB) (MUSIC). The NOISE and MUSIC treatments were for 20 min/h for 24 h (a total of 8 h/d), starting from embryonic days (ED) 12 to hatching. The MUSIC (1.37 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and NOISE (1.49 ± 0.2 ng/mL) treatments significantly elevated CPN at ED 15 compared to the Control (0.82 ± 0.04 ng/mL) group and post-hatch day 1 (Control, 1.86 ± 0.2 ng/mL; MUSIC, 2.84 ± 0.4 ng/mL; NOISE, 3.04 ± 0.3 ng/mL), AGP at ED 15 (Control, 39.1 ± 7.1 mg/mL; MUSIC, 85.5 ± 12.9 mg/mL; NOISE, 85.4 ± 15.1 mg/mL) and post-hatch day 1 (Control, 20.4 ± 2.2 mg/mL; MUSIC, 30.5 ± 4.7 mg/mL; NOISE, 30.3 ± 1.4 mg/mL). CORT significantly increased at ED 15 in both MUSIC (9.024 ± 1.4 ng/mL) and NOISE (12.15 ± 1.6 ng/mL) compared to the Control (4.39 ± 0.7 ng/mL) group. On the other hand, MUSIC exposed embryos had significantly higher Hsp70 expression than their Control and NOISE counterparts at ED 18 (Control, 12.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL; MUSIC, 129.6 ± 26.4 ng/mL; NOISE, 13.3 ± 2.3 ng/mL) and post-hatch day 1 (Control, 15.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL; MUSIC, 195.5 ± 68.5 ng/mL; NOISE, 13.2 ± 2.7 ng/mL). In conclusion, developing chicken embryos respond to auditory stimulation by altering CPN, AGP, CORT, and Hsp70. The alterations of these analytes could be important in developing embryos and newly hatched chicks to cope with stress attributed to auditory stimulation.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m(2)/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m(2)/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.
Protistan parasites in order to ensure their viability and demonstrate successful progression in their life cycle need to respond towards various environmental stressors. Blastocystis sp. is known to be the most commonly found intestinal protistan parasite in any human stool surveys and has been incriminated to be responsible for diarrhea and bloating stomach. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of HSP70 in subtypes of Blastocystis sp. when the cultures were subjected to temperature of 39 and 41 °C where the growth of parasites was reduced to a minimum to majority being granular forms. The growth of parasites exposed to higher temperatures however doubled compared to the controls when the parasites were re-cultured back at 37 °C. Upon thermal stress at 41 °C, subtype 3 and subtype 5 isolates' growth reached up to 2.97 × 10(6) and 3.05 × 10(6) cells/ml compared to their respective controlled culture tubes at 37 °C which peaked only at 1.34 × 10(6) and 1.70 × 10(6) cells/ml respectively. The designed primer set that amplified Blastocystis sp. subtype 7 HSP70 gene in subtypes 1, 3 and 5 was against a conserved region. The gene was amplified at 318 bp. The multiple sequence alignment showed that the targeted sequence length ranges from 291-295 bp. The pair wise alignment result showed that the sequence identity among the four sequence ranges from 88% to 96%. These findings were further evidenced by the up regulation of HSP70 gene in thermal stressed isolates of subtype 3 and 5 at 41 °C. Higher number of granular forms was significantly found in thermal stressed isolates of subtype 3 and 5 which implicates that this life cycle stage has a role in responding to thermal stress.
The semen quality of bucks affects the reproduction performance of the herd and is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is considered as an important gene affecting semen quality traits. The objectives of this study are to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP70 coding region and their association with semen quality traits on Boer and Boer cross bucks. DNA isolated from 53 goats (36 pure South African Boer and 17 Boer crosses) was subjected to PCR amplification of the exon 1 region of the caprine HSP70 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms and the variant DNA fragments were sequenced. Two synonymous SNPs (74A>C (ss836187517) and 191C>G (ss836187518)) were detected. Qualities of fresh and post-thaw semen were evaluated for sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility and velocity traits, live sperm percentage, and abnormal sperm rate. The C allele of ss836187517 and G allele of ss836187518 were at higher frequencies in both the breeds. The C allele of ss836187517 appeared to be the favorable allele for semen concentration, progressive motility of fresh semen, and motility and sperm lateral head displacement of post-thaw semen. A negative overdominance was observed for ss836187517 alleles on velocity traits of post-thaw semen. The C allele of ss836187518 was favorable for sperm concentration and progressive motility. Results herein suggest that the SNPs in HSP70 may affect on semen quality in tropical regions and specially on the potential of semen for freezing.
The purpose of exploring protein interactions between human adenovirus and heat shock protein 70 is to exploit a potentially synergistic interaction to enhance anti-tumoral efficacy and decrease toxicity in cancer treatment. However, the protein interaction of Hsp70 with E1A32 kDa of human adenovirus serotype 5 remains to be elucidated. In this study, two residues of ATPase domain of human heat shock 70 kDa protein 1 (PDB: 1 HJO) were mutated. 3D mutant models (K71L and T204V) using PyMol software were then constructed. The structures were evaluated by PROCHECK, ProQ, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA modules. All evidence suggests that all protein models are acceptable and of good quality. The E1A32 kDa motif was retrieved from UniProt (P03255), as well as subjected to docking interaction with NBD, K71L and T204V, using the Autodock 4.2 program. The best lowest binding energy value of -9.09 kcal/mol was selected for novel T204V. Moreover, the protein-ligand complex structures were validated by RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds and salt bridge analysis. This revealed that the T204V-E1A32 kDa motif complex was the most stable among all three complex structures. This study provides information about the interaction between Hsp70 and the E1A32 kDa motif, which emphasizes future perspectives to design rational drugs and vaccines in cancer therapy.
Two hundred thirty-five 1-d-old broiler chickens showing short or long tonic immobility responses were classified as low fear (LF) or high fear (HF) responders, respectively. On d 41, they were subjected to either crating or heat challenge (34 +/- 1 degrees C) for 3 h and its effect on plasma corticosterone concentration, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in brain tissue were determined. Crating and heat exposure elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratios in both LF and HF birds. Circulating corticosterone, however, was greater in HF than LF birds after crating and heat challenge. Although differences between fear responder group for HSP 70 were negligible before heat challenge, after 3 h of heat exposure, the response was greater for the HF than the LF group. Both LF and HF showed similar increases in HSP 70 after crating.
Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism.
Heat shock response (HSR), in terms of transcription regulation of two heat shock proteins genes hsp70 and hsp90), was analysed in a widespread tropical copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. The mRNA transcripts of both genes were quantified after copepods at a salinity of 20 underwent an acclimation process involving an initial acclimation temperature of 29 °C, followed by gradual thermal ramping to the target exposure temperature range of 24-36 °C. The respective cellular HSR and organismal metabolism, measured by respiratory activity at exposure temperatures, were compared. The fold change in mRNA expression for both hsp70 and hsp90 (8-9 fold) peaks at 32 °C, which is very close to 32.4 °C, the upper thermal optimum for respiration in the species. Unexpectedly, the modelled HSR curves peak at only 3 °C (hsp90) and 3.5 °C (hsp70) above the mean water temperature (29.32 °C) of the copepod in the field. We propose that copepods in tropical waters adopt a preparative HSR strategy, early at the upper limit of its thermal optimum, due to the narrow thermal range of its habitat thus precluding substantial energy demand at higher temperatures. However, the model suggests that the species could survive to at least 36 °C with short acclimation time. Nevertheless, the significant overlap between its thermal range of hsp synthesis and the narrow temperature range of its habitat also suggests that any unprecedented rise in sea temperature would have a detrimental effect on the species.
In this study, we explored the possibility of determining the synergistic interactions between nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Homo sapiens heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) and E1A 32 kDa of adenovirus serotype 5 motif (PNLVP) in the efficiency of killing of tumor cells in cancer treatment. At present, the protein interaction between NBD and PNLVP motif is still unknown, but believed to enhance the rate of virus replication in tumor cells. Three mutant models (E229V, H225P and D230C) were built and simulated, and their interactions with PNLVP motif were studied. The PNLVP motif showed the binding energy and intermolecular energy values with the novel E229V mutant at -7.32 and -11.2 kcal/mol. The E229V mutant had the highest number of hydrogen bonds (7). Based on the root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, secondary structure, surface-accessible solvent area, potential energy and distance matrices analyses, it was proved that the E229V had the strongest and most stable interaction with the PNLVP motif among all the four protein-ligand complex structures. The knowledge of this protein-ligand complex model would help in designing Hsp70 structure-based drug for cancer therapy.
Backcrossing together with simple sequence repeat marker strategy was adopted to improve popular Malaysian chilli Kulai (Capsicum annuum L.) for heat tolerance. The use of molecular markers in backcross breeding and selection contributes significantly to overcoming the main drawbacks such as increase linkage drag and time consumption, in the ancient manual breeding approach (conventional), and speeds up the genome recovery of the recurrent parent. The strategy was adopted to introgress heat shock protein gene(s) from AVPP0702 (C. annuum L.), which are heat-tolerant, into the genetic profile of Kulai, a popular high-yielding chilli but which is heat sensitive. The parents were grown on seed trays, and parental screening was carried out with 252 simple sequence repeat markers. The selected parents were crossed and backcrossed to generate F1 hybrids and backcross generations. Sixty-eight markers appeared to be polymorphic and were used to assess the backcross generation; BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1. The average recipient allele of the selected four BC1F1 plants was 80.75% which were used to produce the BC2F1 generation. BC1-P7 was the best BC1F1 plant because it had the highest recovery at 83.40% and was positive to Hsp-linked markers (Hsp70-u2 and AGi42). After three successive generations of backcrossing, the average genome recovery of the recurrent parent in the selected plants in BC3F1 was 95.37%. Hsp gene expression analysis was carried out on BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1 selected lines. The Hsp genes were found to be up-regulated when exposed to heat treatment. The pattern of Hsp expression in the backcross generations was similar to that of the donor parent. This confirms the successful introgression of a stress-responsive gene (Hsp) into a Kulai chilli pepper variety. Furthermore, the yield performance viz. plant height, number of fruits, fruit length and weight and total yield of the improved plant were similar with the recurrent parent except that the plant height was significantly lower than the Kulai (recurrent) parent.
Physiological responses to social isolation stress were compared in 56-day-old male Japanese quail. Birds were fed pretreated diets for 3 days as follows: (i) Basal diet (control); (ii) Basal diet+1500 mg/kg metyrapone (BM); (iii) Basal diet+30 mg/kg corticosterone (BCO); (iv) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid (BC); (v) Basal diet+250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BE); (vi) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid and 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BCE). The birds were subsequently socially isolated in individual opaque brown paper box for 2 hours. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration and heart and brain heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) expressions were determined before stress and immediately after stress. Two hours of isolation stress elevated CORT concentration significantly in the control and BE birds but not in the BC, BCE and BM birds. There was a significant reduction in CORT concentration after isolation stress in the BCO group. Isolation stress increased Hsp 70 expression in the brain and heart of control and BM birds. However, brain and heart Hsp 70 expressions were not significantly altered in the isolated BC, BCE and BE birds. Although, the CORT concentration of BM birds was not affected by isolation stress, Hsp70 expression in both brain and heart were significantly increased. Moreover, exogenous corticosterone supplementation did not result in elevation of Hsp 70 expression. It can be concluded that, although Hsp 70 induction had not been directly affected by CORT concentration, it may be modulated by the HPA axis function via activation of ACTH.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of corticosterone (CORT) administration on serum ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ceruloplasmin (CPN), and IL-6 concentrations, and brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in broiler chickens. From 14 to 20 d of age, equal numbers of birds were subjected to either (i) daily intramuscular injection with CORT in ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol) at 6 mg/kg of BW, or (ii) daily intramuscular injection with 0.5 mL ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol; control). Blood samples were collected before CORT treatment (14 d old), 3 and 7 d after CORT injections, and 4 d after cessation of CORT administration for determination of serum levels of CORT, OVT, AGP, CPN, and IL-6. Brain samples (whole cerebrum) were collected to measure HSP 70 density. Although CORT administration significantly increased feed intake, weight gain was significantly depressed. Administration of CORT also increased CORT, OVT, CPN, AGP, IL-6, and HSP 70 expression. Four days following cessation of CORT administration, OVT declined to the basal level but not CPN and AGP. In conclusion, an elevation in CORT can induce an acute-phase response and HSP 70 expression. Thus, APP and HSP 70 may be of value as indicators of stress in poultry.
Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens.
Domestic animals have been modified by selecting individuals exhibiting desirable traits and culling the others. To investigate the alterations introduced by domestication and selective breeding in heat stress response, 2 experiments were conducted using Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), village fowl (VF), and commercial broilers (CB). In experiment 1, RJF, VF, and CB of a common chronological age (30 d old) were exposed to 36 ± 1°C for 3 h. In experiment 2, RJF, VF, and CB of common BW (930 ± 15 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in experiment 1. Heat treatment significantly increased body temperature, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and plasma corticosterone concentration in CB but not in VF and RJF. In both experiments and irrespective of stage of heat treatment, RJF showed lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, higher plasma corticosterone concentration, and higher heat shock protein 70 expression than VF and CB. It can be concluded that selective breeding for phenotypic traits in the domestication process has resulted in alterations in the physiology of CB and concomitantly the ability to withstand high ambient temperature compared with RJF and VF. In other words, domestication and selective breeding are leading to individuals that are more susceptible to stress rather than resistant. It is also apparent that genetic differences in body size and age per se may not determine breed or strain variations in response to heat stress.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32 degrees C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23 degrees C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24 degrees C; maximum, 34 degrees C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 expression than their CH counterparts. Within the CH, the FR chicks showed higher hsp 70 density than those of the ad libitum-fed group. Except for glucose, housing system had a negligible effect on serum levels of cholesterol, potassium, and chloride. Collectively, the results suggest that the improved tolerance to transport stress in OH and FR chicks could be associated with better hsp 70 expression.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of combining both pleasant and unpleasant contacts with human beings on physiology and behavior of broiler chickens. Birds were subjected to the following treatments: (i) received no physical or visual contact with humans (control); (ii) from d 1 to 28, chicks were individually stroked gently for 30 s once daily (PL); (iii) from d 1 to 28, chicks were picked up individually, suspended by both legs, exposed to recorded noise, and swung gently for 15 s once daily (UNPL); (iv) from d 1 to 14 and from d 15 to 28, chicks were subjected to PL and UNPL, respectively (PL-UNPL); and (v) from d 1 to 14 and from d 15 to 28, chicks were subjected to UNPL and PL, respectively (UNPL-PL). On d 42, birds from each treatment group were road-transported for 3 h. Heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression, plasma levels of corticosterone, serum creatine kinase concentration, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (HLR), and tonic immobility duration were determined pre- and posttransit. There were significant (P < 0.05) duration of transportation × human contact treatment interactions for HLR and hsp 70 density. Following transit, the PL chicks had significantly (P < 0.05) lower HLR and greater hsp 70 density than the other groups. The corticosterone of PL and UNPL chicks were lower than their control, PL-UNPL, and UNPL-PL counterparts. The PL and PL-UNPL treatments were effective in shortening tonic immobility duration significantly (P < 0.05). Except for UNPL-PL, the serum creatine kinase activity of PL was significantly lower than the other groups. In conclusion, subjecting birds to pleasant human contact reduced stress and fear reactions to transportation by enhancing the ability to express hsp 70 in the brain. Unpleasant human contact had adverse effect on the birds' response to transportation. Early age pleasant experience with humans failed to negate the adverse effects of subsequent unpleasant contact.
The aim of the current study was to determine the physiological response to feed restriction in female broiler breeders using a range of conventional and novel indicators. One hundred female breeders were subjected to one of five feeding regimens from d 28 to 42 as follows (i) ad libitum feeding (AL), (ii-v) 75, 60, 45, and 30% of ad libitum feed intake. Blood heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR), and plasma circulating corticosterone (CORT), ghrelin (GHR), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) and serum acute phase proteins (APP) concentrations together with brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 level were measured. The results showed a significant effect of feed restriction on blood HLR and plasma CORT, GHR, 5-HT, DA, and brain HSP 70 levels. However, feed restriction had no effect on serum levels of APP of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and ceruloplasmin. Serum levels of 5-HT and GHR varied curvilinearly with the feed restriction level. The relationship between brain HSP 70 and level of feed restriction was negligible. However, significant linear relationships between HLR, CORT, DA, and the level of feed restriction were noted. Thus, these 3 parameters appear to represent a straight forward relation with severity of feed restriction.
Stressors may influence chicken susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. Feed withdrawal stress can cause changes in normal intestinal epithelial structure and may lead to increased attachment and colonization of Salmonella. This study aimed to investigate modulatory effects of epigenetic modification by feed restriction on S. enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens subjected to feed withdrawal stress. Chicks were divided into four groups: ad libitum feeding; ad libitum feeding with 24-h feed withdrawal on day 42; 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5, and 6; and 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5, and 6 with 24-h feed withdrawal on day 42. Attachment of S. Enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an ex vivo ileal loop assay, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression was evaluated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Feed withdrawal stress increased S. Enteritidis attachment to ileal tissue. However, following feed withdrawal the epigenetically modified chickens had significantly lower attachment of S. Enteritidis than their control counterparts. A similar trend with a very positive correlation was observed for Hsp70 expression. It appears that epigenetic modification can enhance resistance to S. Enteritidis colonization later in life in chickens under stress conditions. The underlying mechanism could be associated with the lower Hsp70 expression in the epigenetically modified chickens.
Nigella sativa is also known for its properties as a traditional herbal healing for many ailments. In this study, the anticancer properties of thyomquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of N. sativa, were studied using ovarian cancer cell line (Caov-3 cells). The anti-proliferative activity of TQ was determined using MTT and the apoptosis was investigated using Flowcytometry and Annexin-V Assays. Multiparameteric cytotoxicity bioassays were used to quantify the changes in cell permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-involved cell markers were examined to verify cell death mechanism. The MTT-assay showed that TQ induces anti-proliferative activity on Caov-3 with an IC50 of 6.0±0.03 μg/mL, without any cytotoxic activity towards WRL-68 normal hepatocytes. A significant induction of early phase of apoptosis was shown by annexin-V analysis. Treatment of Caov-3 cells with TQ induces decreases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Visible decrease in the nuclear area was also observed. A significant decrease is observed in Bcl-2 while Bax is down-regulated. TQ-triggered ROS-mediated has found to be associated with Hsp70 dysregulation, an indicator of oxidative injury. We found that TQ induced anti-cancer effect involves intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and cellular oxidative stress. Our results considered collectively indicated that thyomquinone may be a potential agent for ovarian cancer drug development.