We report a 57-year-old woman with a 20-year history of hepatitis B presenting with progressive proximal lower limb weakness for the previous 1 month. Previous medical history included a pericardial and pleural effusion, of which no cause was found and pulmonary tuberculosis which has been adequately treated. Examination revealed multiple telangiactasia over face and nail beds and bilateral proximal lower limb weakness of power 4/5. Biochemical investigation revealed a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 36 mm/h, elevated creatinine kinase levels (14,363 IU/L) and raised liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase 445 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 606 IU/L) with high hepatitis B virus DNA (1,021,158 copies/mL). Nerve conduction tests and muscle biopsy were consistent with polymyositis. She received entacavir for hepatitis B treatment. Despite treatment with entacavir for 10 weeks, her weakness persisted and prednisolone was added. Upon commencement of prednisolone, her symptoms and biochemical profiles returned to normal.
Of the estimated 50 million new cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection diagnosed annually, 5-10% of adults and up to 90% of infants will become chronically infected, 75% of these in Asia where hepatitis B is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Indonesia, 4.6% of the population was positive for HBsAg in 1994 and of these, 21% were positive for HBeAg and 73% for anti-HBe; 44% and 45% of Indonesian patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, were HBsAg positive. In the Philippines, there appear to be two types of age-specific HBsAg prevalence, suggesting different modes of transmission. In Thailand, 8-10% of males and 6-8% of females are HBsAg positive, with HBsAg also found in 30% of patients with cirrhosis and 50-75% of those with HCC. In Taiwan, 75-80% of patients with chronic liver disease are HBsAg positive, and HBsAg is found in 34% and 72% of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively. In China, 73% of patients with chronic hepatitis and 78% and 71% of those with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, are HBsAg positive. In Singapore, the prevalence of HBsAg has dropped since the introduction of HBV vaccination and the HBsAg seroprevalence of unvaccinated individuals over 5 years of age is 4.5%. In Malaysia, 5.24% of healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 34 years, were positive for HBsAg in 1997. In the highly endemic countries in Asia, the majority of infections are contracted postnatally or perinatally. Three phases of chronic HBV infection are recognized: phase 1 patients are HBeAg positive with high levels of virus in the serum and minimal hepatic inflammation; phase 2 patients have intermittent or continuous hepatitis of varying degrees of severity; phase 3 is the inactive phase during which viral concentrations are low and there is minimal inflammatory activity in the liver. In general, patients who clear HBeAg have a better prognosis than patients who remain HBeAg-positive for prolonged periods of time. The outcome after anti-HBe seroconversion depends on the degree of pre-existing liver damage and any subsequent HBV reactivation. Without pre-existing cirrhosis, there may be only slight fibrosis or mild chronic hepatitis, but with pre-existing cirrhosis, further complications may ensue. HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis B is a phase of chronic HBV infection during which a mutation arises resulting in the inability of the virus to produce HBeAg. Such patients tend to have more severe liver disease and run a more rapidly progressive course. The annual probability of developing cirrhosis varies from 0.1 to 1.0% depending on the duration of HBV replication, the severity of disease and the presence of concomitant infections or drugs. The annual incidence of hepatic decompensation in HBV-related cirrhosis varies from 2 to 10% and in these patients the 5-year survival rate drops dramatically to 14-35%. The annual risk of developing HCC in patients with cirrhosis varies between 1 and 6%; the overall reported annual detection rate of HCC in surveillance studies, which included individuals with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis, is 0.8-4.1%. Chronic hepatitis B is not a static disease and the natural history of the disease is affected by both viral and host factors. The prognosis is poor with decompensated cirrhosis and effective treatment options are limited. Prevention of HBV infection thorough vaccination is still, therefore, the best strategy for decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B-associated cirrhosis and HCC.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a major public health problem particularly in developing countries in East Asia, South-East Asia, the Pacific Basin and Africa. In Malaysia, a developing nation in the South East Asian region, the chronic HBV carrier rate varies between < 1% to about 10% depending on the ethnic group studied. The highest frequency is seen among the Chinese, followed by the Malays and lastly the Indians, with a male preponderance of between 2 : 1 and 3 : 1. Exposure to the virus among the adult population is estimated to be about 15%, 26% and 36% among the Indians, Malays and Chinese respectively. Serological study of adult chronic HBV carriers showed a frequency of HBe antigenemia of about 35%, with a significant decreasing trend with age. HBV DNA status generally correlated with the HBe status. An atypical profile of anti-HBe associated with serum HBV DNA is found in some carriers; in most instances, this is related to seroconversion from HBe antigenemia to anti-HBe. Chronic complications of HBV infection include the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the occurrence of which closely parallel that of HBsAg carrier rate. In Malaysia, HCC is the third most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. About 80% of our HCC cases are HBV associated. All 3 ethnic groups are afflicted, the highest frequency being among the Chinese. Males show a disproportionate risk with an odds ratio of 3.93 (p < 0.0001).
In the Asia Pacific region Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often acquired in individuals already infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The immune suppression caused by HIV infection reduces cellular immune response against HBV and liver inflammation may improve, but the risk of developing cirrhosis is not. HBV infection does not affect the progression of HIV disease. Anti-retroviral agents may be directly hepatotoxic and cause ALT elevations in patients with chronic hepatitis. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunity and as cytotoxic lymphocyte responses improve, hepatitis flares can occur, usually r within 3 months of initiation of HAART. These hepatitis flares may be followed by normalization of ALT and clearance of HBVDNA. If lamivudine is included in the HAART regime, hepatitis flares may not occur till late and these late flares signal the development of lamivudine resistant HBV strains (90% of HBV/HIV co-infection). Treatment options for chronic HBV infection include interferon (IFN), and nucleoside analogues. Lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) are nucleoside analogues with activity against both HBVDNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. The latter two compounds have added activity against lamivudine resistant HBVDNA. Lamivudine should be avoided in the initial treatment of both hepatitis B as well as HIV because of the high incidence of resistance. Interferon should be considered first for treatment of HBV in HIV co-infected individuals and is usually unsuccessful in the later stages of HIV infection when immune suppression is extreme. As new and improved agents in HAART continue to prolong survival, the use of liver transplantation for cirrhotic patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may increase.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and high liver iron deposits have both been associated with the development of cirrhosis. Among HBV factors, genotype and mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) and precore regions have been most frequently studied but the evidence for a positive association with cirrhosis has been inconsistent. In this study, sera from persons with chronic HBV infection with and without cirrhosis were used for whole HBV genome analysis and for the estimation of serum iron marker (serum iron or ferritin) levels. Single codon analysis showed that the precore wild-type, TGG (nt 1,895-1,897), gave the highest accuracy (77.5%) for the identification of cirrhosis compared to other codons. When TGG was analyzed together with the precore start codon wild-type, ATG (nt 1,814-1,816), the accuracy was improved to 80.0% (odds ratio=35.29; 95% confidence interval=3.87-321.93; Phi=0.629; P<0.001). When the serum iron marker was included for analysis, it was clear that a combination of a precore wild-type and high serum iron marker gave a better accuracy (90.0%) (odds ratio=107.67; 95% confidence interval=10.21-1,135.59; Phi=0.804; P<0.001) for the identification of cirrhosis than either biomarker alone. It appeared that a combined use of both these biomarkers might help to predict the development of cirrhosis in a person with chronic HBV infection, but longitudinal studies are required to test this hypothesis.
We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-γ and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10.
Up to 25% of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a disease with poor prognosis unless detected early. This study identifies a blood-based RNA biomarker panel for early HCC detection in CHB.