MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature search was performed for the studies published in the English language independently by all four authors (search team) in the Medline database through the PubMed search engine for the past 5 years. The study involved predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria for the search. The final lists of clinical trials were analyzed to determine the existing evidence and suggested the mechanism of action.
REVIEW RESULTS: The search resulted in 117 titles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of seven studies were found eligible for this systematic review. Out of seven, two studies were found eligible for meta-analysis whereas remaining included for the systematic review.
CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis favors socket grafting compared to control in terms of preservation of existing bone height and width. The SHA grafting showed successful bone regeneration with less connective tissue component. The histomorphometric evaluation showed a good bone regeneration associated with SHA than xenograft. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, the synthetic GSM can be used for socket grafting.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the wake of increasing graft materials in the market and different origin raw material sources for the preparation of graft materials, clinicians are in dilemma for selection and its use. The success of grafting depends on the selection of appropriate material with a suitable calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio. The review provided available evidence for the use of SHA.
METHODS: A multidimensional survey instrument measuring attitudes to xenotransplantation, including the factors that predict such attitudes, was developed based on earlier studies and validated. It was then completed by 469 respondents who were stratified in accordance with stakeholder groups in Malaysia. A single-step SEM analysis was then conducted to estimate the measurement and create a structural model using IBM SPSS Amos version 20 with a maximum-likelihood function.
RESULTS: The attitudes of Malaysian stakeholders towards xenotransplantation were moderately positive (mean score of 4.20). The most important direct predictor of attitude to xenotransplantation was perceived benefit (β = 0.59, P
METHODS: Smaller micro tissues (˂150 μm in diameter) mixed with Matrigel were engrafted subcutaneously into NSG mice to generate the passage 1 (P1) patient-derived xenograft. The micro tumours from P1 patient-derived xenograft were then excised and orthotopically xenografted into another batch of NSG mice to generate a metastatic colorectal cancer patient-derived xenograft, P2. Haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to compare the characters between patient-derived xenograft tumours and primary tumours.
RESULTS: About 16 out of 18 P1 xenograft models successfully grew a tumour for 50.8 ± 5.1 days (success rate 89.9%). Six out of eight P1 xenograft models originating from metastatic patients successfully grew tumours in the colon and metastasized to liver or lung in the NSG recipients for 60.9 ± 4.5 days (success rate 75%). Histological examination of both P1 and P2 xenografts closely resembled the histological architecture of the original patients' tumours. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed similar biomarker expression levels, including CDH17, Ki-67, active β-catenin, Ki-67 and α smooth muscle actin when compared with the original patients' tumours. The stromal components that support the growth of patient-derived xenograft tumours were of murine origin.
CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic patient-derived xenograft mouse model could be established with shorter time and higher success rate. Although the patient-derived xenograft tumours were supported by the stromal cells of murine origin, they retained the dominant characters of the original patient tumours.
METHODS: Five single maxillary premolar extraction sockets received PRF-CS grafts and five single maxillary premolar sockets received PRF-X grafts. Linear (horizontal and vertical) measurements were accomplished using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images and volumetric changes were assessed using MIMICS software. Soft tissue level changes were measured using Stonecast models. All measurements were recorded at baseline (before extraction) and at 5-months post-extraction.
RESULTS: Significant reduction in vertical and horizontal dimensions were observed in both groups except for distal bone height (DBH = 0.44 ± 0.45 mm, p = 0.09) and palatal bone height (PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06) in PRF-X group. PRF-CS group demonstrated mean horizontal shrinkage of 1.27 ± 0.82 mm (p = 0.02), when compared with PRF-X group (1.40 ± 0.85 mm, p = 0.02). Vertical resorption for mesial bone height (MBH = 0.56 ± 0.25 mm, p = 0.008), buccal bone height (BBH = 1.62 ± 0.91 mm, p = 0.01) and palatal bone height (PBH = 1.39 ± 0.87 mm, p = 0.02) in PRF-CS group was more than resorption in PRF-X group (MBH = 0.28 ± 0.14 mm, p = 0.01, BBH = 0.63 ± 0.39 mm, p = 0.02 and PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06). Volumetric bone resorption was significant within both groups (PRF-CS = 168.33 ± 63.68 mm3, p = 0.004; PRF-X = 102.88 ± 32.93 mm3, p = 0.002), though not significant (p = 0.08) when compared between groups. In PRF-X group, the distal soft tissue level (DSH = 1.00 ± 0.50 mm, p = 0.03) demonstrated almost 2 times more reduction when compared with PRF-CS group (DSH = 1.00 ± 1.00 mm, 0.08). The reduction of the buccal soft tissue level was pronounced in PRF-CS group (BSH = 2.00 ± 2.00 mm, p = 0.06) when compared with PRF-X group (BSH = 1.00 ± 1.50 mm, p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: PRF-CS grafted sites showed no significant difference with PRF-X grafted sites in linear and volumetric dimensional changes and might show clinical benefits for socket augmentation. The study is officially registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Registration (NCT03851289).
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.
RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.
Methods: The effect of palbociclib was evaluated in a panel of well-characterized OSCC cell lines by cell proliferation assays and further confirmed by in vivo evaluation in xenograft models. PIK3CA-mutant isogenic cell lines were used to investigate the effect of PIK3CA mutation towards palbociclib response.
Results: We demonstrated that 80% of OSCC cell lines are sensitive to palbociclib at sub-micromolar concentrations. Consistently, palbociclib was effective in controlling tumor growth in mice. We identified that palbociclib-resistant cells harbored mutations in PIK3CA. Using isogenic cell lines, we showed that PIK3CA mutant cells are less responsive to palbociclib as compared to wild-type cells with concurrent upregulation of CDK2 and cyclin E1 protein levels. We further demonstrated that the combination of a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (PF-04691502) and palbociclib completely controlled tumor growth in mice.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated the potency of palbociclib in OSCC models and provides a rationale for the inclusion of PIK3CA testing in the clinical evaluation of CDK4/6 inhibitors and suggests combination approaches for further clinical studies.
Methods: BZD9L1 and 5-FU either as single treatment or in combination were tested against CRC cells to evaluate synergism in cytotoxicity, senescence and formation of micronucleus, cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the regulation of related molecular players. The effects of combined treatments at different doses on stress and apoptosis, migration, invasion and cell death mechanism were evaluated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures. In vivo studies include investigation on the combination effects of BZD9L1 and 5-FU on colorectal tumour xenograft growth and an evaluation of tumour proliferation and apoptosis using immunohistochemistry.
Results: Combination treatments exerted synergistic reduction on cell viability on HCT 116 cells but not on HT-29 cells. Combined treatments reduced survival, induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and micronucleation in HCT 116 cells through modulation of multiple responsible molecular players and apoptosis pathways, with no effect in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Combination treatments regulated SIRT1 and SIRT2 protein expression levels differently and changed SIRT2 protein localization. Combined treatment reduced growth, migration, invasion and viability of HCT 116 spheroids through apoptosis, when compared with the single treatment. In addition, combined treatment was found to reduce tumour growth in vivo through reduction of tumour proliferation and necrosis compared with the vehicle control group. This highlights the potential therapeutic effects of BZD9L1 and 5-FU towards CRC.
Conclusion: This study may pave the way for use of BZD9L1 as an adjuvant to 5-FU in improving the therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Apoptotic induction of the extracts was determined by morphological examination of AO/PI dual staining assay by flourescent microscopy and flow cytometry analysis on Annexin V-FITC/PI stained cells. In vivo study was done in immune-compromised mouse xenograft model. HPLC analysis was employed to quantify marker compounds.
RESULTS: Morphological analysis showed L. pumila induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner against SK-UT-1 cells. In vivo study indicated that L. pumila significantly suppressed the growth of uterine fibroid tumor. All tested extracts contain bioactive marker of gallic acid and cafeic acid.
CONCLUSION: This work provide significant data of the potential of L. pumila in management of uterine fibroids.
Methods: The cytotoxicity of the Ligno TG-K against human breast (MCF7), prostate (PC3) and lung (A549) adenocarcinoma cell lines was evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay. The cytotoxic mechanisms of the active high molecular weight proteins (HMWp) fraction were investigated through detection of caspases activity and apoptotic-related proteins expression by Western blotting. The in vivo antitumor activity of the isolated HMWp was examined using MCF7 mouse xenograft model. Shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to identify the proteins in the HMWp.
Results and Discussion: Cold water extract of the sclerotia inhibited proliferation of MCF7, A549 and PC3 cells with IC50 ranged from 28.9 to 95.0 µg/mL. Bioassay guided fractionation of the extract revealed that HMWp exhibited selective cytotoxicity against MCF7 cells via induction of cellular apoptosis by the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. HMWp activated expression of caspase-8 and -9 enzymes, and pro-apoptotic Bax protein whilst inhibiting expression of tumor survivor protein, Bcl-2. HMWp induced tumor-cell apoptosis and suppressed growth of tumor in MCF-7 xenograft mice. Lectins, serine proteases, RNase Gf29 and a 230NA deoxyribonuclease are the major cytotoxic proteins that accounted for 55.93% of the HMWp.
Conclusion: The findings from this study provided scientific evidences to support the traditional use of the L. tigris sclerotia for treatment of breast cancer. Several cytotoxic proteins with high abundance have been identified in the HMWp of the sclerotial extract and these proteins have potential to be developed into new anticancer agents or as adjunct cancer therapy.