METHODS: Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful.
RESULTS: We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often.
CONCLUSION: The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Eye Database from 2007 to 2014. Demographic features, ocular comorbidities, technique of surgery, grade of surgeons, types of intraoperative complications, and reasons for not obtaining good visual acuity following intraoperative complications were studied. Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.
RESULTS: Out of 12,992 eyes, 6.1% had intraoperative complications. The highest rate of complications was when more trainees (medical officers [MOs] and gazetting specialists) operated. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) was the most common complication followed by vitreous loss and zonular dehiscence. Those aged below 40 years had more complications (P < 0.05), and females had more complications. Ethnicity did not affect complications. Pseudoexfoliation was the only comorbidity causing complications (P < 0.05). Phacolytic lenses had 8.118 times the odds of getting intraoperative complications. MOs and gazetting specialists got more complications. Good outcomes were obtained in cases without complications and those operated by specialists. High astigmatism was the main reason for poorer outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Intraoperative complications were caused mostly by less experienced doctors and had poorer outcomes. Age below 40 years, females, the presence of pseudoexfoliation and phacolytic lenses had more complications. PCR was the most common complication.
METHODS: Forty-eight hospital departments were recruited via open call and stratified by country. Departments were assigned to the operational program (intervention) or usual routine (control group). Data for analyses included 36 of these departments and their 5285 patients (median 147 per department; range 29-201), 2529 staff members (70; 10-393), 1750 medical records (50; 50-50), and standards compliance assessments. Follow-up was measured after 1 year. The outcomes were health status, service delivery, and standards compliance.
RESULTS: No health differences between groups were found, but the intervention group had higher identification of lifestyle risk (81% versus 60%, p
METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study conducted in Sindh. Children aged ≤14 years enrolled from June to November 2016 were included. A structured data collection tool was used to gather information with respect to patients' socio-demographic, clinical and microbiological data. Additionally, to collect the information related to socio-economic and education level of caregivers, validated questionnaire was administered to the caregivers. Treatment outcomes were assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The relationship of unsuccessful treatment outcome with socio-demographic and clinical attributes of TB patients was analyzed using logistic regression model.
RESULTS: Childhood TB represented 19.3% (508/2634) of all TB cases in selected hospitals. Of these, 268/508 (52.8%) were females and one third of the children were aged ≤2 years (34.3%). In multivariate analysis, pulmonary smear positive TB (PTB+) (AOR = 5.910, 95%CI = 1.64-21.29), those with adverse drug reactions (AOR = 11.601, 95%CI = 4.06-33.12) and those who had known TB contacts (AOR = 3.128, 95%CI = 1.21-8.06) showed statistically significant association with unsuccessful treatment outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of childhood TB cases (19.3%) demonstrates the continuation of TB transmission in the study setting. Furthermore, an increased focus on PTB+ patients, those with adverse drug reactions and household contact with TB is warranted.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among children admitted to the Paediatrics ward in HTAA between December 2017 and May 2018. Faecal samples were examined using wet smear and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining techniques. Data on demography and hygiene practices was collected using a pretested questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS version 22.
RESULTS: One hundred thirty five children (95.6% were of Malay ethnicity) were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 25.2%. The prevalence was slightly higher in females (28.1%) than males (23.1%). The prevalence was higher than expected. This study showed that some risk factors namely children's age and trash disposal methods were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence could possibly be due to an outbreak of this infection or until now undetected.
METHODS: This was a retrospective ancillary analysis involving 660 nulliparous women carrying an uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy in a prospective perinatal intervention trial at two Australian tertiary obstetric units. They had been seen antenatally and at 3-6 months postpartum for a standardized clinical assessment between 2007 and 2014. Primary outcome measures were sonographically diagnosed LAM and external anal sphincter (EAS) trauma.
RESULTS: The incidence of LAM avulsion (11.5% vs. 21.3%, P = 0.01) and composite trauma, i.e., LAM avulsion ± EAS injury (29.2% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.03) were higher in one of the two hospitals, where the forceps delivery rate was also higher (10.9% vs. 2.6%, P
METHODS: This point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in 13 hospitals among 7 different cities of Pakistan. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antibiotic on the day of PPS. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation, and reporting as designed by the University of Antwerp (www.global-pps.com).
RESULTS: Out of 1954 patients, 1516 (77.6%) were treated with antibiotics. The top three most reported indications for antibiotic use were prophylaxis for obstetrics or gynaecological indications (16.5%), gastrointestinal indications (12.6%) and lower respiratory tract infections (12.0%). The top three most commonly prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (35.0%), metronidazole (16.0%) and ciprofloxacin (6.0%). Out of the total indications, 34.2% of antibiotics were prescribed for community-acquired infections (CAI), 5.9% for healthcare-associated infections (HAI), and 57.4% for either surgical or medical prophylaxis. Of the total use for surgical prophylaxis, 97.4% of antibiotics were given for more than one day.
CONCLUSIONS: Unnecessary prophylactic antibiotic use is extremely high, and broad-spectrum prescribing is common among hospitals in Pakistan. There is an urgent need to work on the national action plan of Pakistan on antibiotic resistance to address this.