Displaying all 19 publications

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  1. Ng KH, DeWerd LA, Schmidt RC
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2000 Dec;23(4):135-7.
    PMID: 11376538
    Generally there is a significant delay before optimized performance of mammography is fully realized in the developing countries. To evaluate the status of mammographic performance, a survey of mammographic image quality and exposure was performed in nine hospitals from four selected South East Asian countries. The entrance exposure on the surface of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic phantom (ACR-RMI model 156) was made using both thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an ionization chamber. The TLDs were mailed from the University of Wisconsin Radiation Calibration Laboratory (UWRCL) to the cooperating hospitals. The surveyed hospitals processed the images and returned them to the UWRCL for subsequent evaluation of the image quality of the mammographic phantom. Machine-specific data, technique factors and sensitometric data were also obtained. At 28 kVp, the mean entrance exposure is 0.91 R (0.46 to 2.6 R), mean glandular dose is 1.61 mGy (0.90 to 4.15 mGy), mean optical density is 1.37 (0.66 to 2.30), mean total phantom image score is 9.1(4-12). Only three of the nine hospitals tested achieved an acceptable score above the minimum 10. Results for 25 and 30 kVp showed similar trend. The variation between the ion chamber measurements and TLD measurements ranged from 4 to 24%. There is a wide variation in the image quality and entrance exposure among hospitals in South East Asia. There is a need for a quality assurance program. The factors that cause low score in the phantom images must be corrected. Calibration and the use of appropriate ionization chambers for mammography is important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  2. Hazmy W, Mahamud M, Ashikin N, Jamilah S, Yee LE, Shong HK
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56 Suppl C:3-7.
    PMID: 11814245 MyJurnal
    We conducted a retrospective study of 3 years duration beginning from the 1st January 1997 to the 31st December 1999 in order to identify the epidemiology of major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital. Two hundred and four patients were included in this study out of which 65.7% were male and 34.3% were female. The mean age of the amputees was 39.7 years old. Non traumatic amputations constitute 85.8% of the cases mainly due to diabetic ulcers or gangrene (91%) followed by peripheral vascular disease (7%) and malignancy (2%). Traumatic amputations represent 14.2% of the cases with road-traffic accident as the major cause (82.8%) followed by industrial accident (17.2%). Lower limb amputations were performed in 97.5% of the cases with below knee amputations as the commonest procedure (72%), followed by above knee amputations (27%) and Syme amputations (1%). Five patients had upper limb amputations done. Four of them were below elbow amputations while one had forequarter amputation done of the left shoulder. Of note, there were increasing number of amputations done over the last three years with alarming increasing trends of traumatic amputation. The three main risk factors for major limb amputations are diabetes mellitus, male gender and road traffic accident.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  3. SEA-ORCHID Study Group, Lumbiganon P, McDonald SJ, Laopaiboon M, Turner T, Green S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2011;6(9):e23994.
    PMID: 21915274 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023994
    BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use.

    METHODS: Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful.

    RESULTS: We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often.

    CONCLUSION: The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  4. Bandekar MS, Anwikar SR, Kshirsagar NA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2010 Nov;19(11):1181-5.
    PMID: 20845409 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2004
    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are considered as one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. Thus reporting of adverse drug reactions become an important phenomenon. Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting form is an essential component and a major tool of the pharmacovigilance system of any country. This form is a tool to collect information of ADRs which helps in establishing the causal relationship between the suspected drug and the reaction. As different countries have different forms, our aim was to study, analyze the suspected adverse drug reaction reporting form of different countries, and assess if these forms can capture all the data regarding the adverse drug reaction. For this analysis we identified 18 points which are essential to make a good adverse drug reaction report, enabling proper causality assessment of adverse reaction to generate a safety signal. Adverse drug reaction reporting forms of 10 different countries were collected from the internet and compared for 18 points like patient information, information about dechallenge-rechallenge, adequacy of space and columns to capture necessary information required for its causality assessment, etc. Of the ADR forms that we analyzed, Malaysia was the highest scorer with 16 out of 18 points. This study reveals that there is a need to harmonize the ADR reporting forms of all the countries because there is a lot of discrepancy in data captured by the existing ADR reporting forms as the design of these forms is different for different countries. These incomplete data obtained result in inappropriate causality assessment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  5. Amin Z, Sayuti R, Kahairi A, Islah W, Ahmad R
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Dec;63(5):373-6.
    PMID: 19803293 MyJurnal
    To investigate the case incidence, causes, clinical profile and outcome of temporal bone fracture complicating head trauma. A 1-year (2005) retrospective study of head injured patients presented to the Emergency Department, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Gender distribution, cause of injury, radiological findings and otorhinolaryngological clinical presentations were analyzed. Of 1309 patients, 61 patients were diagnosed to have temporal bone fracture (4.7%). Majority of cases were caused by motor vehicle accident (85.9%) and were predominantly male (88.5%). The right temporal bone was more frequently fractured (62.3%). Most (88.5%) were petro-mastoid fractures. Sixty-seven percent of the petrous fractures were longitudinal type. Clinical presentations mostly reported were blood rhinorrhea (36%) and blood otorrhea (32.7%). Other clinical presentations were hearing loss (9.8%), cranial nerve palsy (8.2%), cerebrospinal fluid oto-rhinorrhea (8.2%) and labyrinth concussion (6.5%). Four out of five cranial nerve palsies were facial nerve. Out of the 61 cases, 16 (26.2%) had no clinical presentation at the time of Emergency Department consultation. Thirteen (21.3%) died due to severe head injury. The case incidence of temporal bone fracture in head injured patients in our centre is 4.7%. The petro-mastoid type fracture predominates. Proper early diagnosis and management minimize complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  6. Chuah SY, Leong CK, Tang CL, Nachiappan M, Pang CW
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56(2):257-8.
    PMID: 11771092
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Syahrizal AB, Kareem BA, Anbanadan S, Harwant S
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56 Suppl D:5-8.
    PMID: 14569758 MyJurnal
    One hundred primary TKR surgeries done between January 1994 and December 1999 were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 37.4 months. The rate of superficial and deep wound infection were 2% and 9% respectively. The most common organism in wound infection was Staphylococcus aureus. The factors that were significantly associated with superficial wound infection were diabetes mellitus (p = 0.005) and rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.0000). The factors that were significantly associated with deep wound infection were diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference between duration of surgery, and the mean age among patients with and without wound infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  8. Thevi T, Maizura Z, Abas AL
    Indian J Ophthalmol, 2017 Jan;65(1):24-29.
    PMID: 28300736 DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_452_16
    INTRODUCTION: As in all surgeries, complications during cataract surgery are unavoidable and cause distress to the surgeon and the patient. This study was conducted to know the factors contributing to complications in our settings, to be able to counsel patients about complications and outcomes and to reduce litigations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Eye Database from 2007 to 2014. Demographic features, ocular comorbidities, technique of surgery, grade of surgeons, types of intraoperative complications, and reasons for not obtaining good visual acuity following intraoperative complications were studied. Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.

    RESULTS: Out of 12,992 eyes, 6.1% had intraoperative complications. The highest rate of complications was when more trainees (medical officers [MOs] and gazetting specialists) operated. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) was the most common complication followed by vitreous loss and zonular dehiscence. Those aged below 40 years had more complications (P < 0.05), and females had more complications. Ethnicity did not affect complications. Pseudoexfoliation was the only comorbidity causing complications (P < 0.05). Phacolytic lenses had 8.118 times the odds of getting intraoperative complications. MOs and gazetting specialists got more complications. Good outcomes were obtained in cases without complications and those operated by specialists. High astigmatism was the main reason for poorer outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Intraoperative complications were caused mostly by less experienced doctors and had poorer outcomes. Age below 40 years, females, the presence of pseudoexfoliation and phacolytic lenses had more complications. PCR was the most common complication.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Svane JK, Chiou ST, Groene O, Kalvachova M, Brkić MZ, Fukuba I, et al.
    Implement Sci, 2018 12 22;13(1):153.
    PMID: 30577871 DOI: 10.1186/s13012-018-0848-0
    BACKGROUND: Implementation of clinical health promotion (CHP) aiming at better health gain is slow despite its effect. CHP focuses on potentially modifiable lifestyle risks such as smoking, alcohol, diet, and physical inactivity. An operational program was created to improve implementation. It included patients, staff, and the organization, and it combined existing standards, indicators, documentation models, a performance recognition process, and a fast-track implementation model. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the operational program improved implementation of CHP in clinical hospital departments, as measured by health status of patients and staff, frequency of CHP service delivery, and standards compliance.

    METHODS: Forty-eight hospital departments were recruited via open call and stratified by country. Departments were assigned to the operational program (intervention) or usual routine (control group). Data for analyses included 36 of these departments and their 5285 patients (median 147 per department; range 29-201), 2529 staff members (70; 10-393), 1750 medical records (50; 50-50), and standards compliance assessments. Follow-up was measured after 1 year. The outcomes were health status, service delivery, and standards compliance.

    RESULTS: No health differences between groups were found, but the intervention group had higher identification of lifestyle risk (81% versus 60%, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Laghari M, Sulaiman SAS, Khan AH, Memon N
    BMC Infect Dis, 2019 Jan 24;19(1):82.
    PMID: 30678656 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3702-3
    BACKGROUND: Understanding the explanations behind unsuccessful treatment outcomes in tuberculosis (TB) patients is important to improve treatment success. Treatment completion for TB is the mainstay of TB prevention and control. The study was aimed to assess the treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful outcomes among children with TB.

    METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study conducted in Sindh. Children aged ≤14 years enrolled from June to November 2016 were included. A structured data collection tool was used to gather information with respect to patients' socio-demographic, clinical and microbiological data. Additionally, to collect the information related to socio-economic and education level of caregivers, validated questionnaire was administered to the caregivers. Treatment outcomes were assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The relationship of unsuccessful treatment outcome with socio-demographic and clinical attributes of TB patients was analyzed using logistic regression model.

    RESULTS: Childhood TB represented 19.3% (508/2634) of all TB cases in selected hospitals. Of these, 268/508 (52.8%) were females and one third of the children were aged ≤2 years (34.3%). In multivariate analysis, pulmonary smear positive TB (PTB+) (AOR = 5.910, 95%CI = 1.64-21.29), those with adverse drug reactions (AOR = 11.601, 95%CI = 4.06-33.12) and those who had known TB contacts (AOR = 3.128, 95%CI = 1.21-8.06) showed statistically significant association with unsuccessful treatment outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of childhood TB cases (19.3%) demonstrates the continuation of TB transmission in the study setting. Furthermore, an increased focus on PTB+ patients, those with adverse drug reactions and household contact with TB is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  11. Asady A, Ismail S, Marsitah AJ, Pakeer O
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 12;74(6):468-471.
    PMID: 31929470
    INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidium spp. is identified as an important cause of diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality worldwide particularly in children below five years of age and immunocompromised individuals. Infections are present among cattle and humans. Until now, there is no report on its prevalence in humans in Kuantan. The aim of this study is to record the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium spp. infection among children admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among children admitted to the Paediatrics ward in HTAA between December 2017 and May 2018. Faecal samples were examined using wet smear and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining techniques. Data on demography and hygiene practices was collected using a pretested questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS version 22.

    RESULTS: One hundred thirty five children (95.6% were of Malay ethnicity) were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 25.2%. The prevalence was slightly higher in females (28.1%) than males (23.1%). The prevalence was higher than expected. This study showed that some risk factors namely children's age and trash disposal methods were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence could possibly be due to an outbreak of this infection or until now undetected.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Ding WY, Lee CK, Choon SE
    Int J Dermatol, 2010 Jul;49(7):834-41.
    PMID: 20618508 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04481.x
    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions are most commonly cutaneous in nature. Patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their causative drugs vary among the different populations previously studied.
    OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to determine the clinical pattern of drug eruptions and the common drugs implicated, particularly in severe cutaneous ADRs in our population.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done by analyzing the database established for all adverse cutaneous drug reactions seen from January 2001 until December 2008.
    RESULTS: A total of 281 cutaneous ADRs were seen in 280 patients. The most common reaction pattern was maculopapular eruption (111 cases, 39.5%) followed by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS: 79 cases, 28.1%), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: 19 cases, 6.8%), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN: 16 cases, 5.7 %), urticaria/angioedema (15 cases, 5.3%) and fixed drug eruptions (15 cases, 5.3%). Antibiotics (38.8%) and anticonvulsants (23.8%) accounted for 62.6% of the 281 cutaneous ADRs seen. Allopurinol was implicated in 39 (13.9%), carbamazepine in 29 (10.3%), phenytoin in 27 (9.6%) and cotrimoxazole in 26 (9.3%) cases. Carbamazepine, allopurinol and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN accounting for 24.0%, 18.8% and 12.5% respectively of the 96 cases seen whereas DRESS was mainly caused by allopurinol (10 cases, 52.6%) and phenytoin (3 cases, 15.8%).
    DISCUSSION: The reaction patterns and drugs causing cutaneous ADRs in our population are similar to those seen in other countries although we have a much higher proportion of severe cutaneous ADRs probably due to referral bias, different prescribing habit and a higher prevalence of HLA-B*1502 and HLA-B*5801 which are genetic markers for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN/DRESS respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The most common reaction pattern seen in our study population was maculopapular eruptions. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants and NSAIDs were the most frequently implicated drug groups. Carbamazepine and allopurinol were the two main causative drugs of severe ADRs in our population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  13. Nissapatorn V, Kuppusamy I, Sim BL, Fatt QK, Anuar AK
    Public Health, 2006 May;120(5):441-3.
    PMID: 16545406 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2005.11.005
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Kananathan R, Suresh RL, Merican I
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Mar;57(1):56-60.
    PMID: 14569718 MyJurnal
    A prospective descriptive study of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis at Hospital Kuala Lumpur was undertaken from January 1992 to December 1999. A total of 17 patients were seen with a female to male ratio of 3.25:1. The mean age at presentation was 45.9 years (range: 14 years to 67 years) with a mean follow-up of 33.4 months (range: 3 months to 95 months). Fatigue was the most common clinical symptom at presentation. Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated in 93% of patients at presentation. The antimitochondrial antibody was positive in 87% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy resulted in significant symptomatic relief and biochemical improvement in all those who were treated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  15. Lakhwani MN, Gooi BH, Barras CDJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57(4):426-32.
    PMID: 12733167
    OBJECTIVES: The nature of vascular trauma varies greatly between continents and across time. The aim of this study was to prospectively analyse the demographics, pathology, management and clinical outcomes of vascular injuries in two urban Malaysian hospitals and review of international literature on vascular trauma. From this information, preliminary management and preventive implications will be described.
    METHODS: Eighty-four consecutive cases of trauma requiring vascular surgery were prospectively analysed over three years at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Extensive patient demographic and injury data, including the mechanism of injury, associated injuries, angiographic findings, operative details and post-operative complications, were systematically gathered.
    RESULTS: Most vascular injuries were incurred by males (76/84), with 37% (28/76) of them aged between 21 and 30 years. Malays were most frequently injured (n = 36) followed by Chinese and Indians. Road traffic accidents (n = 49) substantially outnumbered all other causes of injury. Lower limb injuries (n = 57) occurred more than twice as often as upper limb injuries (n = 27). Complete arterial transections (n = 43) and intimal injuries (n = 27) were more common than arterial lacerations (n = 10) and pseudoaneurysms (n = 4). The most frequently damaged vessels were the popliteal/tibioperoneal trunk (n = 33). All patients received urgent Doppler ultrasound assessment and, where possible, ankle-brachial systolic index measurement. Of all patients, 40 received an angiogram, haemodynamic instability making this investigation impractical in others. Primary arterial repair was the most frequently employed surgical procedure (n = 54) followed by autogenous reverse long saphenous vein (LSV) interposition graft (n = 14), embolectomy (n = 5) and PTFE interposition graft (n = 3). The most common post-operative complication was wound infection (n = 11). Amputation, as a last resort, was required in 13 cases following either primary or autogenous reverse LSV repair complicated by sepsis or critical ischaemia.
    CONCLUSIONS: Vascular trauma, especially in conjunction with severe soft tissue, nerve or orthopaedic injury carries colossal physical, psychological, financial and social costs. Associated nerve and venous injury portended poor outcome in this study. Whilst orthopaedic trauma was a common association, the concurrence of occult vascular trauma and soft tissue injury without fracture emphasises the crucial importance of thorough and rapid clinical vascular assessment, investigation and surgical intervention. Fasciotomy, especially for the lower limb, is important for the prevention of compartment syndrome and its, limb-threatening sequelae. Primary preventive road safety promotion and interventions, with attention to high-risk groups (young males and motorcyclists), is urgently required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Yong KS, Kareem BA, Ruslan GN, Harwant S
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56 Suppl C:57-60.
    PMID: 11814251 MyJurnal
    Sixty-seven primary THR surgeries in 57 patients between January 1992 and December 1998 were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 35.9 months. The rate of superficial and deep wound infections were 11.9% and 1.5% respectively. The most common organism in superficial wound infection was Staphylococcus aureus. The factors that were significantly associated with superficial wound infection were diabetes mellitus (p= 0.0230) obesity (p=0.0088). The patients who developed superficial wound infection have a significantly longer duration of surgery compared to patients without infection (p=0.014). However, there was no significant difference between the mean age among patients with and without superficial wound infection (p=0.814).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Jegasothy R
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2002 Aug;28(4):186-93.
    PMID: 12452259
    We report on a retrospective study of maternal deaths in Malaysia that occurred within 24 hours of delivery, abortion or operative termination of the pregnancy (defined as sudden deaths) in the years 1995-1996. There were 131 sudden maternal deaths (20.6% of all maternal deaths); postpartum hemorrhage, obstetric embolisms, trauma and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the main causes. There was a disproportionately increased risk of sudden maternal deaths in the Chinese and the 'other bumiputra' racial groups. The proportion of mothers who had no obstetric risk factors in the pregnancy that led to death was 16.8%. Fourteen mothers died in transit Twenty mothers died after a cesarean section. The findings of this review emphasize the fact that caregivers in obstetrics need to be forever vigilant. All maternity staff need to be well trained in emergency care and there needs to be quick referral to centers that can provide expertise in handling these emergencies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  18. Kamisan Atan I, Lai SK, Langer S, Caudwell-Hall J, Dietz HP
    Int Urogynecol J, 2019 06;30(6):917-923.
    PMID: 30741317 DOI: 10.1007/s00192-019-03887-z
    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Forceps delivery and length of second stage are risk factors of maternal birth trauma, i.e., levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion and anal sphincter trauma. The cesarean section (CS) rate has recently become the key performance indicator because of its increase worldwide. Attempts to reduce CS rates seem to have led to an increase in forceps deliveries and longer second stages. This study aimed to determine the association between variations in obstetric practice (between hospitals) and maternal birth trauma.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective ancillary analysis involving 660 nulliparous women carrying an uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy in a prospective perinatal intervention trial at two Australian tertiary obstetric units. They had been seen antenatally and at 3-6 months postpartum for a standardized clinical assessment between 2007 and 2014. Primary outcome measures were sonographically diagnosed LAM and external anal sphincter (EAS) trauma.

    RESULTS: The incidence of LAM avulsion (11.5% vs. 21.3%, P = 0.01) and composite trauma, i.e., LAM avulsion ± EAS injury (29.2% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.03) were higher in one of the two hospitals, where the forceps delivery rate was also higher (10.9% vs. 2.6%, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
  19. Saleem Z, Hassali MA, Versporten A, Godman B, Hashmi FK, Goossens H, et al.
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2019 04;17(4):285-293.
    PMID: 30755077 DOI: 10.1080/14787210.2019.1581063
    OBJECTIVES: In line with the recent global action plan for antimicrobial resistance, this is the first time such a comprehensive antimicrobial point prevalence survey has been undertaken in Pakistan, the sixth most populous country.

    METHODS: This point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in 13 hospitals among 7 different cities of Pakistan. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antibiotic on the day of PPS. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation, and reporting as designed by the University of Antwerp (www.global-pps.com).

    RESULTS: Out of 1954 patients, 1516 (77.6%) were treated with antibiotics. The top three most reported indications for antibiotic use were prophylaxis for obstetrics or gynaecological indications (16.5%), gastrointestinal indications (12.6%) and lower respiratory tract infections (12.0%). The top three most commonly prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (35.0%), metronidazole (16.0%) and ciprofloxacin (6.0%). Out of the total indications, 34.2% of antibiotics were prescribed for community-acquired infections (CAI), 5.9% for healthcare-associated infections (HAI), and 57.4% for either surgical or medical prophylaxis. Of the total use for surgical prophylaxis, 97.4% of antibiotics were given for more than one day.

    CONCLUSIONS: Unnecessary prophylactic antibiotic use is extremely high, and broad-spectrum prescribing is common among hospitals in Pakistan. There is an urgent need to work on the  national action plan of Pakistan on antibiotic resistance to address this.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
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