CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man of Chinese ethnicity presented to our hematology unit with headache, lethargy, and exertional dyspnea for the past 1 month. He underwent an uneventful cadaveric renal transplant 20 years ago for chronic glomerulonephritis-induced end-stage renal disease. He had been on long-term immunosuppressants since then consisting of orally administered prednisolone 10 mg daily and orally administered cyclosporine A 50 mg twice daily. On examination, he was pale with a palpable liver and spleen. He had a functioning renal graft. Marrow flow cytometry confirmed T-prolymphocytic leukemia with lymphocytes expressing CD2, CD3, CD7, CD52, and TCL-1. His human T-cell lymphotropic virus and Epstein-Barr virus serology and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were negative. He was treated with one cycle of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy to which he failed to respond. In view of his renal allograft, he was not suitable for alemtuzumab due to the risk of nephrotoxicity. He was given orally administered venetoclax but he died on day 17 due to severe auto tumor lysis syndrome.
CONCLUSION: The place of immunophenotyping in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder is of significant importance. More research needs to be carried out to further comprehend the pathophysiology and treatment modalities for this disorder.
METHODS: Venous blood samples from 46 pathologically confirmed PDAC patients were collected prospectively before surgery and immunoassayed using a specially designed TU-chip™. Captured CTCs were differentiated into epithelial (E), mesenchymal and hybrid (H) phenotypes. A further 45 non-neoplastic healthy donors provided blood for cell line validation study and CTC false positive quantification.
FINDINGS: A validated multivariable model consisting of disjunctively combined CTC phenotypes: "H-CTC≥15.0 CTCs/2ml OR E-CTC≥11.0 CTCs/2ml" generated an optimal prediction of metastasis with a sensitivity of 1.000 (95% CI 0.889-1.000) and specificity of 0.886 (95% CI 0.765-0.972). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier median OS constructed using Cox proportional-hazard models and stratified for E-CTC