In-utero intestinal volvulus is a rare but potential life threatening foetal complications. It is a surgical emergency and delay in diagnosis or treatment can increase the morbidity and mortality to the foetus. We report a case of mild foetal bowel dilatation diagnosed at 21 weeks of gestation. She was closely follow up and at 31 weeks of gestation, in-utero intestinal volvulus was diagnosed with the characteristic 'whirlpool' sign on ultrasound examination. This case emphasises the importance of early recognition and quick decision to delivery when intestinal volvulus is diagnosed. This enabled early surgical intervention to prevent further foetal morbidity.
Caecal volvulus has been reported to be associated with various abdominal and pelvic pathologies. Its signs and symptoms are usually non-specific and maybe overlooked in favour of benign causes, such as constipation. A high degree of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis. Herein, we report on an unusual case of caecal volvulus after a dental procedure that was managed initially as constipation.
Small bowel obstruction is a common clinical problem presenting with abdominal distention, colicky pain, absolute constipation and bilious vomiting. There are numerous causes, most commonly attributed to an incarcerated hernia, adhesions or obstructing mass secondary to malignancy. Here we present an unusual cause of a small bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated incisional hernia in association with an acute organoaxial gastric volvulus.
Midgut malrotation commonly presents in the neonatal period, and rarely manifests its symptoms in adulthood with an estimated incidence of 0.2-0.5%. Nevertheless, the symptoms are non-specific with no strong pointers towards the clinical diagnosis. Consequently, the diagnosis is usually disclosed with imaging or surgery. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to a congenital peritoneal band with underlying midgut malrotation in a 48-year-old man.
Anomalies of the peritoneum and the colon are quite common. Some of these anomalies can disturb the normal digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine and the others might result in formation of volvulus or impede the blood supply of the intestine. We report a rare, combined variation of peritoneum and ascending colon. In a 70-year-old male cadaver, the greater omentum was very small and extended only for about an inch below the transverse colon. From its lower end, a fibrous band extended to the right wall of the upper part of ascending colon. There was a deep constriction on the right wall of the ascending colon at the site of attachment of the fibrous band. The ascending colon was grossly dilated. Further, the ascending colon was mobile and presented a small ascending mesocolon along its left edge. We discuss the possible embryological basis and clinical and surgical relevance of the case.
Short bowel syndrome in adults occurs as a result of massive small intestinal resection commonly due to severe Crohn's disease, volvulus or tumors. Diarrhea and weight loss are hallmarks of malabsorption which are aggravated if the colon is removed along with the small intestinal resection. Enteral nutrition autonomy is difficult to achieve in such cases of malabsorption where parenteral nutrition are required more often than not. We report a case of short bowel syndrome with severe malabsorption following extensive small bowel removal. The patient eventually underwent intestinal rehabilitation surgery and achieved independence from parenteral nutrition.
Gastrointestinal pathology leading to the death in paediatric age group is uncommon. The diseases that encountered were mostly intestinal obstruction, peritonitis and gastrointestinal bleeding. Due to the severe symptoms, most of the patients presented to hospital in time and were treated appropriately. However, with the presence of contributing factors, certain gastrointestinal pathology can progress rapidly leading to the death. We report a rare case of intestinal volvulus in a 3 years old girl where the deceased presented with one day short history of vomiting before her demise. The contributing factors were bronchopneumonia sepsis and underlying intestinal malrotation identified via post-mortem examination.
BACKGROUND: The recombinant antigen BmR1 has been extensively employed in both ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid dipstick (Brugia Rapid) formats for the specific and sensitive detection of IgG4 antibodies against the lymphatic filarial parasites Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. In sera of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti the IgG4 reactivity to BmR1 is variable, and cross-reactivity of sera from individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus or Loa loa was observed only in single cases. In order to characterize the homologs of the BmR1 antigen in W. bancrofti (Wb-BmR1), O. volvulus (Ov-BmR1) and L. loa (Ll-BmR1) the cDNA sequences were identified, the protein expressed and the antibody reactivity of patients' sera was studied. METHODS: PCR methodology was used to identify the cDNA sequences from cDNA libraries and/or genomic DNA of W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa. The clones obtained were sequenced and compared to the cDNA sequence of BmR1. Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were expressed in E. coli and tested using an IgG4-ELISA with 262 serum samples from individuals with or without B. malayi, W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa infections or various other parasitic infections. BmR1, Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were also tested for reactivity with the other three IgG subclasses in patients' sera. RESULTS: Wb-BmR1 was found to be identical to BmR1. Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were found to be identical to each other and share 99.7% homology with BmR1. The pattern of IgG4 recognition of all serum samples to BmR1, Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were identical. This included weak IgG4 reactivities demonstrated by L. loa- and O. volvulus-infected patients tested with Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 (or BmR1). With respect to reactivity to other IgG subclasses, sera from O. volvulus- and L. loa-infected patients showed positive reactions (when tested with BmR1, Ov-BmR1 or Ll-BmR1 antigens) only with IgG1. No reactivity was observed with IgG2 or with IgG3. Similarly, ELISAs to detect reactivity to other anti-filarial IgG subclasses antibodies showed that sera from individuals infected with B. malayi or W. bancrofti (active infections as well as patients with chronic disease) were positive with BmR1 only for IgG1 and were negative when tested with IgG2 and with IgG3 subclasses. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homologs of the BmR1 antigen are present in W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa and that these antigens are highly conserved. Recognition of this antigen by patients' sera is similar with regard to IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3, but different for IgG4 antibodies. We conclude that the BmR1 antigen is suitable for detection of IgG4 antibodies in brugian filariasis. However, its homologs are not suitable for IgG4-based diagnosis of other filarial infections.
We report the case of a 34-year-old Malay, admitted for constipation and abdominal pain at 35 weeks of gestation. Initially, she was diagnosed to have paralytic ileus and was managed conservatively. As her condition did not improve, emergency laparotomy was performed for suspected intestinal obstruction. She delivered a baby boy weighing 2.84kg with good Apgar score through a caesarean section. Intra-operatively, she was noted to have sigmoid volvulus and sigmoidopexy was performed. Post-partum, colonoscopy and bowel decompression was performed. She recovered well and was discharged on day 5. This case illustrates the need to diagnose or suspect volvulus in pregnant woman presenting with severe constipation as early surgical intervention can reduce morbidity to both mother and fetus.
Incomplete intestinal fixation or malrotation of gut with midgut volvulus is one of the important causes of bilious vomiting in neonates. The incidence of malrotation of gut in population is 4% and that of duplication cyst is 1:4500. Patients with malrotation are prone to develop midgut volvulus due to their narrow mesenteric base demanding urgent surgical intervention. Common associated anomalies are intrinsic duodenal obstruction, internal hernias, caecal volvulus, anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease. The present case refers to a 4-day-old neonate who presented with malrotation of gut with reverse volvulus and an associated gastrointestinal duplication cyst, which is a rare association with only few reported case reports. After imaging with ultrasound and contrast radiograph, the baby underwent prompt surgical intervention in the form of Ladd's procedure with resection and anastomosis of jejunal duplication cyst.