CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old indigenous Malaysian man with underlying chronic kidney disease presented with recurrent admissions for hyponatremia with parameters indicative of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, constitutional symptoms, and diffuse skin lesions suggestive of multiple seborrheic keratoses. A radiological workup revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma with evidence of metastasis to the brain, adrenal glands, bone, and lungs.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, renal malignancy presenting as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and Leser-Trélat concurrently is rare. The causes of hyponatremia in the elderly, approach to investigation, and value as a poor prognostic marker in malignancy are highlighted. We also discuss Leser-Trélat syndrome, its pathophysiology, and its possible implications on clinical practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical characteristics, presenting symptoms and survival of RCC patients (n=151) treated at UMMC from 2003-2012 were analysed. Symptoms evaluated were macrohaematuria, flank pain, palpable abdominal mass, fever, lethargy, loss of weight, anaemia, elevated ALP, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of these presenting symptoms. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed for survival analysis.
RESULTS: The 2002 TNM staging was a prognostic factor (p<0.001) but Fuhrman grading was not significantly correlated with survival (p=0.088). At presentation, 76.8% of the patients were symptomatic. Generally, symptomatic tumours had a worse survival prognosis compared to asymptomatic cases (p=0.009; HR 4.74). All symptoms significantly affect disease specific survival except frank haematuria and loin pain on univariate Cox regression analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for stage, only clinically palpable abdominal mass remained statistically significant (p=0.027). The mean tumour size of palpable abdominal masses, 9.5±4.3cm, was larger than non palpable masses, 5.3±2.7cm (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report which includes survival information of RCC patients from Malaysia. Here the TNM stage and a palpable abdominal mass were independent predictors for survival. Further investigations using a multicentre cohort to analyse mortality and survival rates may aid in improving management of these patients.