Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

  1. Blessmann J, Hanlodsomphou S, Santisouk B, Krumkamp R, Kreuels B, Ismail AK, et al.
    Trop Med Int Health, 2023 Jan;28(1):64-70.
    PMID: 36416013 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13833
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of expired lyophilized snake antivenom of Thai origin during a medical emergency in 2020/2021 in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    METHODS: Observational case series of patients with potentially life-threatening envenoming who consented to the administration of expired antivenom between August 2020 and May 2022.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 patients received the expired antivenom. Malayan pit vipers (Calloselasma rhodostoma) were responsible for 26 (84%) cases and green pit vipers (Trimeresurus species) for two cases (6%). In three patients (10%) the responsible snake could not be identified. Of these, two presented with signs of neurotoxicity and one with coagulopathy. A total of 124 vials of expired antivenom were administered. Fifty-nine vials had expired 2-18 months earlier, 56 vials 19-36 months and nine vials 37-60 months before. Adverse effects of variable severity were observed in seven (23%) patients. All 31 patients fully recovered from systemic envenoming.

    CONCLUSIONS: Under closely controlled conditions and monitoring the use of expired snake antivenom proved to be effective and safe. Discarding this precious medication is an unnecessary waste, and it could be a valuable resource in ameliorating the current shortage of antivenom. Emergency use authorization granted by health authorities and preclinical testing of expired antivenoms could provide the support and legal basis for such an approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  2. Jendek E, Chamorro ML
    Zookeys, 2012.
    PMID: 23226712 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.239.3966
    Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 with affinities to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, are described from the Oriental Region: Agrilus crepuscularissp. n. (Malaysia); Agrilus pseudolubopetrisp. n. (Laos); Agrilus sapphirinussp. n.(Laos); Agrilus seramensissp. n.(Indonesia); Agrilus spineussp. n. (Malaysia); and Agrilus tomentipennissp. n. (Laos). The genus Sarawakita Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov. is considered a junior synonym of Agrilus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  3. Yeung KHT, Kim E, Yap WA, Pathammavong C, Franzel L, Park YL, et al.
    BMC Med, 2023 Jul 10;21(1):248.
    PMID: 37424001 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-023-02944-1
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 Vaccine Introduction and deployment Costing (CVIC) tool was developed to assist countries to estimate incremental financial costs to roll out COVID-19 vaccines. This article describes the purposes, assumptions and methods used in the CVIC tool and presents the estimated financial costs of delivering COVID-19 vaccines in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).

    METHODS: From March to September 2021, a multidisciplinary team in Lao PDR was involved in the costing exercise of the National Deployment and Vaccination Plan for COVID-19 vaccines to develop potential scenarios and gather inputs using the CVIC tool. Financial costs of introducing COVID-19 vaccines for 3 years from 2021 to 2023 were projected from the government perspective. All costs were collected in 2021 Lao Kip and presented in United States dollar.

    RESULTS: From 2021 to 2023, the financial cost required to vaccinate all adults in Lao PDR with primary series of COVID-19 vaccines (1 dose for Ad26.COV2.S (recombinant) vaccine and 2 doses for the other vaccine products) is estimated to be US$6.44 million (excluding vaccine costs) and additionally US$1.44 million and US$1.62 million to include teenagers and children, respectively. These translate to financial costs of US$0.79-0.81 per dose, which decrease to US$0.6 when two boosters are introduced to the population. Capital and operational cold-chain costs contributed 15-34% and 15-24% of the total costs in all scenarios, respectively. 17-26% went to data management, monitoring and evaluation, and oversight, and 13-22% to vaccine delivery.

    CONCLUSIONS: With the CVIC tool, costs of five scenarios were estimated with different target population and booster dose use. These facilitated Lao PDR to refine their strategic planning for COVID-19 vaccine rollout and to decide on the level of external resources needed to mobilize and support outreach services. The results may further inform inputs in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analyses and potentially be applied and adjusted in similar low- and middle-income settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Laos/epidemiology
  4. Vythilingam I, Sidavong B, Thim CS, Phonemixay T, Phompida S, Jeffery J
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2006 Mar;22(1):140-3.
    PMID: 16646338
    A list of mosquitoes collected from Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) from May 2002 to August 2004 is presented. A total of 8,945 mosquitoes belonging to 14 genera and 57 species was collected. The genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Diceromyia, Downsiomyia, Fredwardsius, Mansonia, Neomelaniconion, Ochlerotatus, Paraedes, Stegomyia, and Verrallina. Seventeen species are first reports for LAO PDR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
    Med J Malaysia, 1964 Sep;19:74-5.
    PMID: 14240068
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  6. Kodada J, Sangpradub N, Somnark R, Gruľa D, Žiak D, Freitag H
    Zootaxa, 2017 05 15;4268(1):131-140.
    PMID: 28610387 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4268.1.8
    A new species of riffle beetle, Vietelmis jablonskii, from Laos and Thailand is described and illustrated. Differences to other Vietelmis species are discussed and an identification key for the Vietelmis is presented. New faunistic records are provided for V. kovaci Kodada & Čiampor, 2000; the genus Vietelmis is newly recorded for Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  7. Volynkin AV, ČernÝ K, Ivanova MS
    Zootaxa, 2018 Oct 08;4497(1):82-98.
    PMID: 30313666 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4497.1.5
    The Cyana bianca (Walker, 1856) species-group is revised. Cyana bianca malayana Bucsek, 2012 is upgraded to the species level. A new species, C. indosinica Volynkin Černý, sp. nov. (China: Yunnan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam) and a new subspecies, C. quadripartita vieta Volynkin Černý, ssp. nov. (Vietnam) are described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  8. Bayer S
    Zookeys, 2011.
    PMID: 22287909 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.153.2110
    The present paper provides a taxonomic revision of the genus Fecenia with emphasis on the characteristics of the pre-epigynes which are integrated for the first time into an identification key. As a result, one species is revalidated, Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891, stat. n., and two new junior synonyms for Fecenia protensa are recognised: Fecenia sumatrana Kulczyński, 1908, syn. n. and Fecenia nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977), syn. n. New records are reported: Fecenia ochracea (Doleschall, 1859)from Malaysian Borneo, Fecenia macilenta (Simon, 1885) from Sumatra, Indonesia, Fecenia protensa from Thailand and Malaysia, Fecenia travancoria Pocock, 1899 from Sri Lanka and Thailand, and Fecenia cylindrata Thorell, 1895 from Thailand and Laos. Additional information on the biology of Fecenia is provided and the validity of characters for identifying Fecenia species is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  9. Jendek E, Grebennikov VV
    Zootaxa, 2018 Jun 05;4429(1):107-131.
    PMID: 30313281 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4429.1.4
    Twenty new Agrilus species from the Oriental Region are described and illustrated: A. aramis sp. nov. (Laos), A. aries sp. nov. (Laos), A. armipes sp. nov. (Laos, India), A. athos sp. nov. (Laos, Thailand), A. bacan sp. nov. (Indonesia), A. bicolorifrons sp. nov. (Laos), A. cuprocunctus sp. nov. (Laos), A. ebenus sp. nov. (Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), A. frontis sp. nov. (Laos), A. gemellus sp. nov. (Nepal), A. khunborom sp. nov. (Laos), A. kyklos sp. nov. (Laos), A. loongfahi sp. nov. (Malaysia), A. metallinus sp. nov. (Laos), A. nemoralis sp. nov. (Laos), A. porthos sp. nov. (Laos), A. princeps sp. nov. (Laos), A. rex sp. nov. (Malaysia), A. sikhiav sp. nov. (Laos) and A. sinuosus sp. nov (Laos, Vietnam).
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  10. Volynkin AV, Černý K
    Zootaxa, 2019 Apr 17;4586(2):zootaxa.4586.2.8.
    PMID: 31716134 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4586.2.8
    Three new species of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854 are described: C. artemis sp. n. (southeastern China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam), C. butyracea sp. n. (Vietnam) and C. kucheri sp. n. (Vietnam). The first two species are related to the Himalayan C. moelleri (Elwes, 1890) and the Indochinese C. intercomma Černý, 2009. Despite the external similarity of C. kucheri sp. n. to C. moelleri and its allies, by the genitalia structure this species is related to C. gazella (Moore, 1872). Adults and male and female genitalia of new and related species are illustrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  11. Niu ZQ, Ascher JS, Griswold T, Zhu CD
    Zootaxa, 2019 Aug 15;4657(1):zootaxa.4657.1.3.
    PMID: 31716797 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4657.1.3
    This revision of the bee genus Bathanthidium Mavromoustakis, 1953, treats 12 species, with 11 recorded from China, including Bathanthidium fengkaiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. Two species are proposed as new combinations in genus Bathanthidium: Anthidium (s. str.) bicolor Wu, 2004, A. (s. str.) monganshanensis Wu, 2004. The two new combinations (B. bicolor, B. monganshanense) are in Bathanthidium (Manthidium), previously considered to include only the type species from Burma and Laos (published records from northeastern India and Malaysia are based on misinterpreted localities). Trachusa (Paraanthidium) concavum (Wu, 1962) and Stelis siamensis Friese, 1925 are synonymized with B. binghami (Friese, 1901). Bathanthidium circinatum Wu, 2004 is transferred to Pseudoanthidium Friese forming the new combination P. (s. str.) circinatum (Wu, 2004). The distribution of each species is given, new distribution sites are marked by asterisk (*) especially. Our results confirm that the genus Bathanthidium has higher species diversity than previously documented and that this diversity is centered in China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  12. Vongphayloth K, Randrianambinintsoa FJ, Lakeomany K, Phommavanh N, Mekarnia N, Khadri MS, et al.
    Parasite, 2023;30:21.
    PMID: 37294211 DOI: 10.1051/parasite/2023021
    Phlebotomus betisi was described from Malaysia and classified after its description in the subgenus Larroussius. It was the only species to have a pharyngeal armature composed of dot-like teeth and an annealed spermatheca whose head is carried by a neck in females. Males were characterized by having a style bearing five spines and a simple paramere. The study of sandflies originating from a cave in Laos enabled us to discover and describe two sympatric species close to Ph. betisi Lewis & Wharton, 1963 and new for Science: Ph. breyi Vongphayloth & Depaquit n. sp., and Ph. sinxayarami Vongphayloth & Depaquit n. sp. They were characterized morphologically, morphometrically, geomorphometrically, molecularly, and proteomically (MALDI-TOF). All approaches converged to validate the individualization of these species whose morphological differential characters lay in the two genders by the observation of the interocular suture and by the length of the last two segments of the maxillary palps. In males, the length of the genital filaments discriminates these species. Females are distinguished by the length of the ducts of the spermathecae as well as by the narrow or enlarged shape of the neck bearing their head. Lastly, the particular position of the spines of the gonostyle coupled with molecular phylogeny led us to remove these three species from the subgenus Larroussius Nizulescu, 1931 and to classify them in a new subgenus: Lewisius Depaquit & Vongphayloth n. subg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  13. Tanasevitch AV
    Zootaxa, 2014;3841(1):67-89.
    PMID: 25082028 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3841.1.3
    Recent linyphiid collections from Laos as well as some additional specimens from Thailand and West Malaysia are examined. Six species and two genera are described as new to science: Bathyphantes paracymbialis n. sp., Nematogmus asiaticus n. sp., Theoa hamata n. sp.; Asiagone n. gen. is erected for Asiagone signifera n. sp. (type species) and A. perforata n. sp.; Laogone n. gen. is established for Laogone cephala n. sp. The following new synonyms are proposed: Gorbothorax Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Nasoona Locket, 1982; Paranasoona Heimer, 1984 n. syn. and Millplophrys Platnick, 1998 n. syn. = Atypena Simon, 1894; Gorbothorax ungibbus Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Oedothorax asocialis Wunderlich, 1974; Hylyphantes birmanicus (Thorell, 1895) n. syn. = H. graminicola (Sundevall, 1830). The following new combinations are proposed: Atypena cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984) n. comb. ex from Paranasoona; A. pallida (Millidge, 1995) and A. crocatoa (Millidge, 1995) both n. comb. ex Millplophrys; Nasoona asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974) n. comb. ex Oedothorax Bertkau, 1883; N. asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974), N. comata (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. conica (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. setifera (Tanasevitch, 1998) and N. wunderlichi (Brignoli, 1983), all n. comb. ex Gorbothorax. Eight linyphiid species are newly recorded from Laos: A. cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984), Bathyphantes floralis Tu & Li, 2006, Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830), Nasoona asocialis, N. crucifera (Thorell, 1895), Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, Neriene birmanica (Thorell, 1887), and N. oxycera Tu & Li, 2006. The linyphiid spider fauna of Laos currently contains 15 species and is unusually highly specific. All species, except the Palearctic H. graminicola, are probably represented by Southeastern Asian or Oriental autochthons. 
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  14. Suif Z, Fleifle A, Yoshimura C, Saavedra O
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 Oct 15;568:933-945.
    PMID: 27338846 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.134
    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  15. Zhang CT, Shima H, Wang Q, Tschorsnig HP
    Zootaxa, 2015;3949(1):1-40.
    PMID: 25947790 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3949.1.1
    The species of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae) from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions are        revised. Ten described species are recognized, viz. B. atkinsoni (Baranov) (new records for Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand), B. ficorum (Townsend), B. fortis (Rondani), B. impigra Kolomiets (new record for China), B. kolomyetzi Mesnil, B. malayana Malloch, B. morosa Mesnil, B. robusta Malloch, B. steini (Brauer et Bergenstamm) and B. triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and nine species are described as new to science, B. brevicauda Zhang et Shima sp. nov.       (China), B. carinata Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. chinensis Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Vietnam), B. flava Zhang et Wang sp. nov. (China), B. kurahashii Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Laos and Thailand), B. micronychia Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Japan; previously misidentified from China as B. irrorata (Meigen)), B. papei Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Malaysia), B. setigera Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China) and B. verticalis Shima et Zhang sp. nov. (China). Billaea fasciata (Townsend, 1928) is treated as a junior synonym of B. ficorum (Townsend, 1916), syn. nov. Billaea irrorata is no longer recorded from the eastern Palearctic. A key to 19 species of Billaea from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions and 101 figures of male terminalia, bodies, heads and abdomens are given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  16. Vythilingam I, Keokenchan K, Phommakot S, Nambanya S, Inthakone S
    PMID: 11485101
    Malaria vector surveys were carried out in 8 provinces in Lao PDR in 1999. The surveys were conducted in 4 provinces - Savannakhet, Champasak, Luang Perbang and Sayaboury in May and in another 4 provinces - Bolikhamsay, Sarvan, Sekong and Vientiane in December 1999. Bare leg collection were carried out indoors and outdoors from 6 pm to 5 am. All anopheline mosquitos were identified, dissected and the gut, gland and ovaries were examined. A total of 438 Anopheles mosquitos belonging to 19 species were obtained. Of these only 3 species were found to be infected with oocysts - An. maculatus, An. dirus and An. minimus. All these species were found biting both indoors and outdoors. An. aconitus was the predominant species obtained in the December collection but its vectorial status remains unknown.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  17. Vythilingam I, Sidavong B, Seng TC, Phonemixay T, Phompida S, Krishnasamy M
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):77-9.
    PMID: 16880758
    Unidentified mermithid nematodes were found in the abdominal cavity of three species of Anopheles mosquitoes from LAO PDR. This is a first record of mermithid nematodes in adult mosquitoes from Lao PDR. Two worms were found in each adult host and the infection was more prevalent in the northern region compared to the south.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  18. Vongnady K, Rucksaken R, Mangkit B
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Sep 01;37(3):691-712.
    PMID: 33612783 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.3.691
    Haemonchus spp. or barber's pole worms are one of the most highly pathogenic nematodes of ruminants causing economic losses in livestock worldwide. The current study was a first attempt to identify Haemonchus spp. from goats in Thailand and Lao PDR. Utilizing the inexpensive tools of the discriminant function (DF) combined with synlophe patterns is fundamental for understanding their epidemiological aspects. In total, 255 randomly chosen adult male Haemonchus worms from goats in various areas in each country were identified individually. For both these countries, about 94% based on the DF values, and 99%, 98%, and 97% based on synlophe patterns in the region of the esophageal intestinal junction (EI), 4 mm from the anterior end, and at both these positions, respectively, were identified as H. contortus. Other identified specimens defined as H. placei and hybrids as well as unclassified species based on synlophe patterns were proved using polymerase chain reaction (PCR); this also included some randomly chosen H. contortus by DF and synlophe patterns. All those specimens were confirmed as H. contortus being strongly supported by some genetic evidences and UPGMA analysis. Thus, it was assumed that all specimens in the current study were H. contortus. The morphological differences of this predominant species (H. contortus) in goats between the two countries were: body length, gubernaculum length, and left spicule barb length, while almost all characters of male worms individually measured appeared to overlap, mostly in H. contortus and H. placei, which may lead to misclassification. Therefore, using the DF along with synlophe patterns can assist in increasing the accuracy of Haemonchus spp. identification from goats in some areas where funding is limited, particularly in Lao PDR. The present results revealed that synlophe patterns in the EI region seemed to be promising for the identification of Haemonchus spp., while molecular techniques are also required to address ambiguous identification with some specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  19. Yue Y, Liu Q, Liu X, Wu H, Xu M
    BMC Public Health, 2021 07 13;21(1):1389.
    PMID: 34256730 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11323-5
    BACKGROUND: In China, Guangdong and Yunnan are the two most dengue-affected provinces. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of dengue fever in Guangdong and Yunnan during 2004-2018.

    METHODS: Descriptive analyses were used to explore the temporal, spatial, and demographic distribution of dengue fever.

    RESULTS: Of the 73,761 dengue cases reported in mainland China during 2004-2018, 93.7% indigenous and 65.9% imported cases occurred in Guangdong and Yunnan, respectively. A total of 55,970 and 5938 indigenous cases occurred in 108 Guangdong and 8 Yunnan counties, respectively during 2004-2018. Whereas 1146 and 3050 imported cases occurred in 84 Guangdong and 72 Yunnan counties, respectively during 2004-2018. Guangdong had a much higher average yearly indigenous incidence rate (3.65 (1/100000) vs 0.86 (1/100000)), but a much lower average yearly imported incidence rate (0.07 (1/100000) vs 0.44(1/100000)) compared with Yunnan in 2004-2018. Furthermore, dengue fever occurred more widely in space and more frequently in time in Guangdong. Guangdong and Yunnan had similar seasonal characteristics for dengue fever, but Guangdong had a longer peak period. Most dengue cases were clustered in the south-western border of Yunnan and the Pearl River Delta region in Guangdong. Most of the imported cases (93.9%) in Guangdong and Yunnan were from 9 Southeast Asian countries. Thailand, Cambodia, and Malaysia imported mainly into Guangdong while Myanmar and Laos imported into Yunnan. There was a strong male predominance among imported cases and an almost equal gender distribution among indigenous cases. Most dengue cases occurred in individuals aged 21-50 years, accounting for 57.3% (Guangdong) vs. 62.8% (Yunnan) of indigenous and 83.2% (Guangdong) vs. 62.6% (Yunnan) of imported cases. The associated major occupations (house worker or unemployed, retiree, and businessman, for indigenous cases; and businessman, for imported cases), were similar. However, farmers accounted for a larger proportion of dengue cases in Yunnan.

    CONCLUSIONS: Identifying the different epidemiological characteristics of dengue fever in Guangdong and Yunnan can be helpful to formulate targeted, strategic plans, and implement effective public health prevention measures in China.

    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
  20. JaŁoszyŃski P
    Zootaxa, 2018 Mar 20;4399(1):141-145.
    PMID: 29690338 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4399.1.12
    Clidicus Laporte, 1832 currently comprises 27 species distributed in India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines (Mindanao), China (Hainan) and Australia (Queensland). Some species have conspicuously large adults reaching 8.5 mm, and they represent the largest known Scydmaeninae. Species of Clidicus were relatively poorly known until recently, when Orousset (2014) revised a large portion of this genus and described several new species. Other major studies include Besuchet (1971), who described Sri Lankan species, Jałoszyński et al. (2003) who recorded four new species from Vietnam and Laos, Jałoszyński (2009) with the first description of a Philippine species, and Zhou Li (2015), who discovered the first species in China. Another new species, representing the second Clidicus occurring in the Philippines, is described below.
    Matched MeSH terms: Laos
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