Leiomyomas are benign soft tissue swellings of smooth muscle origin, most commonly found in the uterus. Extra uterine leiomyomas presenting as an abdominal mass is often a diagnostic challenge as such occurrence is rare. We present a rare case of primary abdominal wall leiomyoma, and highlight the importance of laparoscopic approach in the diagnosis and treatment of such tumour.
Leiomyoma of the caecum is a rare tumour. While leiomyomata are known to arise from any part of the large bowel, caecum is a rare site. The largest series to date is that of Mackenzie" who reviewed 37 cases of myomatous tumours of the colon, two of which were complicated by perforation. More recently, Swerdlow" reported another case of a perforated caecal leiomyoma. We now report a patient who was operated at the stage of abscess formation without perforation.
Following its capture in March 2014, an adult female Sumatran rhinoceros frequently showed profuse vaginal bleeding. An ultrasonography suggested the presence of multiple reproductive lesions, including two uterine masses which were suspected to be leiomyomas. Soon after, an open pyometra was confirmed. Later in November 2019, the patient died and necropsy confirmed the presence of two uterine masses; one was located at the cervico-uterine junction and another in the uterine body, with pyometra, and cystic endometrial hyerplasia. Based on histological, special stains, and immunohistochemical examination, it was shown that one of the masses was composed of large, ovoid and polyhedral neoplastic mesenchymal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and a few binucleated cells surrounded by collagen fibres. It was tested positive for SMA and vimentin, while negative for desmin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, EMA, CD34, and S100. The other mass was composed of mesenchymal cells undergoing myxoid degeneration as evidenced by the presence of glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix. It was tested positive for SMA, vimentin, partially positive for desmin, and negative for the other markers. With the aid of human medical nomenclature, these masses were diagnosed as epithelioid leiomyoma and myxoid leiomyoma, respectively. This report provides a clinical presentation, and histologic descriptions of the two variants of leiomyomas that have not been reported in veterinary medicine.
A 30-year-old, nulliparous woman presented with a history of subfertility. On examination she was found to have uterine fibroid of 28 weeks size of gravid uterus and subsequently laporatomy myomectomy was performed. Multilobulated masses, with diameters ranging from 22 mm to 160 mm were found. Cut sections of the lobulated masses showed whitish whorled cut surface. One of the multilobulated masses had a cystic cavity, measuring 60x50x35 mm(3). Light microscopic findings of the mass with the cystic cavity showed a well-circumscribed cellular tumour composed of cells exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia which were enlarged, nuclei with prominent chromatin clumping and were distributed in areas. Some tumour cells showed large nuclear pseudoinclusions, multinucleated or multilobated tumour giant cells, smudging and few enlarged nucleoli. Mitotic activity was 4 MFs per 10 HPFs. Occasional cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions resembling rhabdoid - like features were seen. There were no atypical mitoses or tumour necroses were noted. Diagnosis of atypical leiomyoma or symplastic leiomyoma was made. Atypical or symplastic leiomyomas are rare in the region of Malaysia and the present case discusses its incidence in younger age, its morphological features along with diagnosis and clinical outcome.