Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 187 in total

  1. Nor Azlin MN, Syed Aljunid SJ, Noor Azahz A, Amrizal MN, Saperi S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):473-7.
    PMID: 23770861 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to estimate cost of in-patient medical care due to stroke in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. A retrospective analysis of stroke patients admitted to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between January 2005 and December 2008 were conducted. Cost evaluation was undertaken from the health provider's perspective using a top-down costing approach. Mean length of stay (LOS) was 6.4 ± 3.1 days and mean cost of care per patient per admission was MYR 3,696.40 ± 1,842.17 or 16% of per capita GDP of the country. Human resources made up the highest cost component (MYR 1,343.90, SD: 669.8 or 36% of the total cost), followed by medications (MYR 867.30, SD:432.40) and laboratory services (MYR 337.90, SD:168.40). LOS and cost of care varied across different stroke severity levels (p<0.01). A regression analysis shown significant influence of stroke severity on cost of care, with the most severe stroke consumed MYR 1,598.10 higher cost than the mild stroke (p<0.001). Cost of medical care during hospital admission due to stroke is substantial. Health promotion and primary prevention activities need to take priority to minimise stroke admission in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay*
  2. Chin CN, Kadir AB, Jeyarajah S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):135-45.
    PMID: 8350788
    This study examined admissions, final diagnoses and mean duration of stay of patients in the Psychiatric Wards at the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The male ward was severely overcrowded by 125% over the maximum bed capacity. The majority were psychotic, mainly schizophrenic. The female ward had 76% occupancy, also mainly psychotic. Neurotics, alcohol dependents and personality disorders formed less than 5% of the admissions. There was no difference in the mean duration of stay of patients of both UKM and GHKL Units stratified for diagnosis and disposal except for newly diagnosed schizophrenics. There is an urgent need for more male psychiatric beds/wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay*
  3. Nwagbara VC, Rasiah R, Aslam MM
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2016 Sep;95(36):e4688.
    PMID: 27603363 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004688
    Public hospitals have come under heavy scrutiny across the world owing to rising expenditures. However, much of the focus has been on cutting down costs to raise efficiency levels. Although not denying the importance of efficiency measures, this article targets a performance issue that is relevant to address the quality of services rendered in public hospitals. Thus, it is important to focus on the effectiveness of resource utilization in these hospitals. Consequently, this article seeks to examine the impact of average length of stay (ALOS) and bed turnover rates (BTR) on bed occupancy rates (BOR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay*
  4. Syed A, Zainal AA, Hanif H, Naresh G
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):610-2.
    PMID: 23770955 MyJurnal
    This is our initial report on the first 4 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) with local anaesthesia, controlled sedation and monitoring by an anaesthetist. All four patients were males with a mean age of 66.7 years. Only one required ICU stay of two days for cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and transient hypotension post procedure. No mortality or major post operative morbidity was recorded and the mean hospital stay post procedure was 3.5 days (range 2-5 days).
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  5. Syed Alwi SA, Zainal Ariffin A, Hanif H, Naresh G
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):503-5.
    PMID: 23770868
    This is our initial report on the first 4 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) with local anaesthesia, controlled sedation and monitoring by an anaesthetist. All 4 patients were males with a mean age of 66.7 years. Only one (1) required ICU stay of 2 days for cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and transient hypotension post procedure. No mortality or major post operative morbidity was recorded and the mean hospital stay post procedure was 3.5 days (range 2-5 days).
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  6. Mohd-Tahir NA, Li SC
    Osteoporos Int, 2017 07;28(7):2035-2044.
    PMID: 28314898 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-017-3985-4
    This review analyzes the economic costs of HF in Asia. The availability and quality of studies on the burden of osteoporosis in Asia are very scarce. There is a need to encourage more quality cost of osteoporosis studies based on standardized methods to convince healthcare authorities in implementing appropriate strategies.
    INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis fractures, especially hip fractures, impose large economic costs to governments and societies. This review aimed to systematically analyze available evidence on healthcare costs associated with osteoporosis-related hip fractures (HF) in Asia.
    METHODS: Articles were systematically sought from databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and EBSCOHost between 2000 and 2015. Total costs associated with HF care, the cost components, and length of stays were retrieved and analyzed. Study designs were also qualitatively analyzed.
    RESULTS: The availability of published studies on economic burden of HF in Asia is severely lacking with only 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. Even among the included studies, only two studies reported comprehensive costs evaluating all costs including indirect or intangible costs. Most studies satisfactorily reported criteria for conducting economic evaluation, but large variations existed in the methodological design. Due to study design and other influencing factors, large variation in the cost of HF treatment from US$774 to US$14,198.90 (median S$2943), representing an average of 18.95% (range: 3.58-57.05%) of the countries' 2014 GDP/capita, was observed. This highlighted the heavy burden of managing HF in Asia with about 40% of the included studies reported using more than one third of GDP/capita.
    CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of burden of illness studies of osteoporosis in the Asian region. For the few available studies, there was a lack of standardization in methodological approach in evaluating the economic burden of the disease. There is a need to encourage more quality burden of illness studies of osteoporosis to inform policymakers in healthcare planning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/economics; Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
  7. Shakirah MS, Jamalludin AR, Hasniah AL, Rus Anida A, Mariana D, Ahmad Fadzil A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 04;74(2):138-144.
    PMID: 31079125
    INTRODUCTION: Uncontrolled asthma may cause an increase in healthcare utilisation, hospital admission and productivity loss. With the increasing burden of asthma in Malaysia, strategies aimed at reducing cost of care should be explored.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if a clinical pathway (CPW) for inpatient paediatric asthma would reduce average length of stay (ALOS), improve asthma management and decrease cost.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental, pre-post study was used to evaluate the CPW effectiveness. Paediatric inpatients aged 5-18 years old, admitted for acute asthma exacerbation from September 2015 to April 2016 were prospectively recruited. Data from patients admitted from January-July 2015 were used as control. CPW training was carried out in August 2015 using standardised modules. Direct admission cost from the provider's prospective was calculated. Outcomes compared were differences in ALOS, discharge medication, readmission within 28 days of discharge and cost.

    RESULTS: ALOS is 26 hours lower in the CPW group for severe exacerbations and underlying uncontrolled asthma (19.2 hours) which is clinically significant as patients have shorter hospital stay. More newly-diagnosed intermittent asthmatics were discharged with relievers in the CPW group (p-value 0.006). None of the patients in the CPW group had readmissions (p-value 0.16). Mean treatment cost for patients in the intervention group is higher at RM843.39 (SD ±48.99, versus RM779.21 SD±44.33).

    CONCLUSION: This study found that management using a CPW may benefit asthmatic patients with uncontrolled asthma admitted with severe exacerbation. Further studies will be needed to explore CPW's impact on asthma management starting from the emergency department.

    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/economics; Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
  8. You X, Liew BS, Rosman AK, Dcsn, Musa KI, Idris Z
    Neurosurg Focus, 2018 05;44(5):E7.
    PMID: 29712526 DOI: 10.3171/2018.1.FOCUS17796
    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents occurs mainly in the younger age group in which injury-related disability leads to long-term impact on employment and economic and social consequences across the lifespan. This study was designed to assign a monetary cost (in Malaysian ringgits [RM]) to the treatment of patients with surgically treated isolated traumatic head injury as determined up to 1 year after injury. METHODS Relevant resource items used were identified and valued using the direct measurement of costs method, cost accounting methods, standard unit costs method, fees, charges and/or market prices method. These values were then tabulated to generate the total costs for each patient, via a combination of macro-costing and micro-costing methods. Malaysian currency values were converted to US dollars according to the average conversion rate for the period from January to May 2016: RM1 = US$0.2452. RESULTS This costing study analyzed data from 49 patients. The estimated cost for the 1st year of care for all patients was RM1,471,919.80 (US$360,914.735), with a mean (± SD) cost per case of RM30,039.18 ± 22,986.25 or $7365.61 ± $5636.23. The mean cost of care per case was RM11,041.35 ± 10,936.88 or $2707.34 ± $2681.72 for mild head injury, RM32,550.00 ± 20,998.76 or $7981.26 ± $5148.90 for moderate head injury, and RM36,917.86 ± 23,697.34 or $9052.26 ± $5810.59 for severe head injury. Severe head injury (p = 0.001), sustaining 2 or more intracranial pathologies (p = 0.01), having a poor Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (GOS score 1-3) (p = 0.02), requiring a tracheostomy (p < 0.001), and contracting pneumonia (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher cost. Logistic regression analysis revealed that cost of care increased by RM591.60 or $145.06 per year increment of age (β = RM591.60, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The mean cost of treatment for traumatic head injury is high compared to the per capita income of RM37,900 in 2016. The cost values generated in this study provide baseline cost estimates that the authors hope will be used as a guide to determine where adequate funding should be allocated to provide timely and appropriate delivery of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/economics; Length of Stay/trends
  9. Khoo CS, Tee TY, Tan HJ, Ali RA
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2019 4 20;10(2):324-326.
    PMID: 31001027 DOI: 10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_315_18
    We report a patient with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis, who developed encephalopathy after receiving a few doses of cefepime. He recovered clinically and electroencephalographically after having discontinued the culprit agent and undergone hemodialysis. This case highlights the importance of promptly recognizing this reversible encephalopathy, which can lead to the avoidance of unnecessary workup, reduce the length of hospital stay, and thereby improve the patients' outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  10. Baumann P, Kim J, Ahn SH, Kim HH, Chong HY, Wente MN
    Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2018 Jun;30:1-6.
    PMID: 29946452 DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2018.04.003
    Introduction: Various suture materials and suture techniques are used to perform gastrointestinal anastomosis after tumour resection, but the best combination is still a matter of debate.

    Methods: This multi-centre, international, single-arm, prospective observational study aimed at demonstrating the non-inferiority of a mid-term absorbable monofilament in comparison to braided sutures in gastrointestinal anastomosis. Monosyn suture was used to create the gastrointestinal anastomosis and the frequency of anastomotic leakage until day of discharge was chosen as the primary parameter. The outcome was compared to the results published for braided sutures in the literature. Secondary parameters were the time to perform the anastomosis, length of hospital stay, costs, and postoperative complications.

    Results: The anastomosis leakage rate was 2.91%, indicating that Monosyn suture was not inferior to braided sutures used in gastrointestinal anastomosis. Of the reported anastomotic suture techniques, the single layer continuous method was the fastest and most economical technique in the present observational study.

    Conclusion: Monosyn suture is safe and effective in gastrointestinal anastomosis and represents a good alternative to other sutures used for gastrointestinal anastomosis. With regard to safety, time and cost-efficiency, the single-layer continuous technique should be considered a preferred method. The transfer of results from clinical studies into daily practice with regard to surgical techniques for gastrointestinal anastomosis should be further evaluated in larger studies or in nationwide registries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  11. Hee TG, Jin BJ
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2013 Apr;15(4):367-70.
    PMID: 24083015 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.2992
    The treatment of carbuncles is early administration of antibiotics and surgery. The commonest surgical approaches are saucerization, and incision and drainage (I&D). Although these two techniques are vastly different, there is a lack of evidence to determine which one produces a better outcome. Three cases of carbuncles are presented to illustrate the contrasting surgical techniques and their results. Three consecutive patients who presented to this hospital with carbuncles were treated with either saucerization or I&D. They were followed up for 8 weeks to assess their outcome. One patient had saucerization while two other patients underwent I&D of their carbuncles. Saucerization produced the shortest length of hospital stay. I&D resulted in earlier wound healing. A randomized controlled is needed to determine the best surgical approach for the treatment of carbuncles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  12. Azmi S, Aljunid SM, Maimaiti N, Ali AA, Muhammad Nur A, De Rosas-Valera M, et al.
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2016 May 24;49:87-93.
    PMID: 27235085 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.021
    To describe the incidence, mortality, cost, and length of stay (LOS) of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in three Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  13. Tai, C.C., Tan, S.H., Misnan, N.A., Nam, H.Y., Choon, S.K.
    Malays Orthop J, 2008;2(1):38-43.
    The safety of simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. The objective of the current study was to investigate perioperative morbidity and mortality rates within 30 days of simultaneous bilateral TKA. A detailed analysis of medical, surgical and anaesthesia records of 183 consecutive patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between 2002 and 2006 was performed. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years old. More than 80% had one or more co-morbidities, but none of them had ASA score greater than class 2. The mean hospital stay was 10 days, and the mean surgical time 156 minutes. Less than half of the patients (42.6%) required blood transfusion. The rate of perimorbidity was 15.3 % and there was no mortality in this series. We believe that simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty is a safe and cost effective option for our patients, provided that patients are selected and informed appropriately.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  14. Aniza, I., Syafrawati, Saperi, S., Zafar, M., Amrizal, M.N., Ika Fazura, M.N.
    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally and is projected to remain the leading cause of death. If the trend is allowed to continue, by 2015 an estimated 20 million people will die from cardiovascular disease (mainly because of myocardial infarction and strokes). The number of cardiovascular disease cases in Malaysia has increased to 14% in five years from 96,000 cases in 1995 to 110,000 cases in 2000.

    Methods: The cost to treat patients admitted to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) Malaysia, diagnosed with Acute Uncomplicated ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) was calculated by using two different methodologies, namely step down costing methodology and activity based costing using clinical pathway.

    Results: Cost for each stay per day at the cardiology ward using the step down methodology is RM596.42. The treatment cost is estimated from RM1, 789.26 to RM 4,771.36. The average cost per episode for STEMI care with the average length of stay for 5.6 days is RM3, 340(SD ±596.42. The cost of coronary PCI procedure in step costing is RM 13,950.00. Hence, the total cost incurs for STEMI with PCI is RM 17,290.00(SD ±596.42) by using step down method. (an average cost per episode is RM3,340, plus the cost of coronary procedure of RM 13,950.00 . However by using the ABC the cost of STEMI (PCI) with an average length of stay for 5.6 days is RM 20,431.39. The study showed the ABC method was higher by 15.3% than the step down costing.

    Conclusion: The cost in managing STEMI (PCI) with the average length of stay of 5.6 days was calculated by using two different methodologies, namely step down costing methodology and activity based costing. Cost of treatment calculated by using activity based costing are higher because all resources used are incorporated in detail. The ABC method was higher by 15.3% than the step down costing. The difference is within 80-20 rules and the biggest percentage of cost in both methodsis procedure or PCI cost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  15. Faizah, J., Vanitha, S.
    Introduction : The focus of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of health education material produced and identify effective educational methods in disseminating health-related information. The study explores the knowledge, attitude and practice level among flood victims in Sub-District Sri Medan, Batu Pahat.
    Methodology : Convenient sampling method was adopted as a technique to get 195 respondents aged 18 years and above who had stayed in flood relief centres in the district. A set of questionnaire designed to collect data on demography, effectiveness of health education material, accessibility to education materials, preferable educational methods during flood situation, and flood victims knowledge, attitude and practices.
    Result : The study found no association between knowledge level and practice of seven steps hand washing. Result showed poster was regarded as most preferable method in disseminating health related information during flood. No association was found in demographic determinants and knowledge. The length of stay in relief centre has significant association with the level of knowledge obtained.
    Conclusion : The use of qualitative and quantitative methods together able to determine accurately the effectiveness of the health education materials used during the disaster as well as the impact in behavioral change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay
  16. Lee KY, Wan Ahmad WA, Low EV, Liau SY, Anchah L, Hamzah S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(9):e0184410.
    PMID: 28873473 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184410
    INTRODUCTION: The increasing disease burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) calls for sustainable cardiac service. Teaching hospitals and general hospitals in Malaysia are main providers of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a common treatment for CAD. Few studies have analyzed the contemporary data on local cardiac facilities. Service expansion and budget allocation require cost evidence from various providers. We aim to compare the patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and cost profile between a teaching hospital (TH) and a general hospital (GH).

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from the healthcare providers' perspective from January 1st to June 30th 2014. TH is a university teaching hospital in the capital city, while GH is a state-level general hospital. Both are government-funded cardiac referral centers. Clinical data was extracted from a national cardiac registry. Cost data was collected using mixed method of top-down and bottom-up approaches. Total hospitalization cost per PCI patient was summed up from the costs of ward admission and cardiac catheterization laboratory utilization. Clinical characteristics were compared with chi-square and independent t-test, while hospitalization length and cost were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.

    RESULTS: The mean hospitalization cost was RM 12,117 (USD 3,366) at GH and RM 16,289 (USD 4,525) at TH. The higher cost at TH can be attributed to worse patients' comorbidities and cardiac status. In contrast, GH recorded a lower mean length of stay as more patients had same-day discharge, resulting in 29% reduction in mean cost of admission compared to TH. For both hospitals, PCI consumables accounted for the biggest proportion of total cost.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high PCI consumables cost highlighted the importance of cost-effective purchasing mechanism. Findings on the heterogeneity of the patients, treatment practice and hospitalization cost between TH and GH are vital for formulation of cost-saving strategies to ensure sustainable and equitable cardiac service in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/economics
  17. Yussra Y, Sutton PA, Kosai NR, Razman J, Mishra RK, Harunarashid H, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(5):425-8.
    PMID: 24217830 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1608
    Inguinal hernia remains the most commonly encountered surgical problem. Various methods of repair have been described, and the most suitable one debated. Single port access (SPA) surgery is a rapidly evolving field, and has the advantage of affording 'scarless' surgery. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for inguinal hernia repair is seen to be feasible in both total extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) approaches. Data and peri-operative information on both of these however are limited. We aimed to review the clinical experience, feasibility and short term complications related to laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair via single port access. A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, Springerlink Library, Highwire Press, Surgical Endoscopy Journal, World Journal of Surgery and Medscape. The following search terms were used: laparoscopic hernia repair, TAPP, TEP, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Fourteen articles in English language related to SILS inguinal hernia repair were identified. Nine articles were related to TEP repair and the remaining 5 to TAPP. A total of 340 patients were reported within these studies: 294 patients having a TEP repair and 46 a TAPP. Only two cases of recurrence were reported. Various ports have been utilized, including the SILS port, Tri-Port and a custom- made port using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The duration of surgery was 40-100 minutes and the average length of hospital stay was one day. Early outcomes of this novel technique show it to be feasible, safe and with potentially better cosmetic outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
  18. Hamidon BB, Raymond AA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):499-505.
    PMID: 15190624
    In Malaysia, there is limited information on the mortality and morbidity after an acute stroke in hospitalised patients. The objective of the study was to identify the type, time of onset, and frequency of medical and neurological complications following an acute ischaemic stroke. Consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke who were admitted to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia from June 2000 to January 2001 were observed. The complication rate was 20.9%. The most common individual complication was pneumonia (12.3%), followed by septicaemia (11.0%), urinary tract infection (4.3%), and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (3.7%). The overall mean length of stay was 7.48 days. The independent risk factors for complications were diabetes mellitus (OR 2.87; 95%CI 1.06 to 7.78), middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts (OR 10.0; 95%CI 4.1 to 24.3), and Glasgow coma score (GCS) less than 9(OR 3.8; 95%CI 1.03 to 14.3). Infection was the commonest complication observed. Patients with diabetes mellitus, poor GCS and large MCA infarcts had a higher risk of developing complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
  19. Cheah IG, Soosai AP, Wong SL, Lim TO, Cost-Effectiveness NICU Study Group
    J Perinatol, 2005 Jan;25(1):47-53.
    PMID: 15372062
    To perform a cost-effective analysis on the care of infants between 1000 and 1500 g birthweight (the study group), where outcomes are measured as survival to 1 year of age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/economics
  20. Gooi BH, Manjit S, Premnath N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Mar;57(1):66-9.
    PMID: 14569720 MyJurnal
    Background: Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is a functionally and socially disabling condition. The choice of treatment is controversial.
    Objective: To examine the clinical presentation of primary palmar hyperhidrosis and the results of treatment with thoracoscopic sympathectomy in a local setting.
    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 7 patients involving 10 sympathectomies between October 1997 and October 2000 was undertaken.
    Results: The duration of anaesthesia ranged from 55 to 130 minutes with the majority being 1 hour. The immediate results were good, with all operated limbs dry soon after operation. There was no mortality or serious morbidity in this study. All were satisfied with the results of surgery.
    Conclusions: Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is not uncommon but rather underdiagnosed. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is an effective treatment with minimal complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
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