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  1. Jayaram G, Swain M, Khanijow V, Jalaludin MA
    Diagn. Cytopathol., 1998 Sep;19(3):168-72.
    PMID: 9740988
    Over a 32-month period at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, we were able to study the cytological appearance of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 17 cases. This comprised 14 males and three females of which 13 were Chinese, three were Malay, and one was Indian. Their ages ranged from 27 to 64 years. Histological correlation was available in all the patients in the form of nasopharyngeal biopsies, and they were classified as per the World Health Organization classification into types I, II, and III NPC. Smears from type II NPC showed good cellularity with mainly clustered and occasionally dissociated cells, with focal columnar appearance, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and variable amounts of cytoplasm. Clusters of malignant cell closely associated with lymphoid cells and dissociation of malignant cells were more characteristic of type III NPC. FNA cytology is now applied extensively to the diagnosis of head and neck tumours and knowledge of the cytomorphology of NPC would greatly aid in pinpointing the primary of this tumour which is notorious for presenting with early nodal metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  2. Mutalib NS, Yusof AM, Mokhtar NM, Harun R, Muhammad R, Jamal R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(1):25-35.
    PMID: 26838219
    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been shown to be associated with increased risk of locoregional recurrence, poor prognosis and decreased survival, especially in older patients. Hence, there is a need for a reliable biomarker for the prediction of LNM in this cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene translation or degradation and play key roles in numerous cellular functions including cell-cycle regulation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Various studies have demonstrated deregulation of miRNA levels in many diseases including cancers. While a large number of miRNAs have been identified from PTCs using various means, association of miRNAs with LNM in such cases is still controversial. Furthermore, studies linking most of the identified miRNAs to the mechanism of LNM have not been well documented. The aim of this review is to update readers on the current knowledge of miRNAs in relation to LNM in PTC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology*
  3. Kadir AA, Iyengar KR, Peh SC, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Jun;30(1):57-61.
    PMID: 19108413
    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are uncommon tumors known to occur in the elderly. While focal neuroendocrine differentiation may be noted in many ductal and lobular carcinomas, the term neuroendocrine carcinoma is to be applied when more than 50% of the tumor shows such differentiation. This case report details the cytological features of a neuroendocrine carcinoma that was encountered in our hospital. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed discohesive polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm, many of which contained eosinophilic granules located at one pole. Histology of the mastectomy and axillary lymph nodes specimen from this patient showed features of neuroendocrine carcinoma--solid type, with metastasis, confirmed with immunohistochemistry. The patient is disease free seven months after surgery. This case highlights the need to closely observe cytological details to identify this rare tumor that may otherwise appear to be invasive duct carcinoma--not otherwise specified on FNA. The implications of diagnosing neuroendocrine differentiation for prognosis and management are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  4. Tang PY, Khor LY, Takano A
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Aug;39(2):171-174.
    PMID: 28866700
    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma and is derived from thyroid follicular cells. In contrast, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. Synchronous occurrence of these two carcinomas is uncommon and occurs as either discrete lesions or as a mixed lesion. The current case report describes a 50-year-old woman with synchronous multiple discrete MTC and PTC with lymph nodes metastasis. Pathologists and treating physicians should be aware of the synchronous coexistence of these entities to avoid possible misdiagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  5. Fauzi MFA, Chen W, Knight D, Hampel H, Frankel WL, Gurcan MN
    J Med Syst, 2019 Dec 18;44(2):38.
    PMID: 31853654 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1515-y
    Tumor budding is defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small tumor clusters (less than five cells) that 'bud' from the invasive front of the main tumor. Tumor budding (TB) has recently emerged as an important adverse prognostic factor for many different cancer types. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), tumor budding has been independently associated with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome. Pathologic assessment of tumor budding by light microscopy requires close evaluation of tumor invasive front on intermediate to high power magnification, entailing locating the 'hotspot' of tumor budding, counting all TB in one high power field, and generating a tumor budding score. By automating these time-consuming tasks, computer-assisted image analysis tools can be helpful for daily pathology practice, since tumor budding reporting is now recommended on select cases. In this paper, we report our work on the development of a tumor budding detection system in CRC from whole-slide Cytokeratin AE1/3 images, based on de novo computer algorithm that automates morphometric analysis of tumor budding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  6. Samberkar S, Rajandram R, Mun KS, Samberkar P, Danaee M, Zulkafli IS
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Dec;41(3):233-242.
    PMID: 31901907
    INTRODUCTION: Tissue biomarker carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is purported to have prognostic value for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but contradicting findings from previous studies have also been documented. This study aims to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of CAIX in RCC disease progression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, online searches of multiple databases were performed to retrieve articles from their inception until December 2017. Inclusion criteria included all English-based original articles of immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies investigating CAIX expression in human RCC tissue. Four articles were finally selected for meta-analysis with a total of 1964 patients. Standard meta-analysis methods were applied to evaluate the role of CAIX in RCC prognosis. The relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were recorded for the association between biomarker and prognosis, and data were analysed using MedCalc statistical software.

    RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that high CAIX expression was associated with low tumour stage (RR 0.90%, 95% CI 0.849-0.969, p= 0.004), low tumour grade (RR 0.835%, 95% CI 0.732-0.983, p= 0.028), absence of nodal involvement (RR 0.814%, 95% CI 0.712-0.931, p= 0.003) and better ECOS-PS index (RR 0.888%, 95% CI 0.818-0.969, p= 0.007). The high tissue CAIX expression in RCC is hence an indication of an early malignancy with a potential to predict favourable disease progression and outcome.

    CONCLUSION: The measurement of this marker may be beneficial to determine the course of the illness. It is hoped that CAIX can be developed as a specific tissue biomarker for RCC in the near future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology*
  7. Mittal P, Klingler-Hoffmann M, Arentz G, Winderbaum L, Lokman NA, Zhang C, et al.
    Proteomics, 2016 06;16(11-12):1793-801.
    PMID: 27061135 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201500455
    Metastasis is a crucial step of malignant progression and is the primary cause of death from endometrial cancer. However, clinicians presently face the challenge that conventional surgical-pathological variables, such as tumour size, depth of myometrial invasion, histological grade, lymphovascular space invasion or radiological imaging are unable to predict with accuracy if the primary tumour has metastasized. In the current retrospective study, we have used primary tumour samples of endometrial cancer patients diagnosed with (n = 16) and without (n = 27) lymph node metastasis to identify potential discriminators. Using peptide matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), we have identified m/z values which can classify 88% of all tumours correctly. The top discriminative m/z values were identified using a combination of in situ sequencing and LC-MS/MS from digested tumour samples. Two of the proteins identified, plectin and α-Actin-2, were used for validation studies using LC-MS/MS data independent analysis (DIA) and immunohistochemistry. In summary, MALDI-MSI has the potential to identify discriminators of metastasis using primary tumour samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  8. Hassan MR, Suan MA, Soelar SA, Mohammed NS, Ismail I, Ahmad F
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(7):3575-81.
    PMID: 27510011
    BACKGROUND: Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for effective early detection and improvements in cancer treatment. This study was undertaken to document colorectal cancer survival and associated prognostic factors in Malaysians.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All data were retrieved from the National Cancer Patient Registry Colorectal Cancer. Only cases with confirmed diagnosis through histology between the year 2008 and 2009 were included. Retrieved data include sociodemographic information, pathological features and treatment received. Survival curves were plotted using the KaplanMeier method. Univariate analysis of all variables was then made using the Logrank test. All significant factors that influenced survival of patients were further analysed in a multivariate analysis using Cox' regression.

    RESULTS: Total of 1,214 patients were included in the study. The overall 3 and 5year survival rates were 59.1% and 48.7%, respectively. Patients with localized tumours had better prognosis compared to those with advanced stage cancer. In univariate analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p=0.001) were found to be predictors of survival. None of the sociodemographic characteristics were found to exert any influence. In Cox regression analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p<0.001) were determined as independent prognostic factors of survival after adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia is similar to those in other Asian countries, with staging at diagnosis, primary tumor size, involvement of lymph node and treatment modalities having significant effects. More efforts are needed to improve national survival rates in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  9. Balasundram S, Salekan K, Ahmad Shariffuddin FN, Taib NA, Adnan TH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Sep 26;19(9):2409-2415.
    PMID: 30255693
    Objective: To gauge surgical outcome in breast cancer patients with particular reference to overall survival and
    recurrence free survival among breast cancer patients in Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Methods: Patients undergoing ablative breast cancer surgery were identified and clinical records were assessed.
    Inclusion criteria for enrolment were stage I-IV breast malignancy necessitating resection with or without radiotherapy/
    chemotherapy from 2007 to 2013. All individuals had a pre-operative assessment. The post operative assessment period
    ranged from 1 year to 5 years. Survival distributions were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: A total of
    121 patients were included in this study, with an age range of 28-78 years. Some 98% had undergone local excision/
    lumpectomy/ mastectomy with axillary clearance. While 81% of patients underwent chemotherapy, only 69% had
    radiotherapy. Tumours were oestrogen receptor positive in 58% of cases and progesterone receptor positive in 62%.
    Local recurrence was detected in 10%. The mean age at diagnosis was 51.3 + 10.4 years. The overall survival analysis
    was based on 22 deaths among the 121 patients (18.2%). Three-year and five-year survival rates were 87.6% and 78.4%,
    respectively. Analysis of recurrence-free-survival (RFS) was based on 12 events among 121 patients. The Kaplan-Meier
    RFS analysis revealed that in 90% of the patients with recurrence, it occurred within 45 months. The five year RFS
    rate was 84.5%. The median time taken from diagnosis to ablative surgery was 51 days (upper limit of 791 days).
    Only distant metastasis was a significant factor that impacted on both overall survival and recurrence-free survival
    (p<0.001). Conclusion: Overall survival among our breast cancer patients in our facility is comparable to other in
    other tertiary centres in the country. A trend for earlier detection was noted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  10. Nakamura Y, Ise K, McNamara KM, Azmahani A, Sato S, Fujishima F, et al.
    Hum Pathol, 2019 02;84:124-132.
    PMID: 30290162 DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2018.09.011
    The expression statuses of sex steroid receptors and sex steroid-synthesizing/metabolizing enzymes have been reported in primary prostate cancer lesions, but that in metastatic lymph nodes has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized these proteins in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes of prostate cancer and correlated the findings with clinicopathological factors of individual patients. The expression statuses of AR and ER β was significantly increased in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary lesions, whereas that of 17βHSD1, 17βHSD2, 17βHSD5, and STS immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. In metastatic lymph nodes, the status of 5α2 was significantly correlated with that of AR. In addition, 17βHSD5-, 5α1-, STS-, and EST-positive cases were significantly associated with Gleason score (GS) status (GS > 8 versus GS < 7) in metastatic lymph nodes. Results of our present study did demonstrate that in situ androgen and estrogen metabolism and action play roles in pathophysiology of prostate cancer in metastatic lymph nodes, but these steroidogenic effects could be different from those in primary lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  11. Chan SW, Kallarakkal TG, Abraham MT
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(5):2145-52.
    PMID: 24716948
    BACKGROUND: The survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained generally unchanged in the past three decades, underlining the need for more biomarkers to be developed to aid prognostication and effective management. The prognostic potential of E-cadherin expression in OSCCs has been variable in previous studies while galectin-9 expression has been correlated with improved prognosis in other cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of galectin-9 and E-cadherin in OSCC and their potential as prognostic biomarkers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: E-cadherin and Galectin-9 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 32 cases of OSCC of the buccal mucosa (13 with and 19 without lymph node metastasis), as well as 6 samples of reactive lesions and 5 of normal buccal mucosa.

    RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher. Median E-cadherin HSCOREs between OSCCs positive and negative for nodal metastasis were not significantly different. Mean HSCOREs for galectin-9 in OSCC without lymph node metastasis (127.7 ± 81.8) was higher than OSCC with lymph node metastasis (97.9 ± 62.9) but this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin expression is reduced whilst galectin-9 expression is increased in OSCC. However, the present results suggest that E-cadherin and galectin-9 expression may not be useful as prognostic markers for OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  12. Yip CH, Taib NA, Tan GH, Ng KL, Yoong BK, Choo WY
    World journal of surgery, 2009 Jan;33(1):54-7.
    PMID: 18958521 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-008-9782-7
    Axillary nodal status is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. In the present study we used it to determine the predictors of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer and to determine if there is a group of patients in whom minimal axillary surgery is indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  13. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Zhao W, Ng MH, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):83-6.
    PMID: 18376796 MyJurnal
    Metastasising ability connotes one of the most important life-threatening properties of malignant neoplasms. Recent studies indicate that CD44 proteins, multifunctional cell adhesion molecules which contribute to "homing" of lymphocytes to lymph nodes as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, are potential markers of tumour progression. However, whether CD44 expression by human tumours contribute to increased metastatic risk remains controversial. In an attempt to clarify its role in breast cancer, we have investigated the correlation between CD44 expression by breast carcinoma and the presence of axillary lymph node metastases. CD44 expression was detected using a standard immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, primary infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma tissues taken from 60 female patients who underwent mastectomy with axillary node clearance. Tumours were graded according to the modified Bloom and Richardson criteria. 62% of patients had histologically-proven lymph node metastasis. 40% of primary cancers exhibited cytoplasmic membrane immunopositivity for CD44. 46% of primary tumours which have metastasied to axillary lymph nodes were CD44 positive whereas 30% of tumours which have not metastasised expressed CD44. CD44 positivity was expressed by 20% of grade 1, 31% grade 2 and 58% grade 3 tumours. Our results suggest that CD44 may have a role in the progression of breast cancer and emphasise the need to investigate its interaction with other mechanisms of cancer advancement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  14. Mittal P, Klingler-Hoffmann M, Arentz G, Winderbaum L, Kaur G, Anderson L, et al.
    Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom, 2017 Jul;1865(7):846-857.
    PMID: 27784647 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.10.010
    The prediction of lymph node metastasis using clinic-pathological data and molecular information from endometrial cancers lacks accuracy and is therefore currently not routinely used in patient management. Consequently, although only a small percentage of patients with endometrial cancers suffer from metastasis, the majority undergo radical surgery including removal of pelvic lymph nodes. Upon analysis of publically available data and published research, we compiled a list of 60 proteins having the potential to display differential abundance between primary endometrial cancers with versus those without lymph node metastasis. Using data dependent acquisition LC-ESI-MS/MS we were able to detect 23 of these proteins in endometrial cancers, and using data independent LC-ESI-MS/MS the differential abundance of five of those proteins was observed. The localization of the differentially expressed proteins, was visualized using peptide MALDI MSI in whole tissue sections as well as tissue microarrays of 43 patients. The proteins identified were further validated by immunohistochemistry. Our data indicate that annexin A2 protein level is upregulated, whereas annexin A1 and α actinin 4 expression are downregulated in tumours with lymph node metastasis compared to those without lymphatic spread. Moreover, our analysis confirmed the potential of these markers, to be included in a statistical model for prediction of lymph node metastasis. The predictive model using highly ranked m/z values identified by MALDI MSI showed significantly higher predictive accuracy than the model using immunohistochemistry data. In summary, using publicly available data and complementary proteomics approaches, we were able to improve the prediction model for lymph node metastasis in EC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
  15. George J, Lai FM
    Singapore Med J, 1995 Apr;36(2):224-7.
    PMID: 7676275
    A 60-year-old Chinese lady presented with a left flank mass and weight loss. Plain films showed a sclerotic L1 vertebral body, osteopenic L2 and L3 vertebral bodies and loss of left psoas outline. However initially unrevealed history of previous carcinoma of the cervix caused confusion as to the aetiology of a sclerotic vertebral body associated with an left flank collection. Psoas abscess with adjacent bony osteomyelitis was initially suspected. The left flank mass turned out to be an infected necrotic large metastatic lymph node compressing the lower pole of the left kidney. The sclerotic and osteopenic vertebral bodies represented an unusual presentation of bony cervical carcinoma metastases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology*
  16. Joshi SC, Pant I, Shukla AN, Anshari MA
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2008 8 9;4(2):99-101.
    PMID: 18688130
    Follow-up of colorectal carcinoma after therapy is based on symptoms, tumor markers, and imaging studies. Clinicians sometimes face diagnostic dilemmas because of unusual presentations on the imaging modalities coupled with rising serum markers. We report a case of colorectal carcinoma that presented with gastrointestinal symptoms 14 months after completion of treatment. Investigations showed rise in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Suspecting disease recurrence, complete radioimaging workup was performed; the only abnormality detected was a smooth, hypodense area in the posterior third of the spleen on contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen. In view of the previous diagnosis of carcinoma colon, the symptoms reported by the patient, the elevated CEA, and the atypical CECT appearance, a diagnosis of splenic metastasis was made. The patient was subjected to splenectomy as a curative treatment. However, the histopathological report revealed it to be a splenic infarct. The present case reemphasizes the limitations of radiological studies in the follow-up of carcinoma colon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
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