Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.
We present a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma complicated with hyperleucocytosis. After ruling our other causes we concluded that the hyperleucocytosis was due to paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction (PLR). The overall survival was 15 months which is rare among patients with PLR.
Catamenial epilepsy refers to changes in the frequency of seizures over the course of the menstrual cycle. A thorough history and detailed review of the patient's seizure diary are imperative to classify the seizures accurately and select the most appropriate antiepileptic treatment. As catamenial epilepsy rarely responds to antiepileptic medications, the physician should regularly revise the treatment plan of the women with epilepsy that is refractory to the current treatment. We describe the case of a 34-year-old single woman who presented with refractory seizures.
INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self-management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalized feedback (PF) or peer support (PS); and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether PF only or combined with PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to usual care only.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. Sixty-nine sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomized to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life, and psychosocial wellbeing.
RESULTS: Fifty-two (75.4%) completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p = 0.001). The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p
Rhabdomyolysis is a serious but rare side effect of Lamivudine treatment. Therefore, appropriate biochemical monitoring should be undertaken when it is used in the treatment of hepatitis B. This paper presents a case of Lamivudine-associated rhabdomyolysis in a 31-year-old man with congenital heart disease and hepatitis B. Three days after starting Lamivudine, the patient developed myalgia. Significant muscle tenderness and swelling of the upper and lower limbs was discovered during a physical examination. Creatine kinase was markedly raised. Lamivudine-induced rhabdomyolysis was suspected and the drug was discontinued. Symptoms and creatine kinase activity improved within four days of Lamivudine cessation and hydration. Early identification of Lamivudine-induced rhabdomyolysis is key in preventing this potentially fatal drug reaction; withdrawal of Lamivudine may contribute to complete remission of rhabdomyolysis.
Despite being a large ethnic group within the South-East Asia, there is a paucity of reported literatures on dyspepsia in the Malay population. Recent population-based studies indicate that uninvestigated dyspepsia, based on the Rome II criteria, is reported in 12.8% and 11.6% of Malays in the urban and rural communities respectively. Organic causes of dyspepsia including upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, its precancerous lesions, and erosive diseases are uncommon which is largely due to an exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in this population. On the other hand, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are relatively common in the Malays than expected. Within a primary care setting, functional dyspepsia, based on the Rome III criteria, is reported in 11.9% of Malays, of which epigastric pain syndrome is found to be more common. Married Malay females are more likely to have functional dyspepsia and psychosocial alarm symptoms. Also based on the Rome III criteria, irritable bowel syndrome, commonly overlapped with functional dyspepsia, is reported in 10.9% of Malays within a community-based setting. Rather than psychosocial symptoms, red flags are most likely to be reported among the Malays with irritable bowel syndrome despite having a low yield for organic diseases. Based upon the above observations, "proton pump inhibitor test" is probably preferable than the "test and treat H. pylori" strategy in the initial management of dyspepsia among the Malays.
Pericardial cysts occur rarely, with an incidence rate of 1 per 100,000. They are usually detected by chance and clinically silent in most cases. Pericardial cysts are the most common benign tumours of the pericardium and presents by the third or fourth decade of life, and equally common in males and females. In principle, they only require follow-up, however, an enlarging or symptomatic cyst requires surgical removal. We report a case of a 32 year-old Malay lady, who presented with history of recurrent pericardial effusion followed by right pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) thorax identified a large mediastinal cyst as the cause of her problem, requiring exploratory thoracotomy.
Background: Psychoeducation has shown promising benefits in managing patients with schizophrenia. In Malaysia, the use of psychoeducation is rather limited and its impact indeterminate.
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a structured psychoeducation programme for the community in improving caregiver knowledge, decreasing caregivers’ burden, reducing patients’ readmission and defaulter follow up rates.
Method: In a controlled interventional study, 109 caregivers were included, 54 and 55 in the intervention and control groups respectively. Caregivers were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months post-intervention for knowledge and burden. Patients were monitored for relapse and defaulting follow up in the clinic.
Results: Caregivers in the intervention group showed significant improvement in knowledge, reduction in burden in assistance in daily living (severity) and a reduced defaulter rate was seen in the patients’ follow up.
Conclusion: The findings shows that structured psychoeducation programme among caregivers has the potential to improve outcome of care for patients with schizophrenia.
Keywords: Schizophrenia; Psychoeducation; Community; Caregiver Questionnaire: Family Burden Interview Schedule–Short Form (FBIS/SF)
An uncommon problem that can present as a surgical emergency is described and the aetiology of priapism and its management is alluded to in the light of simpler surgical measures that are presently available.
A study of cancer deaths registered in the Federal Capital of Malaysia during a three-year period from 1979-1981 was carried out to analyse the cancer patterns by age, sex and ethnic group. There were altogether 2524 cancer deaths, constituting 14.5% of the total 17,446 deaths in the three years. Analysis was based on the medically certified and inspected deaths, which constituted 98.2% of the total deaths. Classification was based on the Eighth (1965) Revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases. A detailed description of the most common cancer deaths among males and females in the total study population, and in each of the three major ethnic groups (Malays; Chinese, Indians) was carried out. Ethnic variations in mortality from some of the common cancers were described and discussed, and compared with another series based on hospital admissions.
A total of 1008 healthy unrelated young adult male police and military recruits, 317 from Brunei, 398 from Sabah and 293 from Sarawak, were examined for G-6-PD deficiency. The frequency in the 317 Brunei recruits, who were all of Malay origin, was 6.3 %. In Sabah the frequencies for the four main ethnic groups were 12.1 % in 165 Kadazans, 4.1% in 73 Malays, 3.4 % in 68 Bajaus and 24.2 % in 33 Muruts. In Sarawak the frequency was 11.6 % in 95 recruits of Malay origin. Three among 56 Ibans and one among 80 Sea Dayaks were found to be enzyme-deficient, but the numbers examined of these groups were too small for estimation of the frequency. The overall frequency for the Malay group in Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak was 7.0% in 485 persons examined.
The chance of excluding from paternity a falsely accused Chinese man and a falsely accused Malay man by using a number of blood genetic marker systems have been calculated using the ABO, Rhesus and MNSs systems, the combined chances are. 46.4% for a Chinese and 50.2% for a MaIay. When serum protein and red cell enzyme systems are included, the chances increase to approximately 76%. The chances may be increased by testing for haemoglobin variants, by red cell typing for the Diego (Di^a)
antigen, and by testing for phenotypes other than Gm(a) in the Gm system. The Kell system may in some circumstances provide evidence in favour of paternity.
Myth, believe in powerful ‘being’ commonly known as jinn and usage of ‘bomoh’ as the medium is still widespread in our community in Kelantan especially among the Malay community. This believe and practice of usin ‘bomoh’ to cure and help with known and unknown disease believe to be caused by the jinn, occasionally poses a significant complication and threat to the management of patient in the hospital. Our case is just one of many cases that happen in our local hospital, and we hope by sharing this case will illustrate how ethical discussion occasionally surpassed the four common ethical pillars.
The Malay version of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey was validated among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. 215 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for the validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the Malay-versions of the MOS Social Support Survey, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 21-items Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). 30 of the women, who were bilingual, were also given the original English version of the instrument. A week later, these women were again given the Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey. The scale displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), parallel form reliability (0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.97) (Spearman's rho; p<0.01). The negative correlations of the overall support index (total social support measure) with the Malay versions of EPDS and BDI-II confirmed its validity. Extraction method of the 19 items (item 2 to item 20) from the MOS Social Support Survey using principle axis factoring with direct oblimin rotation converged into 3 dimensions of functional social support (informational, affectionate / positive social interaction and instrumental support) with reliability coefficients of 0.91, 0.83 and 0.75 respectively. The overall support index also displayed low but significant correlations with item 1 which represents a single measure of structural social support in the instrument (p <0.01). The Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring social support among a sample of Malay postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia and it could be used as a simple instrument in primary care settings.
A 13-year old Malay school girl who had been apparently normal previously, presented with a three-month history of fever, malaise and loss of weight. She had anemia and raised values for ESR, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin and a positive mantoux test. Her routine chest x-ray showed hilar prominence suggestive of hilar lymph node enlargement. C.T. Scan of the thorax revealed a posterior mediastinal mass, the histopathology of which was suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma. The rarity of the location of the tumour and its unusual mode of presentation prompted us to report this case.
AIM: To reevaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for there validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the 21-item Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the 10-item Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All the participants were later interviewed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). All diagnoses were made based on the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
RESULTS: 9 women (14.1%) were diagnosed to have significant depression (7 mild depressive episodes and 2 moderate depressive episodes according to ICD-10). EPDS was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and split half reliability (Spearman split half coefficient = 0.83). The instrument also showed satisfactory discriminant and concurrent validity as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in EPDS scores between the depressed group and their non-depressed counterparts (Mann Whitney U test: 2 tailed p value < 0.01) and good correlations between the instrument and both the Malay version of BDI-II and the HRDS-17 (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.88 respectively). At the 11/12 cut-off score the sensitivity of the EPDS is 100%, with a specificity of 98.18%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 100 % and misclassification rate of 1.56%.
CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying postpartum depression among recently delivered Malay women attending the Bata Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.
KEYWORDS: EPDS; postnatal depression; rating scale; validation
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Bakar Bata, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia