Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.
We present a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma complicated with hyperleucocytosis. After ruling our other causes we concluded that the hyperleucocytosis was due to paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction (PLR). The overall survival was 15 months which is rare among patients with PLR.
Despite being a large ethnic group within the South-East Asia, there is a paucity of reported literatures on dyspepsia in the Malay population. Recent population-based studies indicate that uninvestigated dyspepsia, based on the Rome II criteria, is reported in 12.8% and 11.6% of Malays in the urban and rural communities respectively. Organic causes of dyspepsia including upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, its precancerous lesions, and erosive diseases are uncommon which is largely due to an exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in this population. On the other hand, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are relatively common in the Malays than expected. Within a primary care setting, functional dyspepsia, based on the Rome III criteria, is reported in 11.9% of Malays, of which epigastric pain syndrome is found to be more common. Married Malay females are more likely to have functional dyspepsia and psychosocial alarm symptoms. Also based on the Rome III criteria, irritable bowel syndrome, commonly overlapped with functional dyspepsia, is reported in 10.9% of Malays within a community-based setting. Rather than psychosocial symptoms, red flags are most likely to be reported among the Malays with irritable bowel syndrome despite having a low yield for organic diseases. Based upon the above observations, "proton pump inhibitor test" is probably preferable than the "test and treat H. pylori" strategy in the initial management of dyspepsia among the Malays.
Pericardial cysts occur rarely, with an incidence rate of 1 per 100,000. They are usually detected by chance and clinically silent in most cases. Pericardial cysts are the most common benign tumours of the pericardium and presents by the third or fourth decade of life, and equally common in males and females. In principle, they only require follow-up, however, an enlarging or symptomatic cyst requires surgical removal. We report a case of a 32 year-old Malay lady, who presented with history of recurrent pericardial effusion followed by right pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) thorax identified a large mediastinal cyst as the cause of her problem, requiring exploratory thoracotomy.
The Malay version of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey was validated among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. 215 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for the validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the Malay-versions of the MOS Social Support Survey, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 21-items Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). 30 of the women, who were bilingual, were also given the original English version of the instrument. A week later, these women were again given the Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey. The scale displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), parallel form reliability (0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.97) (Spearman's rho; p<0.01). The negative correlations of the overall support index (total social support measure) with the Malay versions of EPDS and BDI-II confirmed its validity. Extraction method of the 19 items (item 2 to item 20) from the MOS Social Support Survey using principle axis factoring with direct oblimin rotation converged into 3 dimensions of functional social support (informational, affectionate / positive social interaction and instrumental support) with reliability coefficients of 0.91, 0.83 and 0.75 respectively. The overall support index also displayed low but significant correlations with item 1 which represents a single measure of structural social support in the instrument (p <0.01). The Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring social support among a sample of Malay postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia and it could be used as a simple instrument in primary care settings.