Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

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  1. Rosline H, Ahmed SA, Al-Joudi FS, Rapiaah M, Naing NN, Adam NA
    PMID: 17120978
    The aim of this study was to screen and identify the types of thalassemia among blood donors at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Thalassemia screening was performed by hemoglobin electrophoresis. A total number of 80 blood samples were obtained from donors at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, HUSM. The ethnic origins of the donors were Malays (n=73, 91.3%) and non-Malays (n=7, 8.75%). Males comprised 88.1% of the donors. Thalassemia was detected in 16.25% (n=13) of the blood donors. Of those with thalassemia, 46.2% (6/13) were anemic. Microcytosis and hypochromia were detected in 84.6% (n=l1) and 84.6% (n=l1) of these donors, respectively. The types of thalassemias detected were Hb E, 11.25% (n=9/80) and beta thalassemia trait, 5% (n=4/80). Among the thalassemias detected, the Hb E hemoglobinopathy was comprised of Hb E/ alpha-thalassemia (38.5%: n=5), Hb E /beta-thalassemia (23.1%: n=3), Hb E trait (7.6%: n=1) and beta-thalassemia (30.8%: n=4). In conclusion, screening for thalassemia trait should be included as part of a standard blood testing before blood donation. Further studies are required to look at the effects of donated thalassemic blood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  2. Zabidi A, Khuan LY, Mansor W
    PMID: 23366136 DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346175
    Infant asphyxia is a condition due to insufficient oxygen intake suffered by newborn babies. A 4 to 9 million occurrences of infant asphyxia are reported each year by WHO. Early diagnosis of asphyxia is important to avoid complications such as damage to the brain, organ and tissue that could lead to fatality. This is possible with the automation of screening of infant asphyxia. Here, a non-invasive Asphyxia Screening Kit is developed. It is a Graphical User Interface that automatically detects asphyxia in infants from early birth to 6 months from their cries and displays the outcome of analysis. It is built with Matlab GUI underlied with signal processing algorithms, capable of achieving a classification accuracy of 96.03%. Successful implementation of ASK will assist to screen infant asphyxia for reference to clinicians for early diagnosis. In addition, ASK also provides an interface to enter patient information and images to be integrated with existing Hospital Information Management System.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  3. Sakinah H, Suzana S, Noor Aini MY, Philip Poi JH, Shahrul Bahyah K
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Aug;18(2):137-47.
    PMID: 24575662
    Hospitalised elderly patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to the presence of chronic diseases and inadequate food intake. It was on this premise that a Malnutrition Risk Screening Tool-Hospital (MRST-H) was developed for identifying the risk of malnutrition among Malaysian elderly patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  4. Samad NA, Yong PW, Mahendran K
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Aug;37(2):137-40.
    PMID: 26277670 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 showed that 20.8% of Malaysians above 30 years have diabetes. 10.1%of them are undiagnosed. Mobile blood drives could complement the public health department efforts in diabetes screening for early detection of the illness.
    AIMS: This study aims to determine the necessity of diabetes screening as a routine screening program during blood donation campaign.
    METHODS AND MATERIAL: Blood donation campaigns which involved the public community between January 2013 and June 2013 were included in this study. Donors above 30-years-old, not known to have diabetes, consented for diabetes screening. Diabetes screening was done by checking random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) levels while performing a Hemoglobin test and ABO grouping. Donors with RCBS of ≥ 7.8 mmol/L were given appointments for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.
    RESULTS: A total of 211 diabetes screenings were performed. Mean RCBS was 6 mmol/L. 43(20.4%) donors had RCBS≥ 7.8 mmol/L. 10 donors were later diagnosed to have diabetes (5.0%) and 5 donors were prediabetes (2.5%). 9 donors (4.3%) did not turn up for further investigation.
    CONCLUSIONS: Blood donors are expected to be healthy volunteers. The diabetes prevalence among blood donors (5.0%) is considered low if compared with the prevalence in the whole population (20.8%). However, the number is largely comparable to the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in the country (10.1%). Routine diabetes screening during blood donation campaign should be implemented to safeguard donors' health and serve as a public health initiative to improve community health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  5. Moy FM, Atiya AS
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2003;15(2):99-104.
    PMID: 15038683
    Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most established anthropometric indicator used for assessment of nutritional status. Other anthropometric indicators which are related closely to BMI are waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference. In this paper, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the value of waist circumference and waist hip ratio as a screening measure for the need of weight management using BMI as the reference test. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at several cut-offs. The areas under the ROC curve calculated by comparing waist circumference with BMI were high (0.70 - 0.86) while the areas calculated for WHR were low (0.46 - 0.67). Sensitivities of 0.745 and 0.800 were observed at cut-off points of waist circumference at 90cm and 80cm for males and females respectively, while the false positive rates were 0.233 for males and 0.250 for females. These cut-off points could be considered as a fair trade-off. Therefore it is concluded that waist circumference performed better than WHR as a screening test. It is indicative that waist circumference could be used as a tool in raising awareness of weight management in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  6. Al-Naggar RA, Isa ZM, Shah SA, Chen R, Kadir SY
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(5):743-6.
    PMID: 20104962
    A cross-sectional study was conducted at the main hospitals in Sana'a, Yemen to determine the attitude and practice of Yemen female doctors on mammography screening. Study subjects were all female doctors who were on duty during the questionnaire distribution. Those who agreed to participate were given the questionnaire to complete. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse socio-demographic variables and variables related to general health. Participants in this study were 105 female doctors with mean age of 32.1 years (SD = 7.17). Thirty-four respondents (36.6%) did not send asymptomatic women for mammography screening. The reasons were because of high cost (58.0%, n= 25), availability of other methods (23.3%, n= 10), instrument not available (11.6%, n= 5) and high risk of radiation (7.0%, n= 3). Twenty-five participants (26.9%) sent patients on regular basis if there was a family or personal history of breast cancer. Twenty-three participants (24.7%) sent the patients for mammogram screening every year regardless of the patients'history or symptoms. Although most doctors (36.5%) do not refer patients for mammography screening, seventy-seven (74.0%) indicated that they would refer patients for mammography screening on personal request by the patients. This study showed a low percentage of doctors who referred patients for routine mammography. The major reason given was the high cost of the procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  7. Zainal D, Baba A, Mustaffa BE
    PMID: 9139395
    Screening for proteinuria and hematuria is important in the prevention of chronic renal disease. In Malaysia to date no such attempt has been made to establish the prevalence of proteinuria and hematuria. A total of 45,149 primary school children from three districts in Kelantan were screened for proteinuria and hematuria. They were 23,289 boys and 21,860 girls. The prevalence of abnormal urinary sediments after third screening was 0.17% ie 0.07% were in boys and 0.10% were in girls. The commonest abnormality was proteinuria (0.12%), followed by hematuria (0.03%) and combination of proteinuria and hematuria (0.02%). Hematuria was more commonly seen in girls compared to boys while proteinuria was seen in almost equal proportion in boys and girls. Despite screening large number of children the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria was far lower than in an earlier reported study. Furthermore the majority had mild abnormalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  8. Yip CH, bt Mohd Taib NA, Lau PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):63-5.
    PMID: 18439076
    INTRODUCTION: An important risk factor for developing breast cancer is a positive family history of breast cancer. In Malaysia, there is no population-based breast screening programme, but the clinical practice guidelines suggest increased surveillance for those with a positive family history ie mammography for those 40 years old and above, breast self-examination and clinical breast examination yearly.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine if women with a family history of breast cancer present with earlier stages of disease.
    METHODOLOGY: From Jan 2001 to Dec 2006, 1553 women with breast cancer presenting to the University Malaya, where family history was recorded, were eligible for this study. Women with a first or second degree relative with breast cancer were compared with those who have no family history with regard to their race, age, stage, size and duration of symptoms. The Chi Square test of significance was used for analysis.
    RESULTS: Out of 1553 patients, 252 (16.2%) were found to have a relative with breast cancer out of which 174 (11.2%) had at least one affected first degree relative. There were no significant difference in the incidence of positive family history between the Malays, Chinese and Indians. 20% below the age of 40 years old had a positive family history compared with 12.6% in women with no family history. (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in stage at diagnosis between those with and without family history, ie 24.2% late stages (Stage 3 and 4) in the group with no family history compared with 21.8% in the group with family history. (p>0.05). The mean size in the group with no family history was 4.4 cm compared to 4.1 cm in the group with family history. There was a significant difference in screen-detected cancers in the women with family history, 10.7% compared with 5.1% of screen-detected cancers in the group without a family history. However there was no difference in the duration of symptoms between the 2 groups--25.8% in the women without a family history presented after 1 year of symptoms compared with 22.4% in the group with a family history (p>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Having a family history of breast cancer does not appear to have much impact on the health-seeking behavior of women. Even though there were more screen detected cancers, these comprised only 10% of the group with family history. Public education should target women at risk ie with family history to encourage these women to present earlier and to undergo screening for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  9. Nadarajan V, Sthaneshwar P, Eow GI
    Transfus Med, 2008 Jun;18(3):184-9.
    PMID: 18598281 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2008.00862.x
    The objective of this study was to identify haematological parameters useful in screening for iron deficiency among blood donors. Iron deficiency is a common complication of blood donation and often goes unrecognized until anaemia develops. Biochemical markers such as soluble transferrin receptor (TfR), ferritin and log(TfR/F) have been proposed as more valid indicators of body iron status. Red blood cell (RBC) parameters are, however, more easily measured and have also been proposed as indicators of iron depletion. We measured ferritin and TfR in 192 blood donors together with RBC analysis, performed on two haematology analysers. Thirteen donors had parameters suggestive of haemoglobinopathy and were excluded from further analysis. Overall, 10% (18/179) of the remaining donors had iron deficiency, as defined by log(TfR/F) exceeding the 95th percentile of the value in the population of first-time donors. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity of ferritin was 100%, with a specificity of 90% at a cut-off of 15 mug L(-1). The sensitivity and specificity of RBC-Y at a cut-off of 152 for detecting iron deficiency were 81 and 89%, respectively. Haemoglobin content of reticulocytes, meanwhile, showed sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 93% when a cut-off of 28 pg was used. Both measures compare favourably with haemoglobin which only showed a sensitivity of 50%, although specificity was 91% at a cut-off value of 125 g L(-1). The parameter RBC-Y can be useful as a screening measure for iron deficiency in blood donors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  10. El-Tawil SG, Adnan R, Muhamed ZN, Othman NH
    Pathology, 2008 Oct;40(6):600-3.
    PMID: 18752127 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802320622
    To evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as new tool for screening of cervical cancer in comparison with cervical cytology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  11. Wan Mohd Saman WA, Hassan R, Mohd Yusoff S, Che Yaakob CA, Abdullah NA, Ghazali S, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):235-239.
    PMID: 28028293 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are inherited red blood cell disorders found worldwide. Hemoglobin (Hb) E disorder is one of the hemoglobinopathies known to have the high prevalence in South East Asia. Most of transfusion-dependent thalassemias were genotypically compound heterozygous Hb E/ β-thalassemia. In Malaysia, the national screening program for thalassemia was implemented for early pregnancy or secondary school girls; however many participants do not turn-up and missed the screening test. Screening for thalassemia using samples from cord blood is an alternative choice as it is a readily available source of blood and hence early detection of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential use of cord blood for the screening of HbE hemoglobinopathy by using capillary electrophoresis (CE).

    METHODS: Cord blood samples were collected from 300 newborns of healthy mothers. Hematological parameters were determined and hemoglobin quantitation for all cord blood samples were performed using capillary electrophoresis system (CES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    RESULTS: Majority of cord blood samples (63%) revealed Hb AF followed by Hb AFA2 (20%). Hb AFE was detected in 10.7% with the mean value of Hb E ranging from 2.3%-11.1%.

    CONCLUSION: Hemoglobin E was detected in cord blood using capillary electrophoresis system. It can be recommended in areas where Hb E/β is prevalent. Implementation of a screening strategy using CE on cord blood sampling will identify the disease early. With regular follow-up on these patients, the status of their disease can be determined earlier and appropriate management implemented.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  12. Kremastinou J, Polymerou V, Lavranos D, Aranda Arrufat A, Harwood J, Martínez Lorenzo MJ, et al.
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2016 09;54(9):2330-6.
    PMID: 27358468 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02544-15
    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  13. Subramaniam S, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    PMID: 29987247 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15071445
    Bone health screening plays a vital role in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis to prevent fragility fractures among the elderly and high-risk individuals. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which detects bone mineral density, is the gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis but is not suitable for screening. Therefore, many screening tools have been developed to identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and prioritize them for DXA scanning. The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST) is among the first tools established to predict osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It can identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, but its performance varies according to ethnicity, gender, and age. Thus, these factors should be considered to ensure the optimal use of OST worldwide. Overall, OST is a simple and economical screening tool to predict osteoporosis and it can help to optimize the use of DXA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  14. Teo CH, Ng CJ, Booth A, White A
    Soc Sci Med, 2016 09;165:168-176.
    PMID: 27511617 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.023
    RATIONALE: Men have poorer health status and are less likely to attend health screening compared to women.

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review presents current evidence on the barriers and facilitators to engaging men in health screening.

    METHODS: We included qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies identified through five electronic databases, contact with experts and reference mining. Two researchers selected and appraised the studies independently. Data extraction and synthesis were conducted using the 'best fit' framework synthesis method.

    RESULTS: 53 qualitative, 44 quantitative and 6 mixed-method studies were included. Factors influencing health screening uptake in men can be categorized into five domains: individual, social, health system, healthcare professional and screening procedure. The most commonly reported barriers are fear of getting the disease and low risk perception; for facilitators, they are perceived risk and benefits of screening. Male-dominant barriers include heterosexual -self-presentation, avoidance of femininity and lack of time. The partner's role is the most common male-dominant facilitator to screening.

    CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of barriers and facilitators to health screening in men including the male-dominant factors. The findings are particularly useful for clinicians, researchers and policy makers who are developing interventions and policies to increase screening uptake in men.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  15. Bujang MA, Kuan PX, Tiong XT, Saperi FE, Ismail M, Mustafa FI, et al.
    J Diabetes Res, 2018;2018:4638327.
    PMID: 30116741 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4638327
    Aims: This study aims to determine the all-cause mortality and the associated risk factors for all-cause mortality among the prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients within five years' period and to develop a screening tool to determine high-risk patients.

    Methods: This is a cohort study of T2DM patients in the national diabetes registry, Malaysia. Patients' particulars were derived from the database between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Their records were matched with the national death record at the end of year 2013 to determine the status after five years. The factors associated with mortality were investigated, and a prognostic model was developed based on logistic regression model.

    Results: There were 69,555 records analyzed. The mortality rate was 1.4 persons per 100 person-years. The major cause of death were diseases of the circulatory system (28.4%), infectious and parasitic diseases (19.7%), and respiratory system (16.0%). The risk factors of mortality within five years were age group (p < 0.001), body mass index category (p < 0.001), duration of diabetes (p < 0.001), retinopathy (p = 0.001), ischaemic heart disease (p < 0.001), cerebrovascular (p = 0.007), nephropathy (p = 0.001), and foot problem (p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed model was fairly strong with 70.2% and 61.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: The elderly and underweight T2DM patients with complications have higher risk for mortality within five years. The model has moderate accuracy; the prognostic model can be used as a screening tool to classify T2DM patients who are at higher risk for mortality within five years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  16. Brun SP
    Aust J Gen Pract, 2020 2 3;49(1-2):23-31.
    PMID: 32008269 DOI: 10.31128/AJGP-09-19-5081
    BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians are often responsible for the care of people involved in sporting and exercise activities at various competitive levels. Issues confronting the athlete and their primary care physician are the potentially serious risks, responsibilities and challenges facing those involved with sport and physical activity.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to address three of the most important challenges currently facing the athlete and primary care physician caring for athletes. The challenges are to recognise the potential risks to the athlete of sustaining a sudden cardiac arrest, sports-related concussion or doping violation in sport, as each of these have serious implications for life, wellbeing, performance and/or reputation. Education and risk mitigation are also essential components of care that will be addressed.

    DISCUSSION: The primary care physician caring for athletes has a pivotal role in ensuring appropriate screening, education and ongoing surveillance to minimise the potentially serious risks facing those involved with physical activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods
  17. Hiebert L, Hecht R, Soe-Lin S, Mohamed R, Shabaruddin FH, Syed Mansor SM, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2019 May;18:112-120.
    PMID: 30921591 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2018.12.005
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, more than 330 000 individuals are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but less than 2% have been treated to date.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the required coverage and costs of a national screening strategy to inform the launch of an HCV elimination program.

    METHODS: We designed an HCV screening strategy based on a "stepwise" approach. This approach relied on targeting of people who inject drugs in the early years, with delayed onset of widespread general population screening. Annual coverage requirements and associated costs were estimated to ensure that the World Health Organization elimination treatment targets were met.

    RESULTS: In total, 6 million individuals would have to be screened between 2018 and 2030. Targeting of people who inject drugs in the early years would limit annual screening coverage to less than 1 million individuals from 2018 to 2026. General population screening would have to be launched by 2026. Total costs were estimated at MYR 222 million ($58 million). Proportional to coverage targets, 60% of program costs would fall from 2026 to 2030.

    CONCLUSIONS: This exercise was one of the first attempts to conduct a detailed analysis of the required screening coverage and costs of a national HCV elimination strategy. These findings suggest that the stepwise approach could delay the onset of general population screening by more than 5 years after the program's launch. This delay would allow additional time to mobilize investments required for a successful general population screening program and also minimize program costs. This strategy prototype could inform the design of effective screening strategies in other countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  18. Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Chan YY, Mohamad Kasim N, Yusof M, Abdul Ghani MKA, et al.
    Public Health, 2019 Apr;169:84-92.
    PMID: 30826688 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.01.001
    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to provide updated and comprehensive evidence on the validity and feasibility of screening tools for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among the elderly at primary healthcare level.

    STUDY DESIGN: A review of articles was performed.

    METHODS: A search strategy was used by using electronic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL for published studies and reference list of published studies. The articles were exported to a bibliographic database for further screening process. Two reviewers worked independently to screen results and extract data from the included studies. Any discrepancies were resolved and confirmed by the consensus of all authors.

    RESULTS: There were three screening approaches for detecting MCI and dementia - screening by a healthcare provider, screening by a self-administered questionnaire and caretaker informant screening. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was the most common and preferable tool for MCI screening (sensitivity [Sn]: 81-97%; specificity [Sp]: 60-86%), whereas Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) was the preferable tool for dementia screening (Sn: 79-100%; Sp: 86%).

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review found that there are three screening approaches for detecting early dementia and MCI at primary health care. ACE and MoCA are recommended tools for screening of dementia and MCI, respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
  19. Ramdzan AR, Abd Rahim MA, Mohamad Zaki A, Zaidun Z, Mohammed Nawi A
    Ann Glob Health, 2019 05 15;85(1).
    PMID: 31099505 DOI: 10.5334/aogh.2466
    INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world after lung cancer. Early detection of CRC leads to improvement in cancer survival rate. In recent years, efforts have been made to discover a non-invasive screening marker of higher sensitivity and specificity. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and genetic testing become alternative modalities to screen CRC in the population other than colonoscopy. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of FOBT and genetic testing as screening tools in colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus was carried out. The search strategy was restricted to human subjects and studies are published in English. Data on sensitivity and specificity were extracted and pooled. Heterogeneity was assumed at significance level of p < 0.10 and was tested by chi squared. Degree of heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and values of less than 25% is considered as homogenous. All analyses were performed using the software Meta-Disc.

    RESULTS: A total of eleven studies were suitable for data synthesis and analysis. Five studies were analyzed for the accuracy of genetic testing, the pooled estimate for sensitivity and specificity were 71% (95% CI: 66, 75%) and 95% (95% CI: 93, 97%) respectively. Another group of studies which had been evaluated for the accuracy of FOBT, the pooled sensitivity was 31% (95% CI: 25, 38%) while the pooled specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86, 89%).

    CONCLUSIONS: FOBTs is recommended to use as population-based screening tools for colorectal cancer while genetic testing should be focusing on patients with moderate and high risk individuals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mass Screening/methods*
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