At childbirth (parturition), zinc (Zn) homeostasis in cord blood (CB) can be affected by a number of factors: Zn in maternal blood, parturition related stress as well as metallothionein (MT). Both Zn and stress are known inducers of MT which is primarily involved in Zn homeostasis. This study analyzed Zn concentration [Zn], in CB components and MT-2A transcription in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to primiparous and multiparous childbirth. [Zn] in CB (n = 47) plasma, erythrocytes, and MNCs were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). The MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC was quantified using real-time PCR. Significant correlations (Pearson r) were found between: plasma-[Zn] and erythrocyte-[Zn] (p = 0.002); [Zn] and MT-2A messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.000) in CB-MNC. Student's t tests showed higher levels of MT-2A mRNA and MNC-[Zn] in CB of older (≥25 years) compared to younger mothers (≤24 years) (p = 0.043 and p = 0.016, respectively). Significantly higher [Zn] was found in CB plasma (p = 0.017) and MNC (p = 0.041) of older primiparous compared to the younger primiparous and older multiparous mothers respectively. MT-2A mRNA in CB-MNC was significantly lower in CB of younger primiparous mothers compared to their older counterparts (p = 0.001). Path analysis showed that MNC-[Zn] (β = 0.83; p = 0.000) had a greater influence on MT-2A mRNA expression, compared to parity (β = -0.14; p = 0.033). Higher [Zn] in CB of primiparous mothers could be linked to higher stress during parturition, however, might be beneficial for the growth and development of the child. Together MNC-[Zn] and parity contributed ~70 % of the MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC.
Over an 18 month period, 34,495 livebirths were delivered in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. 36 neonates (1.044 per 1000 livebirths) had Down's syndrome. The observed rates of Down's syndrome per 1000 livebirths by single year intervals of maternal age were calculated. By using the discontinuous slope model, our study showed that the incidence of Down's syndrome among the Malaysian liveborns increased markedly when the maternal age exceeded 35 years. This study also suggested that the Malay mothers had increased risk of producing babies with Down's syndrome at a later age than the Chinese and the Indians. However, a larger number of babies in each racial group needs to be studied to confirm this.
Gastroschisis is often found together with other extra intestinal conditions such as limb, spine, cardiac, central nervous system and genitourinary abnormalities. There are reports of its association with young maternal age. The cases presented here highlight the association of gastroschisis with limbs anomalies and young maternal age.
OBJECTIVE: Analyze indications and type of prenatal diagnostic procedures performed.
METHOD: This retrospective audit was conducted at a dedicated fetal medicine center in Petaling Jaya. All invasive prenatal diagnosis procedures performed from 2003 up until 2010 (amniocentesis, chorionic villous sampling and fetal blood sampling) were analyzed.
RESULT: A total of 1560 invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures were performed during the 8 year period. Advanced maternal age is the leading indication for invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures followed by fetal abnormalities. The fetal loss rate was 0.2% for amniocentesis and 1.2% for CVS.
CONCLUSION: Advanced maternal age is the leading indication for invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures at this centre but is on a declining trend. The fetal loss rates are comparable to auditable standards set by professional bodies, in this case, the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists of London.
Objectives: Chromosomal abnormalities especially aneuploidies are the most common etiology for pregnancy loss. Trisomy 13, trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 are the most common chromosome autosomal aneuploidies with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) being the most common chromosomal abnormality among liveborn infants. In previous reports, we noted that the recurrence of these aneuploidies in some families may not occur by chance alone.
Methods: Extraction of relevant data from review of medical case notes of a young couple with two offspring with Down syndrome (DS) and Patau syndrome.
Results: A family history of DS is a predisposing factor for both DS and other types of aneuploidy. Certain instances of non-disjunction error are not random.
Conclusion: As the maternal age was not advanced in both pregnancies, there is a possibility that the recurrent aneuploidy in this family may not be accounted by chance alone. The risk of having subsequent affected pregnancy cannot be ignored in this family and prenatal diagnosis is strongly recommended in the subsequent pregnancy.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) remains a therapeutic option within means of the majority of infertile couples in Malaysia. Therefore additional information on predictors of IUI success in the local context would provide a more concrete basis for counseling patients on expectations and treatment options. A retrospective analysis of 297 couples who underwent 445 IUI cycles from Jan 2005-Mar 2006 was undertaken. Four fifths were Malay with a mean paternal and maternal age of 35.53 +/- 5.82 (range 24-59) and 33.02 +/- 4.69 (range 21-46) years respectively. Causes of infertility were idiopathic (50%), endometriosis (17%) and anovulation/polycystic ovarian syndrome (15%). Almost 10% were oligoastenoteratozoospermic with another 23% oligozoospermic or astenozoospermic. Combined male and female factors occurred in 26%. A pregnancy rate (PR) of 9.4% per cycle; 14.1% per couple with a cumulative PR of 36.7% per 4 cycles was achieved. Those who became pregnant were significantly younger (31.29 +/- 4.43 vs. 33.21 +/- 4.68 years, p = 0.011) and had more follicles (13.95 +/- 9.72 vs. 11.43 +/- 6.67, p = 0.029) at the time of insemination. PR depreciated with maternal age and semen quality. Maternal and paternal age was inversely correlated to the number of follicles recruited (r = -0.30, p < 0.0005) and progressive sperm motility (r = -0.125, p = 0.013) respectively.
A canonical/lognormal model for human demography is established, specifying the net maternity function and the age distribution for mothers of new-borns using a single macroscopic parameter vector of dimension five. The age distribution of mothers is canonical, while the net maternity function normalizes to a lognormal density. Comparison of an actual population with the model serves to identify anomalies in the population which may be indicative of phase transitions or influences from levels outside the demographic. Tracking the time development of the parameter vector may be used to predict the future state of a population, or to interpolate for data missing from the record. In accordance with classical theoretical considerations of Backman, Prigogine, et al., it emerges that the logarithm of a mother's age is the most fundamental time variable for demographic purposes.
The obstetric performance of 59 elderly primigravidae delivering at the University Hospital, Kelantan, between January 1, 1987 and December 12, 1988 is compared with that of 60 young primigravidae delivering during the same time period. The total number of deliveries during this period was 16,284, and the predominant ethnic group was Malays. Apart from an increased incidence of preeclampsia (23.7% vs. 13.3%), breech presentation (6.78% vs. 3.33%) and Caesarean sections (74.6% vs. 10%) among the study group, there were no other statistically significant obstetric complications. Majority of Caesarean sections were done as emergency procedures, the principal indications being poor progress of labour and foetal distress. The neonatal outcome (in terms of birthweight, gestational age and breastfeeding at discharge) was similar in the two groups. For most women in both groups this was the first marriage, though a higher proportion in the study group had an interval of more than two years between marriage and childbirth.
PIP: Data from 297 interviews among married patients attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia in 1993 are used to determine the number, spacing, and timing of pregnancies. Only live born children are included. Findings indicate that 92.2% of women were 18-35 years old, 4.2% were under 18 years of age, and 3.6% were over 35 years old. 86.2% had 4 or fewer children and 13.8% had 4 or more children. 69.7% spaced children 2 or more years apart and 30.3% had birth spacing of under 2 years. Over 90% of women had their pregnancies during the ages of 18 and 35 years.
This study evaluates the effect of maternal age, birth weight and infant sex on two main UCB parameters for use and long-term cryopreservation: TNC and volume. Data from 1000 UCB units were collected and analyzed in this study. The results indicate that TNC is correlated to infant birth weight and sex but not maternal age at delivery. Volume is only correlated to birth weight but not maternal age and infant sex.
PIP: In Peninsular Malaysia, while the female population aged 15-19 years registered a growth of some 240,000 persons between 1966-1984, the number of births occurring to teenage mothers has decreased by 15,176 from 33,348 to 18,172 during the same period. In 1966, teenage births constituted some 10.8% of the total births but has declined to 4.7% by 1984. A breakdown of the 1984 data by detailed age groups shows that only 0.9% of the teenage births had actually occurred among those below 15 years of age. The declining trend in teenage births, particularly the higher order births among the very young mothers, augurs well for the improvement in family welfare. However, in order to safeguard the health and welfare of mothers and children, concerted efforts should continue to be undertaken to integrate population, family health and family life education into the school curriculum.
This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (<20 kg/m2), parity of 4 and above, Indian origin, economically under privileged, and low and high blood pressure. Blood pressure during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW, by using this parameter alone the risk of LBW could be predicted with a sensitivity rate of 70% and a specificity rate of 70%. The sensitivity and specificity was further improved to 80% and 75% percent respectively when other factors like maternal factors such as maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, and per capita monthly income were included in the analysis.
The overall mean birth weight of the total deliveries (1986-1988) in Lundu Hospital was 2.96 kg. The mean birth weight for the male babies was 2.94 kg. The Chinese babies had a significantly higher mean birth weight (3.12 kg) than the other ethnic groups (p < 0.05). The overall incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in this study was 11.84 per cent. The Chinese again had a lower incidence of LBW of 6.73 per cent compared to Ibans who had the highest incidence of LBW, 13.59 per cent, with the Bidayuhs 12.97 per cent and Malays, 12.45 per cent. It was also noticed that of the 14.9 per cent preterm deliveries, 37.5 per cent were LBW. The very young mothers (15-19 years) and older mothers (> 40 years) seem to have a higher incidence of LBW. Mothers who had medical conditions like anaemia, hypertension, pre-eclampsia also had a higher incidence of LBW when compared to mothers who did not have a medical condition. Special emphasis should be given to mothers who have medical conditions, and to very young and very old mothers during antenatal care, to prevent incidence of LBW.
Comment in: Chia CP. Low birth weight babies. Med J Malaysia. 1995 Mar;50(1):120
Analyses previously reported, based on data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS), are replicated here with data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey. Comparison of results, when data limitations inherent in the World Fertility Surveys are reproduced or relaxed, suggests that these limitations cause little distortion, and thus bolsters confidence in the validity of results based on WFS data in which these limitations are inescapable. Generalizations based on the present investigation and on the body of previous work that it tends to validate are presented. Most significantly, these include the greater importance of both breastfeeding and birth spacing under generally unfavorable conditions, the variability of durations to which some benefit of continued breastfeeding persists, and the observation that the great majority of birth-spacing effects operate through some mechanism other than the association of breastfeeding with birth interval lengths.
PIP: Analyses previously reported, based on data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) are replicated with data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, based on a stratified probability sample for 1,262 ever-married women 50 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison of the results, when data limitations inherent in the WFS are reproduced or relaxed, suggests that these limitations cause little distortion, and thus bolsters confidence in the validity of results based on WFS data in which these limitations are inescapable. Generalizations based on the present investigation and on the body of previous work that it tends to validate are presented. The greater importance of both breastfeeding and birth spacing under generally unfavorable conditions becomes clear. The relationship between breastfeeding and survival for all births, as well as for the last 2 births, emphasized in this model, has a logit coefficint significant at the .01 level for the 1st month of life as well as the period from birth to 1 year. The durations to which some benefit of continued breastfeeding persists, are variable. In countries where the situation generally is more favorable to child survival, as indicated by rates of infant mortality, breastfeeding's positive effects on child survival are less significant. Breastfeeding promotion and continuation should be the goal especially for programs operating among very poor groups. The great majority of birth spacing effects operate through some mechanism other than the association of breastfeeding with birth interval lengths, as indicated by the fact that significant survival advantages are often associated with birth spacing after controlling for breastfeeding
The birthweights of 13,614 singleton infants comprising 5376 Malays, 5352 Chinese and 2886 Indians born at the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur, during 1973, 1975 and 1977 have been extracted and analysed. Male Chinese infants (3.16 ± 0.37 kg) were significantly heavier than Malay and Indian infants while the male Malay infants (3.12 ± 0.41 kg) were significantly heavier than the Indian (2.97 ± 0.41 kg). Both female Chinese (3.04 ± 0.38 kg) and Malay infants (3.05 ± 0.38 kg) were heavier than the female Indian (2.89 ± 0.39 kg) but there was no difference in birthweight between Chinese and Malay female infants. The mean gestational period and the proportion of full-term births were similar for all 3 races with averages of 39.9 weeks and 77.8 percent respectively. Maternal age at first birth was also closely similar for the three communities with an average of 22.9 years. Significant correlations were found between birthweight and length of neonates, birthweight and gravida, birthweight and maternal age. Indians have a higher incidence of low birthweight or small-for-gestational age infants (14.5 percent) compared to the Chinese (5.6 percent) and the Malays (7.6 percent); the incidence of low birthweights being higher in girls than in boys. Present-day Malay and Indian full-term male and female infants are significantly heavier than their counterparts born at the same Hospital two decades ago, but no difference in birthweight was observed for Chinese infants during this time interval. The gap between the incidence of low birthweight found in Malaysia and those in the developed countries seems to be narrowing and this may be taken to reflect the overall effects of socioeconomic development, including the greater availability of general health and ante-natal care throughout the country since its Independence in 1957.
Objective: To evaluate the factors that contributes to the decision for termination of pregnancy in prenatally diagnosed fetal anomaly cases.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of prenatally diagnosed fetal anomaly who delivered between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2009 in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia.
Results: A total of seventy-two (72) prenatally diagnosed pregnancies with fetal anomalies were identified. Mean maternal age was 29.8 ± 5.5 years and mean parity 1.47 ± 1.8. 70.8% of patients were ethnic Malay, 15.3% Chinese and 12.5% ethnic Indian. 22 (30.6%) fetuses were lethally abnormal. The overall pregnancy termination rate was 29.2%. 50% of pregnancies with lethally abnormal fetuses were terminated compared to 20% of pregnancies with non-lethal abnormality (p
This study aimed to identify the independent and combined effects of age, BMI at first prenatal visit and GWG on the risk of GDM. A retrospective cohort study of 1,951 pregnant women in Seremban district, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. GDM was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥5.6 mmol/l and/or 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (2hPPG) ≥7.8 mmol/l. A higher percentage of women with GDM had 2 risk factors (29.0%) or >2 risk factors (8.6%) compared to non-GDM women (2 risk factors: 25.5%; >2 risk factors: 5.0%). In general, women with ≥2 risk factors were respectively 1.36-2.06 times more likely to have GDM compared to those without risk factors. Older maternal age and being overweight/obese were significantly associated with risk of GDM. Overweight/obese women with age ≥35 years had 2.45 times higher risk of GDM and having excessive GWG at second trimester further increased the risk of GDM. Age and BMI are independent risk factors for GDM but not GWG in the first and second trimester. The findings emphasize the need to focus on a healthy BMI before pregnancy and optimal GWG during pregnancy to improve pregnancy outcomes.