Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Chong HT, Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Dec;63(5):356-61.
    PMID: 19803290 MyJurnal
    Multiple sclerosis, although a rare disease in Asia, often presents significant diagnostic challenges to clinicians. There has been rapid advancement in the understanding of the underlying genetic influence, pathophysiology, investigation and treatment recently. This paper reviewed the latest development of various aspects of the disease and examined the differences between the manifestations of Asian and Western patients. The implications of these differences to investigation and treatment were also touched upon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis; Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology*; Multiple Sclerosis/therapy
  2. Muthusamy E, Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):170-2.
    PMID: 3237134
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
  3. Tan CT
    Arch. Neurol., 1988 Jun;45(6):624-7.
    PMID: 3369969
    Thirty consecutive patients from peninsular Malaysia with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were studied; 80% were ethnic Chinese, with a female-male ratio of 5:1. The average age at onset was 29.7 years, with one relapse average every 1.9 years. Optic-spinal recurrence was the most common clinical pattern of the disease, accounting for 63.3% (19/30) of the cases. All the patients had spinal cord involvement sometime during the course of the illness. The mortality was high at 36.7% (11/30), with an average duration of symptoms of 7.6 years. There was characteristic severe residual visual and motor disability. At the time of the last examination, 12 patients had bilateral optic atrophy with blindness or severe visual acuity impairment. Sixteen patients were bedridden or confined to a wheelchair. The severe motor disability reflected the severe spinal cord involvement. It was the main factor that accounted for the high mortality. The cerebral, cerebellar, and brain-stem involvements were, however, generally transient. None of the patients' had a family history of similar illness despite the average sibling size of six. There was no example of Devic's disease. The clinical pattern was closest to those patients who presented from Taiwan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/complications*; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology
  4. Ramli N, Rahmat K, Azmi K, Chong HT
    J Clin Neurosci, 2010 Apr;17(4):422-7.
    PMID: 20167498 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2009.09.014
    Despite technological advances in imaging, multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a clinical diagnosis that is supported, but not replaced, by laboratory or imaging findings. However, imaging is essential in the current diagnostic criteria of MS, for prediction of the likelihood of MS for patients with clinically isolated syndromes, correlation with lesion pathology and assessment of treatment outcome. This article gives an overview of imaging in MS with particular emphasis on the role of MRI in various diagnostic imaging criteria. Novel imaging for MS using 3 Tesla field strengths, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cell-specific contrast will be reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  5. Arumugasamy N
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Sep;24(1):45-8.
    PMID: 4243843
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  6. Vijayasingham L, Mairami FF
    PMID: 30050385 DOI: 10.2147/DNND.S131729
    Patients with multiple sclerosis tend to report higher levels of work difficulties and negative outcomes, such as voluntary and involuntary work termination and reduced work participation. In this article, we discuss the complex interactions of disease, personal coping strategies, and social and structural factors that contribute to their work experiences and outcomes. An overview of the coping strategies and actions that leverage personal and context-level factors and dynamics is also provided to support the overall goal of continued work in patients with MS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  7. Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):68-73.
    PMID: 8057994
    This is a study of 13 Malaysian patients with clinically definite Multiple sclerosis (MS) subjected to a hot bath test with VEPs, BAEPs, median nerve SSEPs before and after heating. Five patients (38%) developed neurological changes with the rise in body temperature. There was an average of 0.46 new sign per patient. Four patients had motor disturbances attributed mainly to aggravation of spinal cord dysfunction. Two patients had additional visual deterioration, one patient has associated VEP change. This study shows that though Uhthoff's phenomenon has not been noted in the reports of Asian MS patients, when subjected to rigorous testing, Asian MS patients also show sensitivity to body temperature change. However, the percentage of positivity of the hot bath test is much lower than that reported for Caucasians. Thus this study shows further differences between Asian and Caucasian MS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/genetics; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology; Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology*
  8. Tan CT, Leong S
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Dec;33(6):575-80.
    PMID: 1488664
    A study of visual evoked potential (VEP), brainstem evoked potential (BAEP) and median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) in 26 Malaysian patients with clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This study showed an overall high rate of abnormality, with 85% of patients for VEP, 31% for BAEP and 65% for median nerve SSEP. The rate of abnormality was particularly high for patients who were symptomatic, reaching 100% of patients for VEP, 50% of patients in BAEP, 83% of nerves for median nerve SSEP. The rate of abnormality among those who were asymptomatic was lower, varying from 32% of eyes in VEP, 27% of patients in BAEP and 31% of nerves in median nerve SSEP. Three out of 10 patients with optic spinal form of MS have abnormal BAEP. These show the usefulness of the evoked potential studies in confirming the clinical lesions as well as demonstrating subclinical involvement. The rate of abnormal evoked responses for the asymptomatic patients in this study is generally lower than that published elsewhere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology*
  9. Tan CT
    Aust N Z J Med, 1989 Aug;19(4):297-302.
    PMID: 2783084
    Fifty-four per cent of 52 patients presenting to the University of Malaya Medical Centre with a myelopathy for which appropriate investigations uncovered no definite etiology, subsequently developed clinically definite or probable multiple sclerosis. In the subgroup of patients with a presentation indicative of acute/subacute transverse myelopathy, 14 or 52% also went on to develop clinically definite or probable multiple sclerosis, a far higher proportion than previously recorded in the literature. This finding is probably a further manifestation of racial difference in the behaviour of multiple sclerosis. For the group as a whole, the only factor which appeared to be associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis was female sex; 67% of 33 female patients went on to develop multiple sclerosis after a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years. Other factors such as age of onset, racial composition, level of spinal cord involvement, presence of fever and CSF finding were found not to be important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/complications; Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology
  10. Cheong WL, Mohan D, Warren N, Reidpath DD
    Front Neurol, 2018;9:432.
    PMID: 29937752 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00432
    Background: Multiple sclerosis is thought to be relatively uncommon in the Asia Pacific region with prevalence estimated between 0 and 20 per 100,000. There is reason to doubt these estimates due to the lack of data from many countries and the growing evidence of variability in prevalence across small geographic areas. This study was conducted to systematically review the population prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability progression estimates of MS within the Asia Pacific region. Methods: The systematic review was conducted on articles from 1985 till 31st July 2017 within the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library databases. The review included articles that were population-based studies conducted on patients with MS in the Asia Pacific region that reported either incidence, prevalence, mortality, or disease progression. Hospital-based studies and non-research articles were excluded to ensure that only information representative of the population was included for analysis. Data appraisal and extraction was done by independent reviewers. This review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42017082760). Findings: Of the 2,757 articles found, 16 studies were included. Information on 6 (18.75%) of 32 Asia Pacific countries was found, with data representing 8% of the total population. Prevalence estimates were available for 6 countries while estimates for incidence (3 countries), mortality (4 countries), and disease progression (2 countries) were limited. Interpretation: The lack of epidemiological data available in the Asia Pacific region creates a blind spot in the surveillance of MS which obscures the true burden of MS, causing patients to struggle to receive the resources and funding that they need.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  11. Tan CT, Abdullah D, Zakariya AH
    Neuroradiology, 1991;33(6):494-8.
    PMID: 1780049
    A study of 12 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) using high dose infusion CT showed overall abnormality of 75% with an average of 2.5 lesions per patient. 75% of the patients showed abnormality of the cerebrum, mostly asymptomatic. The main changes were ventricular dilatation and asymmetry, isolated or generalized cerebral atrophy, areas of low attenuation mainly in the deeper parts of the cerebrum and the peri-ventricular area. 25% of the patients showed changes in the brainstem and none was seen in the cerebellum. The abnormality was more florid in patients with clinically disseminated forms of the disease. The study demonstrated that asymptomatic cerebral involvement is common among Asian patients with MS and CT is a useful tool in the overall assessment and diagnosis of Asian MS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology; Multiple Sclerosis/pathology
  12. Thumboo J, Seah A, Tan CT, Singhal BS, Ong B
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2011 Feb;40(2):67-73.
    PMID: 21468459
    The Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL) is a self-administered, multi-dimensional, patient-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. With increasing prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asian countries, a valid tool to assess HRQoL in those patients is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient acceptability, content validity and psychometric properties of an Asian version of the English MusiQoL in Singapore, Malaysia and India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy; Multiple Sclerosis/psychology*
  13. Miyaji K, Paul F, Shahrizaila N, Umapathi T, Yuki N
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2016 Feb 15;291:78-81.
    PMID: 26857499 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.12.012
    Tetraspanin family proteins, CD9, CD81 and CD82 are expressed in the oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. We investigated autoantibodies to tetraspanin proteins in patients with demyelinating diseases. Sera were collected from 119 multiple sclerosis patients, 19 neuromyelitis optica, 42 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 23 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and 13 acute motor axonal neuropathy as well as 55 healthy controls. Few multiple sclerosis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients had autoantibodies that were weakly reactive to CD9 or CD81 but the significance is unclear. It is unlikely that these autoantibodies are pathogenic or serve as potential biomarkers in demyelinating diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/blood*
  14. Chong HT, Ramli N, Lee KH, Kim BJ, Ursekar M, Dayananda K, et al.
    Can J Neurol Sci, 2006 Feb;33(1):95-100.
    PMID: 16583730
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is the most important paraclinical diagnostic test in multiple sclerosis (MS). The appearance of MRI in Asians with MS is not well defined. We retrospectively surveyed the first brain and spinal cord MRI in patients diagnosed to have MS, according to Poser's criteria in seven regions throughout Asia to define the MRI changes among Asians with MS. There were 101 patients with first brain, and 86 with first spinal cord MRI, 66 of whom had both. The brain MRI showed a mean of 17 lesions per patient in T2 weighted images, mostly asymptomatic. Almost all the lesions were in the white matter, particularly in the juxtacortical, deep and periventricular white matter. A third of the lesions were greater than 5 mm, 14% enhanced with gadolinium. There were more supratentorial than infratentorial lesions at a ratio of 7.5: 1. Ninety five percent of the spinal cord lesions were in cervical and thoracic regions, 34% enhanced with gadolinium. The lesions extended over a mean of 3.6 +/- 3.3 vertebral bodies in length. Fifty (50%) of the brain and 54 (63%) of the spinal MRI patients had the optic-spinal form of MS. The MRI of the optic-spinal and classical groups of patients were similar in appearance and distribution, except that the optic-spinal MS patients have fewer brain but longer and more severe spinal cord lesions. In conclusion, the brain and spinal cord MRI of Asian patients with MS was similar to that of the West, although, in this study, Asian MS patients had larger spinal cord lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  15. Viswanathan S, Botross N, Rusli BN, Riad A
    Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2016 Nov;10:112-115.
    PMID: 27919476 DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2016.10.001
    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid
  16. Schee JP, Viswanathan S
    Mult. Scler., 2018 May 01.
    PMID: 29771191 DOI: 10.1177/1352458518775912
    We identified five female patients retrospectively with relapsing short-segment partial myelitis whose clinical and paraclinical features were suggestive of cord involvement of multiple sclerosis (MS)-type albeit not rigidly fulfilling the 2017 McDonald criteria. Notably, these patients had not developed any typical MS-like brain lesions despite repeated neuroimaging assessments over years. Comprehensive work-up for differential diagnoses of MS and other causes of transverse myelitis particularly neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders had been consistently negative on longitudinal follow-up. Thus, we postulate a possible entity of pure spinal MS which may represent a novel forme fruste within the MS disease spectrum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  17. Seah, B.H.A., Tow, S.L.C., Ong, K.C.B. Ong, Yang, C.C., Tsai, C.P., Lee, K.H., et al.
    Neurology Asia, 2017;22(4):341-348.
    Optic neuritis, which may be a precursor to multiple sclerosis (MS), is an uncommon disease in
    Asian patients. The Asian Collaborative Longitudinal Optic Neuritis Epidemiology (ACLONE) is
    an observational cohort study that assessed the risk of recurrent optic neuritis and/or progression
    of further neurologic events, either MS or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Asian patients with firstever
    optic neuritis. Secondary aims were to study the presenting characteristics and visual outcome,
    and to identify risk factors for development of either MS or NMO. A total of 112 patients (25 men
    and 87 women) aged from 12 to 61 years were recruited from Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and
    Malaysia. Of these, 94 (84%) had unilateral optic neuritis, with the right eye involved in 45 patients
    and the left eye in 49 patients and the remaining 18 (16%) had bilateral optic neuritis. Follow up
    data was available for 104 patients, and patients were followed for a median duration of 25.9 months.
    Of these patients, 6 patients were adjudicated to have reached the primary endpoint (composite of
    MS/NMO and optic neuritis): 3 patients with recurrent optic neuritis also subsequently experienced
    neurologic symptoms, and 3 patients without recurrent eye involvement had neurologic symptoms.
    Only one patient was considered to have prototypical MS, the other 5 were diagnosed with NMO,
    all with subsequent antibody confirmation. Optic neuritis in Asian patients has significantly different
    presenting characteristics from the classic description. However, in the majority of the patients it is
    usually a benign disease, with good visual outcome and no further events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  18. Islam, M.R., Muzaimi, M., Abdullah, J.M.
    Orient Neuron Nexus, 2011;2(1):2-9.
    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and plays important roles in both physiological and pathological neuronal processes. Current understanding of the exact mechanisms involved in glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity, in which excessive glutamate causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, whether acute or chronic, remain elusive. Conditions, due to acute insults such as ischaemia and traumatic brain injury, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease, suffer from the lack of translational neuroprotection in clinical setting to tackle glutamate excitotoxicity despite steady growth of animal studies that revealed complex cell death pathway interactions. In addition, glutamates are also released by non-neuronal cells including astrocytes and oligodendroglia. Thus, attempts to elucidate this complexity are closely related to our understanding of the glutamatergic circuitry in the brain. Neuronal cells develop a glutamatergic system at glutamatergic synapses that utilise glutamate as an intercellular signaling molecule to characterise the output, input, and termination of this signaling. As to signal input, various kinds of glutamate receptors have been identified and characterized. Na+-dependent glutamate transporters at the plasma membrane are responsible for the signal termination through sequestration of glutamate from the synaptic cleft. The signal output systems comprise vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of glutamate by using vesicular glutamate transporters. Similar to the mammalian brain, the regional differences of glutamatergic neurons and glutamate receptor neurons suggest many glutamatergic projections in the avian brain, as supported by recent evidence of glutamate-related genes distribution. Glutamatergic target areas are expected to show high activity of glutamate transporters that remove released glutamate from the synaptic clefts. This review summarises and compares glutamatergic circuits in the avian and mammalian brain, particularly in the olfactory pathway, the paffial organization of glutamatergic neurons and connection with the striatum, hippocampal-septal pathway, visual and auditory pathways, and granule cell-Purkinje cell pathway in the cerebellum. Comparative appreciation of these glutamatergic circuits, particularly with the localisation and/or expression of specific subtypes of glutamate transporters, would provide the morphological basis for physiological and pharmacological designs that supplement existing animal studies of the current proposed mechanisms that underlie glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  19. Viswanathan S, Wah LM
    Mult. Scler., 2018 Aug 16.
    PMID: 30113245 DOI: 10.1177/1352458518792430
    OBJECTIVES: This study looked at observed crude prevalence/incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in Malaysia and identified any inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD.

    METHODS: This was a nationwide tertiary hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study using the capture-recapture method. It looked at the estimated crude prevalence of confirmed MS and NMOSD and annual incidence on 29 December 2017. Recapture of data was done between February and March 2018 on 1 March 2018. Public and referring private institutions were accessed.

    RESULTS: The survey identified 767 MS and 545 NMOSD subjects, with crude prevalence rates of 2.73 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53; 2.92 per 100,000 population) and 1.94 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.77; 2.10 per 100,000 population) with observed crude annual incidence of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43; 0.58) for MS and 0.39 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.35; 0.47) for NMOSD. The MS:NMOSD ratios were 1.4:1.0. The capture-recapture method revealed 913 MS (95% CI: 910; 915.9) and 580 (95% CI: 578.8; 581.2) NMOSD with prevalence per 100,000 of 3.26 (95% CI: 3.05; 3.47) and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.90; 2.24), respectively. In the MS group, 59.4% were Malay, 16.6% Chinese, 20.5% Indian, and 3.5% were from indigenous groups. In the NMOSD group, 47.3% were Malay, 46.9% Chinese, 3.5% Indian, and 2.3% were from other indigenous groups. The ratio of NMOSD to MS among the Chinese was 2:1, but the ratio of MS to NMOSD among the Malays was 1.8:1, and that in Indians was 8.3:1.

    CONCLUSION: There is a modest increase in the prevalence of MS and NMOSD in Malaysia with inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
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