Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Chong HT, Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Dec;63(5):356-61.
    PMID: 19803290 MyJurnal
    Multiple sclerosis, although a rare disease in Asia, often presents significant diagnostic challenges to clinicians. There has been rapid advancement in the understanding of the underlying genetic influence, pathophysiology, investigation and treatment recently. This paper reviewed the latest development of various aspects of the disease and examined the differences between the manifestations of Asian and Western patients. The implications of these differences to investigation and treatment were also touched upon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis; Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology*; Multiple Sclerosis/therapy
  2. Muthusamy E, Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):170-2.
    PMID: 3237134
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
  3. Tan CT
    Arch. Neurol., 1988 Jun;45(6):624-7.
    PMID: 3369969
    Thirty consecutive patients from peninsular Malaysia with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were studied; 80% were ethnic Chinese, with a female-male ratio of 5:1. The average age at onset was 29.7 years, with one relapse average every 1.9 years. Optic-spinal recurrence was the most common clinical pattern of the disease, accounting for 63.3% (19/30) of the cases. All the patients had spinal cord involvement sometime during the course of the illness. The mortality was high at 36.7% (11/30), with an average duration of symptoms of 7.6 years. There was characteristic severe residual visual and motor disability. At the time of the last examination, 12 patients had bilateral optic atrophy with blindness or severe visual acuity impairment. Sixteen patients were bedridden or confined to a wheelchair. The severe motor disability reflected the severe spinal cord involvement. It was the main factor that accounted for the high mortality. The cerebral, cerebellar, and brain-stem involvements were, however, generally transient. None of the patients' had a family history of similar illness despite the average sibling size of six. There was no example of Devic's disease. The clinical pattern was closest to those patients who presented from Taiwan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/complications*; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology
  4. Ramli N, Rahmat K, Azmi K, Chong HT
    J Clin Neurosci, 2010 Apr;17(4):422-7.
    PMID: 20167498 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2009.09.014
    Despite technological advances in imaging, multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a clinical diagnosis that is supported, but not replaced, by laboratory or imaging findings. However, imaging is essential in the current diagnostic criteria of MS, for prediction of the likelihood of MS for patients with clinically isolated syndromes, correlation with lesion pathology and assessment of treatment outcome. This article gives an overview of imaging in MS with particular emphasis on the role of MRI in various diagnostic imaging criteria. Novel imaging for MS using 3 Tesla field strengths, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cell-specific contrast will be reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  5. Arumugasamy N
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Sep;24(1):45-8.
    PMID: 4243843
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  6. Zahiri N, Abollahi I, Nabavi SM, Ehsani F, Arab AM, Shaw I, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(1):69-80.
    PMID: 28381930 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.1.8
    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most widespread disabling neurological condition in young adults around the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of explicit information (EI) on motor-sequence learning in MS patients.

    METHODS: Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), age: 29.5 (SD = 5.6) years and 30 healthy gender-, age-, and education-matched control group participants, age: 28.8 (SD = 6.0) years, were recruited for this study. The participants in the healthy group were then randomly assigned into an EI (n = 15) group and a no-EI (n = 15) group. Similarly, the participants in the control group were then randomly assigned into EI (n = 15) and no-EI (n = 15) groups. The participants performed a serial reaction time (SRT) task and reaction times. A retention test was performed after 48 hours.

    RESULTS: All participants reduced their reaction times across acquisition (MS group: 46.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001, and healthy group: 39.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001). The findings for the within-participants effect of repeated measures of time were significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 71.33. P < 0.001). These results indicate that the interaction between group and time was significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 6.44. P < 0.001), which indicated that the reaction time in both groups was significantly changed between the MS and healthy groups across times (B1 to B10). The main effect of the group (MS and healthy) (F(1, 56) = 22.78. P < 0.001) and also the main effect of no-EI vs EI (F(1, 56) = 4.71. P < 0.001) were significant.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that that RRMS patients are capable of learning new skills, but the provision of EI prior to physical practice is deleterious to implicit learning. It is sufficient to educate MS patients on the aim and general content of the training and only to provide feedback at the end of the rehabilitative session.

    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis; Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting
  7. Vijayasingham L, Mairami FF
    PMID: 30050385 DOI: 10.2147/DNND.S131729
    Patients with multiple sclerosis tend to report higher levels of work difficulties and negative outcomes, such as voluntary and involuntary work termination and reduced work participation. In this article, we discuss the complex interactions of disease, personal coping strategies, and social and structural factors that contribute to their work experiences and outcomes. An overview of the coping strategies and actions that leverage personal and context-level factors and dynamics is also provided to support the overall goal of continued work in patients with MS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  8. Tan CT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):68-73.
    PMID: 8057994
    This is a study of 13 Malaysian patients with clinically definite Multiple sclerosis (MS) subjected to a hot bath test with VEPs, BAEPs, median nerve SSEPs before and after heating. Five patients (38%) developed neurological changes with the rise in body temperature. There was an average of 0.46 new sign per patient. Four patients had motor disturbances attributed mainly to aggravation of spinal cord dysfunction. Two patients had additional visual deterioration, one patient has associated VEP change. This study shows that though Uhthoff's phenomenon has not been noted in the reports of Asian MS patients, when subjected to rigorous testing, Asian MS patients also show sensitivity to body temperature change. However, the percentage of positivity of the hot bath test is much lower than that reported for Caucasians. Thus this study shows further differences between Asian and Caucasian MS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/genetics; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology; Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology*
  9. Tan CT, Leong S
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Dec;33(6):575-80.
    PMID: 1488664
    A study of visual evoked potential (VEP), brainstem evoked potential (BAEP) and median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) in 26 Malaysian patients with clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This study showed an overall high rate of abnormality, with 85% of patients for VEP, 31% for BAEP and 65% for median nerve SSEP. The rate of abnormality was particularly high for patients who were symptomatic, reaching 100% of patients for VEP, 50% of patients in BAEP, 83% of nerves for median nerve SSEP. The rate of abnormality among those who were asymptomatic was lower, varying from 32% of eyes in VEP, 27% of patients in BAEP and 31% of nerves in median nerve SSEP. Three out of 10 patients with optic spinal form of MS have abnormal BAEP. These show the usefulness of the evoked potential studies in confirming the clinical lesions as well as demonstrating subclinical involvement. The rate of abnormal evoked responses for the asymptomatic patients in this study is generally lower than that published elsewhere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology*
  10. Tan CT
    Aust N Z J Med, 1989 Aug;19(4):297-302.
    PMID: 2783084
    Fifty-four per cent of 52 patients presenting to the University of Malaya Medical Centre with a myelopathy for which appropriate investigations uncovered no definite etiology, subsequently developed clinically definite or probable multiple sclerosis. In the subgroup of patients with a presentation indicative of acute/subacute transverse myelopathy, 14 or 52% also went on to develop clinically definite or probable multiple sclerosis, a far higher proportion than previously recorded in the literature. This finding is probably a further manifestation of racial difference in the behaviour of multiple sclerosis. For the group as a whole, the only factor which appeared to be associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis was female sex; 67% of 33 female patients went on to develop multiple sclerosis after a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years. Other factors such as age of onset, racial composition, level of spinal cord involvement, presence of fever and CSF finding were found not to be important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/complications; Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis*; Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology
  11. Cheong WL, Mohan D, Warren N, Reidpath DD
    Front Neurol, 2018;9:432.
    PMID: 29937752 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00432
    Background: Multiple sclerosis is thought to be relatively uncommon in the Asia Pacific region with prevalence estimated between 0 and 20 per 100,000. There is reason to doubt these estimates due to the lack of data from many countries and the growing evidence of variability in prevalence across small geographic areas. This study was conducted to systematically review the population prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability progression estimates of MS within the Asia Pacific region. Methods: The systematic review was conducted on articles from 1985 till 31st July 2017 within the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library databases. The review included articles that were population-based studies conducted on patients with MS in the Asia Pacific region that reported either incidence, prevalence, mortality, or disease progression. Hospital-based studies and non-research articles were excluded to ensure that only information representative of the population was included for analysis. Data appraisal and extraction was done by independent reviewers. This review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42017082760). Findings: Of the 2,757 articles found, 16 studies were included. Information on 6 (18.75%) of 32 Asia Pacific countries was found, with data representing 8% of the total population. Prevalence estimates were available for 6 countries while estimates for incidence (3 countries), mortality (4 countries), and disease progression (2 countries) were limited. Interpretation: The lack of epidemiological data available in the Asia Pacific region creates a blind spot in the surveillance of MS which obscures the true burden of MS, causing patients to struggle to receive the resources and funding that they need.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  12. Tan CT, Abdullah D, Zakariya AH
    Neuroradiology, 1991;33(6):494-8.
    PMID: 1780049
    A study of 12 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) using high dose infusion CT showed overall abnormality of 75% with an average of 2.5 lesions per patient. 75% of the patients showed abnormality of the cerebrum, mostly asymptomatic. The main changes were ventricular dilatation and asymmetry, isolated or generalized cerebral atrophy, areas of low attenuation mainly in the deeper parts of the cerebrum and the peri-ventricular area. 25% of the patients showed changes in the brainstem and none was seen in the cerebellum. The abnormality was more florid in patients with clinically disseminated forms of the disease. The study demonstrated that asymptomatic cerebral involvement is common among Asian patients with MS and CT is a useful tool in the overall assessment and diagnosis of Asian MS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology; Multiple Sclerosis/pathology
  13. Thumboo J, Seah A, Tan CT, Singhal BS, Ong B
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2011 Feb;40(2):67-73.
    PMID: 21468459
    The Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL) is a self-administered, multi-dimensional, patient-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. With increasing prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asian countries, a valid tool to assess HRQoL in those patients is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient acceptability, content validity and psychometric properties of an Asian version of the English MusiQoL in Singapore, Malaysia and India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy; Multiple Sclerosis/psychology*
  14. Viswanathan S, Rose N, Arip M, Chai CH, Law WC, Sim R, et al.
    Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2018 Oct;25:300-308.
    PMID: 30172173 DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.07.003
    We performed a retrospective observational analytical study looking at the frequencies and characteristics of multiple sclerosis(MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders(NMOSD) in consecutive patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDDs) attending three centers (2009-2017). Of 523 patients with IIDDs, there were 173 patients with NMOSD and 230 patients with MS. The percentage of NMOSD: IIDDs was 33%. The percentage of NMOSD:Total MS and NMOSD cohort was 43%. Of 141 seropositive NMOSD patients, 134(95%) were from the three main ethnic groups. The percentage of seropositive NMOSD to IIDDs and to combined MS and NMOSD was 26.9% and 35% respectively. Ratios of MS to NMOSD were nearly equal at 1.3 to 1.0, reinforcing the high ratio of NMOSD to MS in Asia. Nearly half of the Chinese cohort were seropositive ie; 71/141 (50%) with the remainder being Malays; 56/141 (39.7%) and Indians; 7/141 (5%). Amongst the other indigenous groups seropositivity was seen in 2 each of Iban, Bajau, Kadazan descent as well as one of Bidayuh origin. Comparatively, seropositivity in NMOSD is commoner amongst the Chinese compared to the Malays (p ≤ 0.005) and Indians, p ≤ 0.05 with ratios as high as 10:1. In the MS group of 230 subjects, 123(53.5%) were Malays (ratio of MS:NMOSD of 2:1), 41(17.8%) were Chinese, (ratio of MS:NMOSD of 0.5:1.0) and 54 (23.5%)were Indians (ratios of MS:NMOSD of 5:1 amongst the Indians). The remainder from East Malaysia were made up of 2 each of Kadazans, Ibans and Bajaus including 3 each of Bidayuh and Eurasian descent. Comparatively, in the NMOSD and MS cohorts a female preponderance was noted more so amongst Chinese NMOSD patients, with rare familial occurrence in both but more in Malay MS/NMOSD patients. This study also highlighted some of the inter-ethnic differences in presentation of MS and NMOSD amongst the 3 main ethnic races in Malaysia and confirms indigenous races having MS/NMOSD which needs further research. It also reviewed current literature on similar inter-ethnic differences world wide. To conclude, MS and NMOSD are the commonest demyelinating diseases seen in Malaysia with interesting inter-ethnic differences and similarities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/ethnology*; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology*
  15. Miyaji K, Paul F, Shahrizaila N, Umapathi T, Yuki N
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2016 Feb 15;291:78-81.
    PMID: 26857499 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.12.012
    Tetraspanin family proteins, CD9, CD81 and CD82 are expressed in the oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. We investigated autoantibodies to tetraspanin proteins in patients with demyelinating diseases. Sera were collected from 119 multiple sclerosis patients, 19 neuromyelitis optica, 42 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 23 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and 13 acute motor axonal neuropathy as well as 55 healthy controls. Few multiple sclerosis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients had autoantibodies that were weakly reactive to CD9 or CD81 but the significance is unclear. It is unlikely that these autoantibodies are pathogenic or serve as potential biomarkers in demyelinating diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/blood*
  16. Chong HT, Ramli N, Lee KH, Kim BJ, Ursekar M, Dayananda K, et al.
    Can J Neurol Sci, 2006 Feb;33(1):95-100.
    PMID: 16583730
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is the most important paraclinical diagnostic test in multiple sclerosis (MS). The appearance of MRI in Asians with MS is not well defined. We retrospectively surveyed the first brain and spinal cord MRI in patients diagnosed to have MS, according to Poser's criteria in seven regions throughout Asia to define the MRI changes among Asians with MS. There were 101 patients with first brain, and 86 with first spinal cord MRI, 66 of whom had both. The brain MRI showed a mean of 17 lesions per patient in T2 weighted images, mostly asymptomatic. Almost all the lesions were in the white matter, particularly in the juxtacortical, deep and periventricular white matter. A third of the lesions were greater than 5 mm, 14% enhanced with gadolinium. There were more supratentorial than infratentorial lesions at a ratio of 7.5: 1. Ninety five percent of the spinal cord lesions were in cervical and thoracic regions, 34% enhanced with gadolinium. The lesions extended over a mean of 3.6 +/- 3.3 vertebral bodies in length. Fifty (50%) of the brain and 54 (63%) of the spinal MRI patients had the optic-spinal form of MS. The MRI of the optic-spinal and classical groups of patients were similar in appearance and distribution, except that the optic-spinal MS patients have fewer brain but longer and more severe spinal cord lesions. In conclusion, the brain and spinal cord MRI of Asian patients with MS was similar to that of the West, although, in this study, Asian MS patients had larger spinal cord lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/pathology*
  17. Viswanathan S, Botross N, Rusli BN, Riad A
    Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2016 Nov;10:112-115.
    PMID: 27919476 DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2016.10.001
    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid
  18. Rovina K, Siddiquee S, Shaarani SM
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:798.
    PMID: 27303385 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00798
    Allura Red AC (E129) is an azo dye that widely used in drinks, juices, bakery, meat, and sweets products. High consumption of Allura Red has claimed an adverse effects of human health including allergies, food intolerance, cancer, multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain damage, nausea, cardiac disease and asthma due to the reaction of aromatic azo compounds (R = R' = aromatic). Several countries have banned and strictly controlled the uses of Allura Red in food and beverage products. This review paper is critically summarized on the available analytical and advanced methods for determination of Allura Red and also concisely discussed on the acceptable daily intake, toxicology and extraction methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
  19. Kuan TLT, Amini F, Seghayat MS
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Jul;20(7):729-738.
    PMID: 28852436 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9000
    Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system. It affects people of all ages but is more prevalent among 20-40 year olds. Patients with MS can be presented with potentially any neurological symptom depending on the location of the lesion. A quarter of patients with MS suffer from bilateral lower limb spasticity among other symptoms. These devastating effects can be detrimental to the patient's quality of life. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been used as a treatment for MS over the past 2 decades but their safety and efficacy has are undetermined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of autologous HSCs transplantation in MS. A literature search was done from 1997 to 2016 using different keywords. A total of 9 articles, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in this review. The type of conditioning regimen and technique of stem cell mobilization are summarized and compared in this study. All studies reported high-dose immunosuppressive therapy with autologous HSCs transplantation being an effective treatment option for severe cases of multiple sclerosis. Fever, sepsis, and immunosuppression side effects were the most observed adverse effects that were reported in the selected studies. HSCs is a feasible treatment for patients with MS; nevertheless the safety is still a concern due to chemo toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Multiple Sclerosis
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