CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case report of a parapharyngeal space mass that was found to be pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland, their clinical presentation, radiological imaging and literature review of the transoral surgical approaches for parapharyngeal tumour.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The transoral approach remains one of the classical and effective methods for the resection of the benign prestyloid parapharyngeal tumour. The surgeons need to have a good knowledge of diagnostic imaging and surgical techniques to determine which surgical procedure is the best for the patients in order to eradicate the diseases and minimize the complications ultimately.
CASE REPORT: Here we report an unusual case of surgical subcutaneous emphysema after multiple attempts of purging to remove an ingested fishbone. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Fishbone foreign body is a common presentation to the ED. A thorough history and examination for the migratory foreign body is essential, as the complications are consequential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral biopsies (n = 44) were scanned using the swept source OCT (SSOCT) and grouped by pathology diagnosis to benign, dysplasia or carcinoma. Two trained and calibrated assessors scored on the five OCT variables: thickness of keratin layer (KL), epithelial layer (EL), homogeneity of lamina propria (LP), basement membrane integrity (BMI), and the degree of reflection of the epithelial layer (Ep Re). Chi-square tests and Fischer's exact method were used to compare the data.
RESULTS: The OCT images showed breached BM status in all the OSCC samples (100%). Epithelial reflection was noted to be hyper-reflective in all the OSCC and oral dysplasia samples (100%). An increase in KL in 66.67% of the OSCC and 100% of the oral dysplasia samples was found. EL was increased in all the OSCC samples (100%) and 85.72% of the oral dysplasias. Kappa values showed that there was very good agreement (over 0.7) when scoring individual parameters between the two assessors.
CONCLUSION: The study showed that the BM status was a key parameter in the detection of SCC and for differentiating SCC from oral dysplasia or benign disorders.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: OCT is a non-invasive and non-radioactive adjunct diagnostic tool that can provide immediate results on the structure of oral mucosa. The BM status measured ex vivo was a key parameter in the detection of SCC and for differentiating SCC from oral dysplasia or benign disorders.