MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.
CONCLUSIONS: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.
METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of Plasmodium species by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films, and PCR. Moreover, demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.
RESULTS: A total of 334 (60.6 %) participants were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. The prevalence differed significantly by age group (p Nigeria. Despite high levels of knowledge and attitudes in the study area, significant gaps persist in appropriate preventive practices, particularly the use of ITNs. Innovative and Integrated control measures to reduce the burden of malaria should be identified and implemented in these communities. Community mobilization and health education regarding the importance of using ITNs to prevent malaria and save lives should be considered.
METHOD: Electronic search (PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar) was conducted using the following search terms: "MRSA OR Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus AND Nigeria." Reference list of selected studies was scanned to identify more studies. Studies published between 2007 and 2017 that tested at least 30 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were selected. An independent reviewer extracted data from the studies using a standardized form.
RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this review. Overall, prevalence of MRSA infection increased from 18.3% (2009) to 42.3% (2013). The prevalence of MRSA infection was less than 50% in all the regions during the period under review. There was a decline in the prevalence of MRSA infection in the North-East (from 12.5% to 8.0%) between 2007 and 2012, and an increase in the South-West (from 20.2% to 47.4%) between 2006 and 2010. Wound, blood and urine specimens had the highest proportion of MRSA isolates. Non-susceptibility of MRSA strains to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was greater than 85%.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of MRSA infection in Nigeria is rising, albeit regional variations. Non-susceptibility to commonly prescribed, orally available and inexpensive antibiotics was high. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance system, infection control, and antimicrobial stewardship interventions are recommended.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement.
METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano. A total of 761 consenting adults attending ART clinic were randomly selected and recruited between June and December 2015. Participants' characteristics and clinical details including two previous CD4 counts were collected. Venous blood sample (4ml) was collected in EDTA tube for malaria parasite diagnosis by rapid test and confirmed with microscopy. Hematological profiles were analyzed by Sysmex XP-300 and CD4 count by Cyflow cytometry. Data was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using Chi-Square test for association between HIV/malaria parasites co-infection with age groups, gender, ART, cotrimoxazole and usage of treated bed nets. Mean hematological profiles by HIV/malaria co-infection and HIV only were compared using independent t-test and mean CD4 count tested by mixed design repeated measures ANOVA. Statistical significant difference at probability of <0.05 was considered for all variables.
RESULTS: Of the 761 HIV infected, 64% were females, with a mean age of ± (SD) 37.30 (10.4) years. Prevalence of HIV/malaria co-infection was 27.7% with Plasmodium falciparum specie accounting for 99.1%. No statistical significant difference was observed between HIV/malaria co-infection in association to age (p = 0.498) and gender (p = 0.789). A significantly (p = 0.026) higher prevalence (35.2%) of co-infection was observed among non-ART patients compared to (26%) ART patients. Prevalence of co-infection was significantly lower (20.0%) among cotrimoxazole users compared to those not on cotrimoxazole (37%). The same significantly lower co-infection prevalence (22.5%) was observed among treated bed net users compared to those not using treated bed nets (42.9%) (p = 0.001). Out of 16 hematology profiles evaluated, six showed significant difference between the two groups (i) packed cell volume (p = <0.001), (ii) mean cell volume (p = 0.005), (iii) mean cell hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.011), (iv) absolute lymphocyte count (p = 0.022), (v) neutrophil percentage count (p = 0.020) and (vi) platelets distribution width (p = <0.001). Current mean CD4 count cell/μl (349±12) was significantly higher in HIV infected only compared to co-infected (306±17), (p = 0.035). A significantly lower mean CD4 count (234.6 ± 6.9) was observed among respondents on ART compared to non-ART (372.5 ± 13.2), p<0.001, mean difference = -137.9).
CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high burden of HIV and malaria co-infection among the studied population. Co-infection was significantly lower among patients who use treated bed nets as well as cotrimoxazole chemotherapy and ART. Six hematological indices differed significantly between the two groups. Malaria and HIV co-infection significantly reduces CD4 count. In general, to achieve better management of all HIV patients in this setting, diagnosing malaria, prompt antiretroviral therapy, monitoring CD4 and some hematology indices on regular basis is critical.
Aim: This study aims to present the status and use of TM and determine the factors associated with its use among patients with HIV/AIDS on highly active ART in a tertiary health institution in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving HIV/AIDS patients attending antiretroviral treatment center of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria. The study population comprised PLWHAs attending the ART clinic of the hospital (UDUTH). A total of 271 respondents were recruited into the study and administered a set of pretested structured questionnaire. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the ethical committee of the teaching hospital.
Results: Only 11 (4.2%) of the respondents had used TM before, of whom 9 (5%) were females and 2 (2.7%) were males with P = 0.399. Only one of the respondents had side effects following the use of TM, and the most common reason for the use of TM was as a result of too much weight loss.
Conclusion: Although the use of TM among the study participants in Sokoto was low, there is need to educate PLWHAs about the possible risks of interactions following the concurrent use of TM and ART.
METHODS: This was a randomized controlled parallel-group trial in which 372 antenatal care attendees were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group after collecting baseline data using a structured questionnaire. The intervention group received a 4-h health education on malaria, guided by a module developed based on the IMB theory, while the control group received health education on breastfeeding for a similar duration and by the same facilitator. Follow-up data were subsequently collected at 2 months and at 4 months post-intervention using the same questionnaire. The generalized linear mixed models analysis was used to determine the between-group and within-group effects of the intervention. The intention-to-treat analysis was used after missing data had been replaced. This was followed by a sensitivity analysis, where the analyses were repeated without replacing the missing values.
RESULTS: The intervention was significant in achieving a 12.75% (p