Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a very common condition seen in children, and is the commonest cause of hearing loss in an infant. It is also a fairly common condition encountered by the family practitioner, and often the family practitioner is the first doctor the parents bring the child to. Otitis media with effusion is a simple condition but, if left undiagnosed or untreated, can lead to preventable long-term consequences. Hence, a high index of suspicion is necessary, early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, with close follow-up is of essence. The epidemiology, aetiological factors, clinical presentations, diagnosis, various medical and surgical options, cost-effectiveness of therapy and the impact of OME on the child's development are discussed.
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/diagnosis*; Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology; Otitis Media with Effusion/therapy*
Although the incidence of complications of otitis media that require surgical interventions has decreased substantially over the past few years, it is a prevailing condition for which clinicians should remain vigilant.
Objective: We report a method of inserting a T-tube.
Method: A 14-G branula and a T-tube are used.
Results: This method was found to be simple and required few instruments.
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this method has not previously been reported
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery*
Otitis media with effusion is one of the most common childhood infections, and grommet insertions are done for chronic otitis media which have failed medical therapy. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the patient profile of children needing grommet insertion and 2) to determine if grommet insertion is safe and effective. A retrospective review of 105 children with myringotomy and grommet insertions for chronic otitis media with effusion between 2006 and 2008 was performed. Seventy two percent of patients were younger than 6 years old. Male to female ratio was 4:3. Twelve percent of patients were syndromic. In children with otitis media with effusion, hearing and academic performance improved after grommet insertion. Allergic rhinitis and cleft palate are risk factors for chronic middle ear effusion.
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/diagnosis; Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology; Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery*
We present a case of cervical necrotising fasciitis in a 56 year old man, secondary to a rare mastoid infection. The patient had coexisting diabetes mellitus and hypertension. He was treated with early surgical debridement followed by neck and chest reconstruction and radical mastoidectomy. Aggressive antibiotic therapy and supportive care was given. He recovered well with minimal residual functional deficit.
For a complete overall rehabilitation of cleft palate patients a multi-disciplinary approach should be adopted. Plastic and Head and Neck Surgeons in whom most of the treatment are entrusted should be concerned not only at achieving palatal function and cosmetic acceptability but also the various other problems associated with cleft palate especially hearing loss. In this study, 66 patients with repaired and unrepaired cleft palates were examined for the presence of hearing loss due to middle ear effusion. The incidence of middle ear effusion was high (57.6%). It was also found that only eight of these patients (12.1%) ever complained of hearing loss or any associated symptoms and repair of the cleft palate did not influence the incidence of middle ear effusion. As such, screening should be done in all cleft palates and otolaryngologists should therefore play an important role in the multi-disciplinary team which should comprise the paediatrician, plastic surgeon, speech therapist, orthodontist and dental specialist.
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology*; Otitis Media with Effusion/epidemiology; Otitis Media with Effusion/therapy
Otitis media is a common disease encountered in the primary practice. Most cases are successfully treated with antibiotics without any sequelae. Because of these, potential serious complications of otitis media may be overlooked. We report a rare case of Bezold's abscess, as a complication of otitis media and discuss its pathophysiology and management.
Dural exposure may occur during the course of thinning the tegmen tympani and tegmen mastoideum in mastoid procedure. If large area of dura is exposed or lacerated, cerebrospinal fluid and brain herniation may enter the mastoid cavity. We report a case of a patient with injured dura mater and tegmen mastoideum during mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma managed by using DuraGen. The dura mater and tegmen defect healed totally showing the success of the procedure. A collagen matrix like DuraGen is an option for repairing dural tear in mastoid region.
Increasing concern about the antibiotic resistance in acute otitis media (AOM) has led to debate over use of antibiotic in AOM and duration of therapy. Many studies have proved that watchful waiting should be used more often for acute otitis media. In children over two years, the most appropriate treatment was found to be initial observation followed by 5 days of an antibiotic if the child failed to improve spontaneously. In children less than 2 years or one with severe symptoms antibiotic can be started after 24 hours if there is no improvement with symptomatic treatment. Physician should be more selective in the prescription of antibiotics early in AOM.
A simple, safe and effective procedure for improving the bacterial isolation in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is described. It is most useful for the isolation of aerobes as well as anaerobes from the middle ear.
In Malaysia 1,307 randomly selected primary school children were screened to find out the prevalence of hearing loss and middle ear disorders. Seventy-six students (5.81%) failed the screening audiometric test. There were 95 students (7.26%) with middle ear disorders. History of ear discharge was absent in 24 out of 57 cases with CSOM (42.11%) (P less than 0.001). Forty-three out of 95 children having middle ear disorders passed the screening audiometric test (P less than 0.01 Fisher exact test). Screening audiometric test fails to detect about 46% of cases with middle ear disorders. Screening audiometric test and otological examination if conducted by the school health medical officers regularly will be able to detect almost all the cases with hearing loss and middle ear disorders.
Acute mastoid abscess is common in daily practice. In children, it is usually caused by unsuccessful treatment or partially treated acute otitis media (AOM). Some authors had reported that chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) can be the source of infection but it is usually associated with the presence of cholesteatoma. A case of an acute mastoid abscess in a 7 year old girl is presented. She had a history of severe otalgia with left post auricular swelling for 3 days. Clinically she was febrile, the left otoscopy showed diffuse post auricular swelling and sagging of the posterior wall of the external canal. She underwent an emergency cortical mastoidectomy for the left mastoid abscess and had an uneventful recovery. In conclusion, this patient was partially treated with antibiotics which increased the risk for ‘masked mastoiditis’, and she later developed a mastoid abscess. Therefore we advocate that all AOM patients should be treated with antibiotics at least for a duration of one week.
A canal wall down mastoidectomy (CWDM) is an effective technique for eradication of advanced chronic otitis media or cholesteatomas. A retrospective study was conducted at a Malaysian Tertiary Medical Center between June 1996 to December 2003 to evaluate the outcome of Modified Radical Mastoidectomy(MRM), a form of CWDM for patients with chronic active otitis media (OM) with cholesteatoma, chronic mastoiditis or chronic active OM with cholesteatoma and mastoiditis. All new cases of MRM which fulfilled the selection criteria were reviewed. The main outcome measures were the hearing outcome and status of dry ear postoperatively. A total of 84 patients had undergone CWDM. However only 63 patients (26 male, 37 female) were included for analysis. The age of the patients ranged between 5 months to 72 years (mean, 31years). The majority of the patients (86%) were adults and 9 (14%) were children. The ossicular chain was eroded in 91% (57 cases). There were 33 patients (53%) who showed no improvement of Air Bone Gap (ABG) closure while 16 patients (25%) had a post-operative improvement. The presence or absence of stapes suprastructure was found to be the major factor in determining the amount of ABG (Chi squared test, P = 0.025 preoperatively and P = 0.031 postoperatively). A dry ear was achieved in 78% of patients with 3% recurrence rate. In conclusion, the study showed that a proper MRM gave high percentage of dry ear and this procedure did not worsen the hearing.
Otitis media is a common disease presenting to family practitioners all over the world. There have been many changes in the way these patients were managed over the years. This article attempts to provide an overview to family physicians regarding the latest approach in managing this common condition. Keywords: Otitis, otitis media, otoscopy, eardrops.
INTRODUCTION: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an inflammation of the middle ear in which a collection of liquid is present in the middle-ear space while the tympanic membrane is intact. The association between adenoid inflammation and OME has long been noted but the exact mechanism is still much debated. We studied the role of adenoid mast cells in the causation of OME.
OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and role of adenoid mast cells in the causation of OME.
METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, prospective study was carried out in the otorhinolaryngologic clinic, department of otorhinolaryngology (ORL), Science University of Malaysia, from June 1999 to September 2001. A total number of 50 cases were studied. Twenty-five of these patients underwent adenoidectomy, while another 25 patients underwent adenoidectomy and myringotomy with ventilation tube insertion. The adenoid specimens from all patients were examined for the number of adenoid mast cells present, using light microscopy and toluidine blue as the staining agent. The results were analysed using SPSS version 10.0 computer software.
RESULT: The population of adenoid mast cells in children with OME was significantly greater than that in children without OME (p=0.000).
CONCLUSION: The increased number of adenoid mast cells in patients with OME suggests that inflammation may play a role in this condition.
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology; Otitis Media with Effusion/pathology*
A cross-sectional screening test was done to determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion amongst, preschool children in two district in Malaysia, namely Kuala Lumpur an urban district and Kuala Selangor a rural district. It involved 1097 preschool children aged between 5 and 6 years old. Presence of otitis media effusion (OME) is based on abnormal otoscopic finding, Type B tympanogram and absence of ipsilateral acoustical reflex. The overall prevalence rate of OME was 13.8%. The prevalence in Kuala Lumpur was 17.9%, while in Kuala Selangor it was 9.48%. Bottle feeding during infancy and high socioeconomic status of the parents was statistically associated with higher incidence of OME. Other factors such as race, premature delivery, passive smoking, allergy, asthma and family size, had no influence on the prevalence of otitis media with effusion.
Matched MeSH terms: Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology; Otitis Media with Effusion/epidemiology*
Conservative medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important step in achieving a dry ear. Topical antibiotic ear drops and aural toilet form the mainstay of medical management of noncholesteatomatous CSOM. This study analyzes the causal organisms and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Out of 382 swabs examined, the major organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.6%). The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was 100% to ceftazidime, 98.9% to ciprofloxacin, 96.3% to gentamicin, and 95.4% to polymyxin B, whereas the sensitivity of S. aureus was 98.6% to ciprofloxacin, 97.4% to cloxacillin sodium, 96.5% to cotrimoxazole, and 90.7% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (97.6%) and chloramphenicol (96.6%), whereas S. aureus was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (73.8%) and polymyxin B (98.3%). Among the available topical antibiotic preparations for use in the ear, we found that ciprofloxacin and gentamicin are the best choices.
Discharging ear is a common symptom in the primary care and private general clinics. Most of the cases are treated with the antibiotic ear drops for otitis externa or otitis media. However, despite an adequate standard therapy, a malignant tumour can also be present with non-specific symptom such as ear discharge, especially in the case of persistent ear discharge. In this paper we have reported a case of an adult woman presented with non-resolving ear discharge who was treated repeatedly with antibiotic ear drop, which was later diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma.