Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Molina-Acevedo IC, Idris I
    Zootaxa, 2020 Jul 15;4816(1):zootaxa.4816.1.1.
    PMID: 33055711 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4816.1.1
    Marphysa sanguinea Montagu, 1813, the type species of genus Marphysa, was described with few characteristics and subsequently reported in tropical and temperate waters as a cosmopolitan species. Recent comparative studies have shown that M. sanguinea has a limited distribution to the Northeast Atlantic. As a result, species from the tropical and subtropical zones are now being redescribed as new species. However, this issue is not completely resolved because of the taxonomic status of seven nominal species, considered as junior synonymies of M. sanguinea. Herein, we examined the type and additional materials from five species in synonymy M. sanguinea and performed a compared analysis with the neotype of M. sanguinea. Additionally, we reviewed specimens from two localities in the mid-Pacific Ocean and the Adriatic Sea, where M. sanguinea was previously reported. As a result of this study, three species were reinstated (M. californica Moore, 1909, M. leidii de Quatrefages, 1866, and M. parishii Baird, 1869) and two subspecies, are now raised to species level (M. americana n. status and M. brevibranchiata n. status). In addition, two new species from Hawaii and Croatia are described: M. baileybrockae n. sp. and M. birgeri n. sp., respectively. Morphological comparisons with most species currently assigned to the M. sanguinea complex are presented. This work provides more support for rejecting the hypothesis that M. sanguinea is a cosmopolitan species and we encourage the use of novel and traditional morphological characters to differentiate species within the complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  2. Baird AH, Guest JR, Edwards AJ, Bauman AG, Bouwmeester J, Mera H, et al.
    Sci Data, 2021 01 29;8(1):35.
    PMID: 33514754 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-020-00793-8
    The discovery of multi-species synchronous spawning of scleractinian corals on the Great Barrier Reef in the 1980s stimulated an extraordinary effort to document spawning times in other parts of the globe. Unfortunately, most of these data remain unpublished which limits our understanding of regional and global reproductive patterns. The Coral Spawning Database (CSD) collates much of these disparate data into a single place. The CSD includes 6178 observations (3085 of which were unpublished) of the time or day of spawning for over 300 scleractinian species in 61 genera from 101 sites in the Indo-Pacific. The goal of the CSD is to provide open access to coral spawning data to accelerate our understanding of coral reproductive biology and to provide a baseline against which to evaluate any future changes in reproductive phenology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  3. Kron T, Healy B, Ng KH
    Phys Med, 2016 Jul;32(7):883-8.
    PMID: 27320695 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2016.06.001
    OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to assess and track work load, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific Region over time.

    METHODS: A structured questionnaire was mailed in 2008, 2011 and 2014 to senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. The questionnaire covers 7 themes: education and training including certification; staffing; typical tasks; professional organisations; resources; research and teaching; job satisfaction.

    RESULTS: Across all surveys the response rate was >85% with the replies representing practice affecting more than half of the world's population. The expectation of ROMP qualifications (MSc and between 1 and 3years of clinical experience) has not changed much over the years. However, compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. Formal professional certification is only available in a small number of countries. The number of experienced ROMPs is small in particular in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff numbers from 2008 to 2014 is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units which is accompanied by an increase in treatment complexity. Many ROMPs are required to work overtime and not many find time for research. Resource availability has only improved marginally and ROMPs still feel generally overworked, but professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving slowly.

    CONCLUSION: While number of physicists and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased significantly, ROMP practice remains essentially unchanged over the last 6years in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  4. Arai T
    Ecol Evol, 2014 Oct;4(19):3812-9.
    PMID: 25614795 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1245
    Freshwater eels have fascinated biologists for centuries due to the spectacular long-distance migrations between the eels' freshwater habitats and their spawning areas far out in the ocean and the mysteries of their ecology. The spawning areas of Atlantic eels and Japanese eel were located far offshore in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively, and their reproduction took place thousands of kilometers away from their growth habitats. Phylogenetic studies have revealed that freshwater eels originated in the Indonesian region. However, remarkably little is known about the life histories of tropical freshwater eels despite the fact that tropical eels are key to understanding the nature of primitive forms of catadromous migration. This study found spawning-condition tropical freshwater eels in Lake Poso, central Sulawesi, Indonesia, with considerably high gonadosomatic index values and with histologically fully developed gonads. This study provides the first evidence that under certain conditions, freshwater eels have conditions that are immediately able to spawn even in river downstream. The results suggest that, in contrast to the migrations made by the Atlantic and Japanese eels, freshwater eels originally migrated only short distances of <100 kilometers to local spawning areas adjacent to their freshwater growth habitats. Ancestral eels most likely underwent a catadromous migration from local short-distance movements in tropical coastal waters to the long-distance migrations characteristic of present-day temperate eels, which has been well established as occurring in subtropical gyres in both hemispheres.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  5. Oettli P, Behera SK, Yamagata T
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 02;8(1):2271.
    PMID: 29396527 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-20298-0
    The influence of local conditions and remote climate modes on the interannual variability of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) total yields in Malaysia and two major regions (Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah/Sarawak) is explored. On a country scale, the state of sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific Ocean during the previous boreal winter is found to influence the regional climate. When El Niño occurs in the Pacific Ocean, rainfall in Malaysia reduces but air temperature increases, generating a high level of water stress for palm trees. As a result, the yearly production of FFB becomes lower than that of a normal year since the water stress during the boreal spring has an important impact on the total annual yields of FFB. Conversely, La Niña sets favorable conditions for palm trees to produce more FFB by reducing chances of water stress risk. The region of the Leeuwin current also seems to play a secondary role through the Ningaloo Niño/ Niña in the interannual variability of FFB yields. Based on these findings, a linear model is constructed and its ability to reproduce the interannual signal is assessed. This model has shown some skills in predicting the total FFB yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  6. Chomérat N, Bilien G, Viallon J, Hervé F, Réveillon D, Henry K, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2020 09;98:101888.
    PMID: 33129466 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101888
    Among dinoflagellates responsible for benthic harmful algal blooms, the genus Ostreopsis primarily described from tropical areas has been increasingly reported from subtropical and temperate areas worldwide. Several species of this toxigenic genus produce analogs of palytoxin, thus representing a major threat to human and environmental health. The taxonomy of several species needs to be clarified as it was based mostly on morphological descriptions leading in some cases to ambiguous interpretations and misidentifications. The present study aims at reporting a benthic bloom that occurred in April 2019 in Tahiti island, French Polynesia. A complete taxonomic investigation of the blooming Ostreopsis species was realized using light, epifluorescence and field emission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses inferred from LSU rDNA and ITS-5.8S rDNA regions. Toxicity of a natural sample and strains isolated from the bloom was assessed using both neuroblastoma cell-based assay and LC-MS/MS analyses. Morphological observations showed that cells were round to oval, large, 58.0-82.5 µm deep (dorso-ventral length) and 45.7-61.2 µm wide. The cingulum was conspicuously undulated, forming a 'V' in ventral view. Thecal plates possessed large pores in depressions, with a collar rim. Detailed observation also revealed the presence of small thecal pores invisible in LM. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent and all sequences clustered within the genotype Ostreopsis sp. 6, in a subclade closely related to sequences from the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia. No toxicity was found on the field sample but all the strains isolated from the bloom were found to be cytotoxic and produced ostreocin D, a lower amount of ostreocins A and B and putatively other compounds. Phylogenetic data demonstrate the presence of this species in the Gulf of Thailand, at the type locality of O. siamensis, and morphological data are congruent with the original description and support this identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  7. Miyazono K, Yamashita R, Miyamoto H, Ishak NHA, Tadokoro K, Shimizu Y, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2021 Sep;170:112631.
    PMID: 34175698 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112631
    Floating plastic debris was investigated in the transition region in the North Pacific between 141°E and 165°W to understand its transportation process from Asian coast to central subtropical Pacific. Distribution was influenced primarily by the current system and the generation process of the high concentration area differed between the western and eastern areas. West of 180°, debris largely accumulated around nearshore convergent area and was transported by eddies and quasi-stationary jet from south to the subarctic region. The average was 15% higher than that previously reported in 1989, suggesting an increase in plastic debris in 30 years. East of 180°, debris concentrated in the calm water downstream of the Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation with considerably high concentration (505,032 ± 991,989 pieces km-2), due to the accumulation of small transparent film caused by calm weather conditions, suggesting a further investigation on small plastic (<1 mm) in the subsurface depth in the subtropical North Pacific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  8. Lim HC, Habib A, Chen WJ
    Genes (Basel), 2021 11 29;12(12).
    PMID: 34946874 DOI: 10.3390/genes12121926
    A broad-scale comparative phylogeographic and phylogenetic study of pennah croakers, mainly Pennahia anea, P. macrocephalus, and P. ovata was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms that may have driven the diversification of marine organisms in Southeast Asian waters. A total of 316 individuals from the three species, and an additional eight and six individuals of P. argentata and P. pawak were employed in this study. Two genetically divergent lineages each of P. argentata and P. anea (lineages L1 and L2) were respectively detected from the analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene data. Historical biogeography analysis with a multi-gene dataset revealed that Pennahia species most likely originated in the South China Sea and expanded into the eastern Indian Ocean, East China Sea, and northwestern Pacific Ocean through three separate range expansions. The main diversifications of Pennahia species occurred during Miocene and Pliocene periods, and the occurrences of lineage divergences within P. anea and P. argentata were during the Pleistocene, likely as a consequence of cyclical glaciations. The population expansions that occurred after the sea level rise might be the reason for the population homogeneity observed in P. macrocephalus and most P. anea L2 South China Sea populations. The structure observed between the two populations of P. ovata, and the restricted distributions of P. anea lineage L1 and P. ovata in the eastern Indian Ocean, might have been hampered by the northward flowing ocean current at the Malacca Strait and by the distribution of coral reefs or rocky bottoms. While our results support S. Ekman's center-of-origin hypothesis taking place in the South China Sea, the Malacca Strait serving as the center of overlap is a supplementary postulation for explaining the present-day high diversity of pennah croakers centered in these waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  9. Morand S, Jittapalapong S, Suputtamongkol Y, Abdullah MT, Huan TB
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e90032.
    PMID: 24587201 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090032
    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  10. White WT, Moore AB
    Zootaxa, 2013;3752:199-213.
    PMID: 25229115
    The eagle ray Aetobatus flagellum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) is redescribed based on new material from the Persian Gulf (Kuwait), Indonesia and Malaysia. A related but distinct species of Aetobatus from the western North Pacific, previously referred to as A. flagellum, is reported. Aetobatus flagellum is a medium-sized eagle ray which attains about 900 mm DW; males mature at approximately 500 mm DW. Aetobatus flagellum appears to be uncommon and restricted to estuary-influenced waters of the Indo-West Pacific. It is caught as gillnet bycatch where its habit of schooling, combined with probable small litter size, may make it particularly vulnerable to impacts from fisheries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  11. White WT, Harris M
    Zootaxa, 2013;3752:172-84.
    PMID: 25229113
    Paragaleus tengi was previously considered to be the only member of this genus occurring in the Western Pacific, with Paragaleus randalli occurring in the Indian Ocean and allopatric in distribution. Recent molecular and morphological studies showed that P. randalli also occurs in the Western Pacific with records from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia previously mostly incorrectly attributed to P. tengi. This paper provides a redescription of P. tengi and confirms the presence of P. randalli from off Taiwan in the western North Pacific. These two species are morphologically very similar in appearance but differ in meristics, dentition, some coloration attributes and minor morphological characters. The conservation status of these two species needs to be reassessed based on this new information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  12. Fry B, Carter JF, Tinggi U, Arman A, Kamal M, Metian M, et al.
    Isotopes Environ Health Stud, 2016 Dec;52(6):619-32.
    PMID: 26982881 DOI: 10.1080/10256016.2016.1149481
    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  13. Al-Barwani SM, Arshad A, Amin SMN, Rahman A
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):705-8.
    PMID: 28779729
    The condition index (which relates to the tissue dry weight to shell volume) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis was investigated at Sebatu in Melaka and Pasir Panjang in Negri Sembilan from September 2003 to February 2004. Monthly samples of P. viridis were collected from culturing rafts at both sites. Variations in the average monthly condition index (CI) of P. viridis ranged from 21.06 to 26.72 g cm(-3) and 15.18 to 19.41 g cm(-3) in Sebatu and Pasir Panjang, respectively. Salinity values were lowest in November between 27.93 to 28.10 ppt in Sebatu and Pasir Panjang, respectively. Salinity then started increasing gradually until it reached 33.26 ppt in Sebatu and 31.23 ppt in Pasir Panjang in the month of February. Chlorophylla in Pasir Panjang showed higher fluctuation, ranging from 2.93 to 14.39 mg/L, while in Sebatu the fluctuations were lower and ranged between 7.70 and 9.37 mg l(-1). Rapid decline in CI values were recorded during January in Sebatu and February in Pasir Panjang. However, this rapid declining state of CI in P. viridis was an indication of its spawning period, when their gametes were released in the water column. These findings would help in the development of captive breeding techniques and mass seed production in aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  14. Ara R, Arshad A, Amin SMN, Idris MH, Gaffar MA, Romano N
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):745-54.
    PMID: 28779734
    Our previous study demonstrated that among different habitat sites (mangrove, estuary, river, seagrass and Open Sea) in Johor Strait, Malaysia, seagrass showed highest family diversity and abundance of larval fish. However, it is unclear whether this was due to difference in habitat complexity or water quality parameters.? To test this, larval fish were collected by using a bongo net equipped with a flow meter by subsurface horizontal towing from different habitats in Johor Strait between October 2007 and September 2008.? Various physico-chemical parameters were measured and then examined for any relationship to fish larvae diversity and abundance. Among the 24 families identified from the sites, seven families (Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Mullidae, Nemipteridae, Syngnathidae, Terapontidae and Uranoscopeidae) were significantly correlated with the tested waters quality parameters.? Salinity showed a positive and negative significant correlation with Clupeidae (p < 0.01) and Uranoscopeidae (p < 0.05), respectively. Terapontidae was significantly correlated with dissolved oxygen (p < 0.01), while both Mullidae and Syngnathidae were significantly correlated with pH (p < 0.05). However, a canonical correspondence analysis test indicated weak overall correlation (36.4%) between larval assemblage and in the seagrass-mangrove ecosystem of Johor Strait, Malaysia. This likely indicates that habitat structure was more important in determining larval abundance (highest in the seagrass habitat) as compared to water quality at the tested sites. This study emphasizes the need to conserve seagrass beds as important nursery grounds for various fish larvae to ensure adequate recruitment and ultimately sustainable fisheries management. ?
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  15. Zamri Z, Arshad A, Amin SMN, Rahman MA, Al Khayat JA
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):677-83.
    PMID: 28779726
    The sex ratio, gonad development and fecundity of Miyakella nepa (Latreille, 1828), in the coastal waters of Pantai Remis, Perak, were investigated from February 2012 to January 2013. Sex identification was done by identifying stomatopod's genitalia organs, and the ovaries were dissected out and preserved for further analysis. Female stomatopods with mature or near spawning stages were used for fecundity estimation. A total of 951 specimens of M. nepa, with 565 females and 386 males were examined. Results showed a sex ratio of 1:1.46 (male:females). Maximum GSI was estimated to be 5.80, while lowest was 2.95. Sexual maturity for female M. nepa was observed at 100 mm total length. The mean fecundity of M. nepa was 425,657 (? 1,8701) eggs which was observed to increase with increased body length.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  16. Keith SA, Maynard JA, Edwards AJ, Guest JR, Bauman AG, van Hooidonk R, et al.
    Proc Biol Sci, 2016 05 11;283(1830).
    PMID: 27170709 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0011
    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R(2) = 0.73, peak: R(2) = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  17. Sittidilokratna N, Dangtip S, Sritunyalucksana K, Babu R, Pradeep B, Mohan CV, et al.
    Dis Aquat Organ, 2009 Apr 27;84(3):195-200.
    PMID: 19565696 DOI: 10.3354/dao02059
    Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus that was recently identified in Penaeus monodon shrimp in Thailand displaying signs of slow growth syndrome. A total of 326 shrimp collected between 1998 and 2007 from countries in the Indo-Pacific region were tested by RT-PCR for evidence of LSNV infection. The samples comprised batches of whole postlarvae, and lymphoid organ, gill, muscle or pleopod tissue of juvenile, subadult and adult shrimp. LSNV was not detected in 96 P. monodon, P. japonicus or P. merguiensis from Australia or 16 P. monodon from Fiji, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Mozambique. There was no evidence of LSNV infection in 73 healthy juvenile P. vannamei collected during 2006 from ponds at 9 locations in Thailand. However, LNSV was detected in each of 6 healthy P. monodon tested from Malaysia and Indonesia, 2 of 6 healthy P. monodon tested from Vietnam and 39 of 40 P. monodon collected from slow-growth ponds in Thailand. A survey of 81 P. monodon collected in 2007 from Andhra Pradesh, India, indicated 56.8% prevalence of LSNV infection but no clear association with disease or slow growth. Phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons obtained from samples from India, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand indicated that nucleotide sequence variation was very low (>98% identity) and there was no clustering of viruses according to site of isolation or the health status of the shrimp. The data suggests that LSNV exists as a single genetic lineage and occurs commonly in healthy P. monodon in parts of Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  18. Sze-Looi Song, Kar-Hoe Loh, Phaik-Eem Lim, Amy Yee-Hui Then, Hoi-Sen Yong, Praphathip Eamsobhana
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2519-2531.
    Gymnothorax minor is a moray eel of the family Muraenidae found in the Western Pacific Ocean. We report here
    its complete mitogenome as determined by Illumina next-generation sequencing and the phylogenetic relationship
    with its congeners and other taxa of the family Muraenidae. The whole mitogenome of G. minor had a total length
    of 16,574 bp, comprising 37 genes - 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and 22
    transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) genes - and a control region. Excepting cox1 with GTG, the other 12 PCGs had ATG
    start codon. Seven of its PCGs had incomplete stop codon - five (nad2; cox1; cox2; nad3 and nad4) with T and two
    (atp6 and cox3) with TA. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs
    and 2 rRNA genes). The subfamily Muraeninae as well as the subfamily Uropterygiinae were monophyletic. However,
    the genus Gymnothorax was paraphyletic, with G. minor forming a sister group with Rhinomuraena quaesita in the
    lineage containing also G. kidako and G. formosus forming a sister group with Enchelynassa canina. The phylogenetic
    relationship of the genus Gymnothorax and related taxa of the family Muraenidae, based on the mitochondrial cob
    gene, was in general similar to that based on 15 mt-genes. The mitogenome is useful for future studies on phylogenetics
    and systematics of eels of the family Muraenidae and other taxa of the order Anguilliformes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean
  19. Chan WK, Treeprasertsuk S, Imajo K, Nakajima A, Seki Y, Kasama K, et al.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2018 Mar;47(6):816-825.
    PMID: 29333610 DOI: 10.1111/apt.14506
    BACKGROUND: The Gut and Obesity Asia (GO ASIA) workgroup was formed to study the relationships between obesity and gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia Pacific region.

    AIM: To study factors associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis, and medical treatment of biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.

    METHODS: Retrospective study of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients from centres in the GO ASIA Workgroup. Independent factors associated with NASH and with advanced fibrosis on binary logistic regression analyses in a training cohort were used for the development of their corresponding risk score, which were validated in a validation cohort.

    RESULTS: We included 1008 patients from nine centres across eight countries (NASH 62.9%, advanced fibrosis 17.2%). Independent predictors of NASH were body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 , diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alanine aminotransferase ≥88 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase ≥38 U/L, constituting the Asia Pacific NASH risk score. A high score has a positive predictive value of 80%-83% for NASH. Independent predictors of advanced fibrosis were age ≥55 years, diabetes mellitus and platelet count <150 × 109 /L, constituting the Asia-Pacific NAFLD advanced fibrosis risk score. A low score has a negative predictive value of 95%-96% for advanced fibrosis. Only 1.7% of patients were referred for structured lifestyle program, 4.2% were on vitamin E, and 2.4% were on pioglitazone.

    CONCLUSIONS: More severe liver disease can be suspected or ruled out based on factors identified in this study. Utilisation of structured lifestyle program, vitamin E and pioglitazone was limited despite this being a cohort of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients with majority of patients having NASH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean/epidemiology
  20. Chiu ML, Luo ST, Chen YY, Chung WY, Duong V, Dussart P, et al.
    Vaccine, 2020 01 03;38(1):1-9.
    PMID: 31679864 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.111
    Enteroviruses (EV), the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina, affect millions of children each year. Most human enteroviruses cause self-limited infections except polioviruses, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), and several echoviruses (Echo) and coxsackieviruses (CV). Especially, EV-A71 has repeatedly caused large-scale outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Some Asian countries have experienced cyclical outbreaks of severe EV-A71 infections and initiated development of EV-A71 vaccines. Five EV-A71 vaccine candidates have been clinically evaluated and three of them were approved for marketing in China. However, none of the China-approved products seek marketing approval in other countries. This situation supports a role for collaboration among Asian countries to facilitate clinical trials and licensure of EV-A71 vaccines. Additionally, enterovirus D68 outbreaks have been reported in the US and Taiwan currently and caused severe complications and deaths. Hence, an Asia-Pacific Network for Enterovirus Surveillance (APNES) has been established to estimate disease burden, understand virus evolution, and facilitate vaccine development through harmonizing laboratory diagnosis and data collection. Founded in 2017, the APNES is comprised of internationally recognized experts in the field of enterovirus in Asian countries working to raise awareness of this potentially fatal and debilitating disease. This article demonstrated the summaries of the first expert meeting, 2017 International Workshop on Enterovirus Surveillance and Vaccine Development, held by APNES in Taipei, Taiwan, March 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Ocean/epidemiology
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