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  1. Hussaini HM, Angel CM, Speight PM, Firth NA, Rich AM
    Head Neck Pathol, 2012 Dec;6(4):471-5.
    PMID: 22427262 DOI: 10.1007/s12105-012-0350-y
    The hallmark of the histology of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is the presence of a regular repetitive mixture of bilayered duct-like structures with an outer layer of myoepithelial cells and inner ductal epithelial cells. Clear cell change in the myoepithelial component is common, but clearing of both cell types, giving an impression of a monocellular neoplasm, is rare. A parotid biopsy was received from an 83-year-old male and subject to routine histologic processing for conventional staining and immunohistochemistry. The encapsulated tumour was composed of sheets of PAS/diastase negative clear cells, separated by fibrous septae. The clear myoepithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, SMA, and p63 and negative for CK19 and surrounded CK19-positive luminal cells. It is important to utilise immunohistochemistry to differentiate this tumour from others with a similar histologic pattern. Information about the behaviour of the double-clear EMC is limited since there are few cases reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/metabolism; Parotid Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Irfan M, Shahid H, Yusri MM, Venkatesh RN
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):150-1.
    PMID: 22106700 MyJurnal
    Schwannoma in the head and neck region is very rare. The tumour occurring in the intraparotid facial nerve is even rarer. A patient presenting with a parotid swelling with facial nerve paralysis is not pathognomonic of a facial nerve schwannoma. However it may occur because enlargement of the parotid, by any kind of tumour especially a malignant one can cause facial nerve paralysis. We report a case of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma, in a patient who presented with parotid enlargement and facial nerve paralysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Parotid Neoplasms/surgery
  3. Wan Ahmad Kammal WS, Azman M, Salleh AA, Md Pauzi SH, Abd Shukor N
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):283-286.
    PMID: 32860383
    Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary gland is an uncommon tumour in the head and neck region. Owing to its rarity, identifying the histopathological features of a malignant tumour can be difficult and challenging. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a left facial weakness for six months in a background history of left parotid swelling over the past 10 years. Clinical examination revealed a 3x3cm left parotid mass and grade 4 facial nerve palsy. Fine needle aspiration of the mass showed scattered cohesive, monolayered sheets of uniform oncocytic cells. Subsequently, a left total parotidectomy and selective neck dissection were performed. Histological examination showed sheets of small oncocytes with minimal nuclear atypia. Evidence of nerve entrapment, capsular invasion and perivascular permeation were identified in focal areas. Thus, a final diagnosis of oncocytic carcinoma was rendered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/diagnosis; Parotid Neoplasms/pathology
  4. Shashinder S, Tang IP, Velayutham P, Prepageran N, Gopala KG, Kuljit S, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):31-3.
    PMID: 19852317 MyJurnal
    To review the demographics, management and outcome of patients undergoing parotidectomy at a tertiary center. A total of 76 patients who underwent parotidectomies from January 1996 to December 2005 at the ORL department of our center were reviewed. All clinical, operative, postoperative, histology data were gathered and reviewed. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was diagnostic in 90% of patients with a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 96%. Twenty-one patients had malignant tumours and the rest had benign or inflammatory lesions. There were a total of 48 superficial and 28 total parotidectomies performed. Facial nerve palsy occurred in 30 (39%) patients with 4% permanent palsy and 35% temporary palsy. The recurrence rate of pleomorphic adenoma was 2.6%. FNAC and CT scan were performed prior to the surgery were useful guidance in planning the operation but clinical judgment is more important. The most common surgery performed was superficial parotidectomy and the most common cause was due to pleomorphic adenoma. The incidence of complications and recurrence of tumour are comparable to other international studies. Prior knowledge of anatomy and careful planning is needed to decrease the incidence of facial nerve palsy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/diagnosis; Parotid Neoplasms/surgery*
  5. Jayaram G, Othman MA, Kumar M, Krishnan G
    Malays J Pathol, 2002 Dec;24(2):107-12.
    PMID: 12887170
    A 60-year-old female developed a right parotid swelling six months after surgery for intra-oral squamous cell carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytological smears showed dissociated large and small pleomorphic tumour cells with abundant mitoses and oncocytic features. A cytological diagnosis of parotid acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) was made. Histological study of the subtotal parotidectomy specimen showed a papillary cystic variety of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV). FNA cytological features in this case of ACC-PCV differs from the two previously reported cases in that it showed prominent oncocytic and high grade features and absence of papillary pattern in the cytological smears. ACC-PCV is an uncommon tumour and knowledge of its varied FNA cytological features is important for the diagnosis of this neoplasm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/pathology*; Parotid Neoplasms/surgery
  6. Sharma A, Ahuja S, Diwaker P, Wadhwa N, Arora VK
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Aug;41(2):191-194.
    PMID: 31427555
    INTRODUCTION: Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) represents 1-6% of parotid gland neoplasms.

    CASE REPORT: We report cytomorphological features of two uncommon variants of acinic cell carcinoma. The first case was an eleven-year-old female with a nodular mass in parotid and the FNA smears demonstrated a lymphoepithelial lesion composed of epithelial tumour cells with features of acinar cells in a lymphoid background. The second case was a 62-year-old male with a large parotid mass. The FNA smears revealed presence of extracellular, acellular amyloid-like material with tumour cells arranged in follicles.

    DISCUSSION: Awareness of cytomorphological features of these unusual variants of acinic cell carcinoma may help to avoid diagnostic pitfall.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  7. Sabir Husin Athar PP, Yahya Z, Mat Baki M, Abdullah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Apr;16(2):38-9.
    PMID: 22589657
    Benign parotid neoplasm and inflammatory processes of the parotid resulting in facial paralysis are extremely rare. We report a 72-year-old Malay female with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful right parotid swelling associated with right facial nerve palsy. The paralysis (Grade VI, House and Brackmann classification) remained after six months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  8. Maruthamuthu T, Saniasiaya J, Mohamad I, Nadarajah S, Lazim NM, Wan Abdul Rahman WF
    Oman Med J, 2018 Jul;33(4):342-345.
    PMID: 30038735 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2018.62
    Parotid gland surgery can be challenging due to intricate relationship between the gland and facial nerve. Besides complete removal of the lesion, the main focus of surgery is centered on the facial nerve. Surgery can be technically demanding especially when the tumor is large or involves the deep lobe. We report a patient with a 30-year history of gigantic parotid mass, which initial fine-needle aspiration cytology reported as pleomorphic adenoma. The tumor, weighing 1.3 kg, was successfully resected with facial nerve preservation. Histopathological examination of the excised mass confirmed as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPA) of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified type. We describe the specific surgical and reconstruction techniques for successful removal of large parotid tumors with facial nerve preservation. To our knowledge, this is the heaviest CaExPA of the parotid gland in South-East Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  9. Subha ST, Abu-Bakar S, Prepageran N
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep;31(106):315-318.
    PMID: 31598500
    Introduction: Parotid gland squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon aggressive neoplasm with poor prognosis. Aural polyps are usually the presenting features of chronic suppurative otitis media, tuberculous otitis media, and adenoma or carcinoma. The malignant aural polyp is very rare. Parotid gland carcinoma masquerading as an aural polyp has rarely been described in the literature.

    Case Report: We report a case study of parotid squamous cell carcinoma in a 29-year-old male masquerading as an ear polyp.

    Conclusion: Parotid gland primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rapidly advancing neoplasm which carries poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. Diligent clinical and histopathological evaluation is imperative to discriminate this rare aggressive disease from the metastatic and other primary cancers of the parotid. A high index of suspicion is crucial in refractory aural polyps to arrive at early diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  10. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Dec;62(5):388-9.
    PMID: 18705472
    This study is to analyze the incidence of facial nerve paralysis after parotidectomy and the type of pathologic condition involved in Hospital Pakar Sultanah Fatimah, Muar between 2002 and 2006. There were 20 parotidectomies done on 20 patients over this period of time. Fourteen were done for tumour and six for inflammatory conditions. The pathology involved were pleomorphic adenoma 9 (45%) cases, Kimura disease 2 (10%) cases, carcinoma 5 (25%) cases and inflammatory condition 4 (20%) cases. Out of 20 parotidectomies done (13 for superficial and 7 for total), 4 (20%) patients had complication of facial nerve paralysis, 2 Malignant tumour, 1 benign tumor and 1 was inflammatory condition. In conclusion, preservation of the facial nerve and its function, wherever possible, is very important to reduce social and functional morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/surgery*
  11. Arshad AR
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2006 Dec;35(12):889-91.
    PMID: 17219001
    INTRODUCTION: Benign tumours of the parotid gland constitute about 80% of parotid tumours. The most common benign tumour of the parotid gland is pleomorphic adenoma. Other conditions, like Kimura's disease, may mimic a tumour when they present as a parotid mass. Various modes of treatment have been advocated for the treatment of benign parotid lesions, ranging from enucleation to near-total parotidectomy.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is an audit of an 18-year period where 173 lesions of the parotid gland (34 malignant and 139 benign lesions) were treated by the author.

    RESULTS: There were 139 benign lesions, of which 123 were benign tumours and 16 non-tumour conditions. Fourteen cases of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of parotid that had been treated elsewhere were also operated on. Near-total parotidectomy was performed on all these cases with benign lesions.

    CONCLUSIONS: There has been no recurrence in all the patients who was treated this way. Near-total parotidectomy should be considered when there is a need to treat benign parotid swellings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/surgery*
  12. Jayaram G, Pathmanathan R, Khanijow V
    Acta Cytol., 1998 Nov-Dec;42(6):1468-72.
    PMID: 9850664
    BACKGROUND: The diverse range of diseases that affect the salivary glands may lead to problems and pitfalls in cyto-diagnosis. While false negative diagnosis of cystic salivary gland tumors is well known, false positive cytodiagnosis in nonneoplastic salivary cysts is less well documented.

    CASE: An 85-year-old female presented with a painless left parotid gland swelling of three months' duration. Fine needle aspiration cytology yielded fluid, smears of which showed keratinizing squamous cells with nuclear atypia leading to a cytologic diagnosis of cystic squamous cell carcinoma. A total radical parotidectomy followed. Histopathologic study showed cystic dilatation of many of the salivary ducts, which were lined with metaplastic squamous epithelium that showed atypia. There was no evidence of squamous cell carcinoma.

    CONCLUSION: Squamous metaplasia is known to occur in benign salivary gland lesions, such as pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumors, as well as in salivary duct cysts and necrotizing sialometaplasia. However, atypical squamous metaplasia of salivary duct cysts mimicking squamous cell carcinoma on cytology is unusual.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/pathology*
  13. Sinniah D, Prathap K, Somasundram K
    Cancer, 1980 Aug 01;46(3):630-2.
    PMID: 7397629
    A ten-year review revealed a similarity in the incidence of teratoma in relation to other childhood tumors in Malaysian as compared with Caucasian children. The most common sites of origin were the sacropcoccygeal, gonadal, and retroperitoneal areas. The reason for the high incidence of retroperitoneal tumor in our series as compared with other countries is not clear. Late presentation and poor followup are associated with poor prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms/epidemiology; Parotid Neoplasms/therapy
  14. Ambu, Valuyeetham Kamaru, Ramalinggam, Ganesh, Kaur, Kirandeep
    MyJurnal
    Parotid tumours represent one of many groups of tumours in the field of
    Otorhinolaryngology. However, a local demographical evaluation of parotid tumours and its annual incidences has never been undertaken. This study intends to review local demography in relation to incidence of parotid tumour seen in Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja’afar Seremban, Negeri Sembilan from the year 2007 till 2012. Methods: A retrospective demographical study on parotid cases seen in ORL clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja’afar Seremban between 2007 till 2012 involving 56 cases. Data that was collected include patient details, facial nerve involvement on presentation, type of surgery performed, site of tumour, facial nerve injury post operation and final histopathological diagnosis. Results: An average of 10 cases per year was noted from 2007 to 2012. Male to female ratio was found to be 1.4:1. Age range of sample population were 9 to 79 years old with a mean age of 47 at time of diagnosis. Superficial lobe was found to be the most common tumour site (63%). Majority of cases consists of benign tumours in 51 out of 56 cases with Warthin’s tumour and Pleomorphic Adenoma being the most common histopathological finding. Post operative facial nerve injury were noted in 17 cases in which 13 cases were temporary while 4 others were permanent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  15. Gani, A.N., Megat Shiraz, M.A.R., Siti Aishah, M.A., Norazizah, M., Mozita, A., Sharifah, N.A.
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(2):164-168.
    MyJurnal
    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) typically presents as a benign slow growing, painless neoplasm of the parotid gland. PA arising from the submandibular gland in the paediatric age group is rare. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. A case of PA in an 8-year-old Malay girl is presented. Clinically she presented with a painless right submandibular mass measuring 2x2cm. A diagnosis of Pleomorphic adenoma was made on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). She underwent submandibulectomy uneventfully. Postoperatively after two years follow up, she is asymptomatic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
  16. Tang PP, Kalimuthu S, Mokhtar SM, Wahab SA
    Oman Med J, 2019 Mar;34(2):160-163.
    PMID: 30918611 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2019.29
    Pilomatricoma is an uncommon benign skin tumor arising from the hair follicle. It usually occurs in the head and neck region and is typically found in the pediatric age group particularly girls. The tumor has inconsistent clinical features and may manifest as a small superficial lesion with benign features or a large and seemingly aggressive lesion with local invasion. Due to its variable clinical presentations, it can occasionally be misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor. We encountered a case of pilomatricoma in a 12-year-old girl with a left preauricular swelling for two years, which became progressively larger and more painful in the few weeks before presentation. Clinically, the swelling resembled a malignant parotid tumor. Multiple fine-needle aspirations were performed, but the cytology results were all inconclusive. Subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a well-defined calcified subcutaneous mass with suspicious parotid involvement. The case was posted for tumor excision and superficial parotidectomy. Intraoperatively, however, the mass could be easily separated from the parotid gland. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen showed characteristic ghost cells, basophilic cells, and ossifications typical of pilomatricoma. In conclusion, preauricular pilomatricoma may pose a diagnostic dilemma. A heightened knowledge of the disease is needed for early recognition of its clinical and imaging features to prevent aggressive therapy than is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parotid Neoplasms
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