Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Azad MA, Amin L, Sidik NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:768038.
    PMID: 24757435 DOI: 10.1155/2014/768038
    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics
  2. Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Asfaliza R, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2013 Mar;40(3):2369-88.
    PMID: 23184051 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2318-0
    Blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is the most severe diseases of rice. Using classical plant breeding techniques, breeders have developed a number of blast resistant cultivars adapted to different rice growing regions worldwide. However, the rice industry remains threatened by blast disease due to the instability of blast fungus. Recent advances in rice genomics provide additional tools for plant breeders to improve rice production systems that would be environmentally friendly. This article outlines the application of conventional breeding, tissue culture and DNA-based markers that are used for accelerating the development of blast resistant rice cultivars. The best way for controlling the disease is to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative genes in resistant variety. Through conventional and molecular breeding many blast-resistant varieties have been developed. Conventional breeding for disease resistance is tedious, time consuming and mostly dependent on environment as compare to molecular breeding particularly marker assisted selection, which is easier, highly efficient and precise. For effective management of blast disease, breeding work should be focused on utilizing the broad spectrum of resistance genes and pyramiding genes and quantitative trait loci. Marker assisted selection provides potential solution to some of the problems that conventional breeding cannot resolve. In recent years, blast resistant genes have introgressed into Luhui 17, G46B, Zhenshan 97B, Jin 23B, CO39, IR50, Pusa1602 and Pusa1603 lines through marker assisted selection. Introduction of exotic genes for resistance induced the occurrence of new races of blast fungus, therefore breeding work should be concentrated in local resistance genes. This review focuses on the conventional breeding to the latest molecular progress in blast disease resistance in rice. This update information will be helpful guidance for rice breeders to develop durable blast resistant rice variety through marker assisted selection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  3. Ashkani S, Rafii MY, Sariah M, Siti Nor Akmar A, Rusli I, Abdul Rahim H, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2011 Jul 06;10(3):1345-55.
    PMID: 21751161 DOI: 10.4238/vol10-3gmr1331
    Among 120 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, 23 polymorphic markers were used to identify the segregation ratio in 320 individuals of an F(2) rice population derived from Pongsu Seribu 2, a resistant variety, and Mahsuri, a susceptible rice cultivar. For phenotypic study, the most virulent blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) pathotype, P7.2, was used in screening of F(2) population in order to understand the inheritance of blast resistance as well as linkage with SSR markers. Only 11 markers showed a good fit to the expected segregation ratio (1:2:1) for the single gene model (d.f. = 1.0, P < 0.05) in chi-square (χ(2)) analyses. In the phenotypic data analysis, the F(2) population segregated in a 3:1 (R:S) ratio for resistant and susceptible plants, respectively. Therefore, resistance to blast pathotype P7.2 in Pongsu Seribu 2 is most likely controlled by a single nuclear gene. The plants from F(2) lines that showed resistance to blast pathotype P7.2 were linked to six alleles of SSR markers, RM168 (116 bp), RM8225 (221 bp), RM1233 (175 bp), RM6836 (240 bp), RM5961 (129 bp), and RM413 (79 bp). These diagnostic markers could be used in marker assisted selection programs to develop a durable blast resistant variety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  4. Hasan N, Rafii MY, Abdul Rahim H, Nusaibah SA, Mazlan N, Abdullah S
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2017 Jan 23;16(1).
    PMID: 28128411 DOI: 10.4238/gmr16019280
    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Development of resistant cultivars is the most preferred method to achieve sustainable rice production. However, the effectiveness of resistant cultivars is hindered by the genetic plasticity of the pathogen genome. Therefore, information on genetic resistance and virulence stability are vital to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of blast disease resistance. The present study set out to elucidate the resistance pattern and identify potential simple sequence repeat markers linked with rice blast disease. A backcross population (BC2F1), derived from crossing MR264 and Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2), was developed using marker-assisted backcross breeding. Twelve microsatellite markers carrying the blast resistance gene clearly demonstrated a polymorphic pattern between both parental lines. Among these, two markers, RM206 and RM5961, located on chromosome 11 exhibited the expected 1:1 testcross ratio in the BC2F1 population. The 195 BC2F1 plants inoculated against M. oryzae pathotype P7.2 showed a significantly different distribution in the backcrossed generation and followed Mendelian segregation based on a single-gene model. This indicates that blast resistance in PS2 is governed by a single dominant gene, which is linked to RM206 and RM5961 on chromosome 11. The findings presented in this study could be useful for future blast resistance studies in rice breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  5. Khan MA, Sen PP, Bhuiyan R, Kabir E, Chowdhury AK, Fukuta Y, et al.
    C. R. Biol., 2014 May;337(5):318-24.
    PMID: 24841958 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2014.02.007
    Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  6. Intan Sakinah MA, Suzianti IV, Latiffah Z
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):3627-37.
    PMID: 24854442 DOI: 10.4238/2014.May.9.5
    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics
  7. Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Islam KhN, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(11):22499-528.
    PMID: 24240810 DOI: 10.3390/ijms141122499
    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding programs aimed at improving blast resistance in this species. We also discuss the various advantages, disadvantages and uses of microsatellite markers relative to other molecular marker types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  8. Latif MA, Rahman MM, Ali ME, Ashkani S, Rafii MY
    C. R. Biol., 2013 Mar;336(3):125-33.
    PMID: 23643394 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2012.12.002
    Multivariate analyses were performed using 13 morphological traits and 13 molecular markers (10 SSRs and three ISSRs) to assess the phylogenetic relationship among tungro resistant genotypes. For morphological traits, the genotypes were grouped into six clusters, according to D(2) statistic and Canonical vector analysis. Plant height, days to flowering, days to maturity, panicle length, number of spikelet per panicle, number of unfilled grain per panicle and yield were important contributors to genetic divergence in 14 rice genotypes. Based on Nei's genetic distance for molecular studies, seven clusters were formed among the tungro resistant and susceptible genotypes. Mantel's test revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.834*) between the morphological and molecular data. To develop high yielding tungro resistant varieties based on both morphological and molecular analyses, crosses could be made with susceptible (BR10 and BR11) genotypes with low yielding but highly resistant genotypes, Sonahidemota, Kumragoir, Nakuchimota, Khaiyamota, Khairymota and Kachamota. The chi-square analysis for seven alleles (RM11, RM17, RM20, RM23, RM80, RM108 and RM531) of SSR and five loci (RY1, MR1, MR2, MR4 and GF5) of three ISSR markers in F2 population of cross, BR11×Sonahidemota, showed a good fit to the expected segregation ratio (1:2:1) for a single gene model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  9. Ashkani S, Rafii MY, Rahim HA, Latif MA
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2013 Mar;40(3):2503-15.
    PMID: 23203411 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2331-3
    Rice blast is one of the major fungal diseases that badly reduce rice production in Asia including Malaysia. There is not much information on identification of QTLs as well as linked markers and their association with blast resistance within local rice cultivars. In order to understanding of the genetic control of blast in the F3 families from indica rice cross Pongsu seribu2/Mahsuri, an analysis of quantitative trait loci against one of the highly virulent Malaysian rice blast isolate Magnaporthe oryzae, P5.0 was carried out. Result indicated that partial resistance to this pathotype observed in the present study was controlled by multiple loci or different QTLs. In QTL analysis in F3 progeny fifteen QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11 and 12 for resistance to blast nursery tests was identified. Three of detected QTLs (qRBr-6.1, qRBr-11.4, and qRBr-12.1) had significant threshold (LOD >3) and approved by both IM and CIM methods. Twelve suggestive QTLs, qRBr-1.2, qRBr-2.1, qRBr-4.1, qRBr-5.1, qRBr-6.2, qRBr-6.3, qRBr-8.1, qRBr-10.1, qRBr-10.2, qRBr-11.1, qRBr-11.2 and qRBr-11.3) with Logarithmic of Odds (LOD) <3.0 or LRS <15) were distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 11. Most of the QTLs detected using single isolate had the resistant alleles from Pongsu seribu 2 which involved in the resistance in the greenhouse. We found that QTLs detected for deferent traits for the using isolate were frequently located in similar genomic regions. Inheritance study showed among F3 lines resistance segregated in the expected ratio of 15: 1 for resistant to susceptible. The average score for blast resistance measured in the green house was 3.15, 1.98 and 29.95 % for three traits, BLD, BLT and % DLA, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  10. Passos MA, de Cruz VO, Emediato FL, de Teixeira CC, Azevedo VC, Brasileiro AC, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2013;14:78.
    PMID: 23379821 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-78
    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics
  11. Tajul Islam Chowdhury M, Salim Mian M, Taher Mia MA, Rafii MY, Latif MA
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015 Dec 28;14(4):18140-52.
    PMID: 26782461 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.23.1
    To examine the impact of regional and seasonal variations on the incidence and severity of sheath rot, a major seed-borne disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, data on incidence and severity were collected from 27 selected fields in the Gazipur, Rangpur, Bogra, Chittagong, Comilla, Gopalgonj, Jessore, Manikgonj, and Bhola districts of Bangladesh in rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Cultural variability of 29 pathogen isolates obtained from 8 different locations was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and genetic variability was determined by DNA fingerprinting using variable number tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction markers. Overall, disease incidence and severity were higher in irrigated rice. Disease incidence and severity were highest in the Bhola district in rain-fed rice and lowest in irrigated rice. Mycelial growth of 29 representative isolates was found to vary on PDA and the isolates were divided into 6 groups. The range of the overall size of conidia of the selected isolates was 2.40-7.20 x 1.20-2.40 μm. Analysis of the DNA fingerprint types of the 29 isolates of S. oryzae, obtained from the amplification reactions, revealed 10 fingerprinting types (FPTs) that were 80% similar. FPT-1 was the largest group and included 13 isolates (44.8%), while FPT-2 was the third largest group and included 3 isolates. Each of FPT-3, 4, 5, and 6 included only 1 isolate. We observed no relationship between cultural and genetic groupings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  12. Hasan MM, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Mahmood M, Alam MA, Abdul Rahim H, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2016 Mar 15;96(4):1297-305.
    PMID: 25892666 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7222
    Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early-maturing, high-yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as donor of the blast resistance Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 quantitative trait locus (QTL). The objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker-assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  13. Tanweer FA, Rafii MY, Sijam K, Rahim HA, Ahmed F, Latif MA
    C. R. Biol., 2015 May;338(5):321-34.
    PMID: 25843222 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2015.03.001
    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating diseases of rice around the world and crop losses due to blast are considerably high. Many blast resistant rice varieties have been developed by classical plant breeding and adopted by farmers in various rice-growing countries. However, the variability in the pathogenicity of the blast fungus according to environment made blast disease a major concern for farmers, which remains a threat to the rice industry. With the utilization of molecular techniques, plant breeders have improved rice production systems and minimized yield losses. In this article, we have summarized the current advanced molecular techniques used for controlling blast disease. With the advent of new technologies like marker-assisted selection, molecular mapping, map-based cloning, marker-assisted backcrossing and allele mining, breeders have identified more than 100 Pi loci and 350 QTL in rice genome responsible for blast disease. These Pi genes and QTLs can be introgressed into a blast-susceptible cultivar through marker-assisted backcross breeding. These molecular techniques provide timesaving, environment friendly and labour-cost-saving ways to control blast disease. The knowledge of host-plant interactions in the frame of blast disease will lead to develop resistant varieties in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  14. Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Latif MA
    C. R. Biol., 2015 Feb;338(2):83-94.
    PMID: 25553855 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2014.11.003
    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics
  15. Ashkani S, Yusop MR, Shabanimofrad M, Azady A, Ghasemzadeh A, Azizi P, et al.
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2015;17:57-73.
    PMID: 25706446
    Allele mining is a promising way to dissect naturally occurring allelic variants of candidate genes with essential agronomic qualities. With the identification, isolation and characterisation of blast resistance genes in rice, it is now possible to dissect the actual allelic variants of these genes within an array of rice cultivars via allele mining. Multiple alleles from the complex locus serve as a reservoir of variation to generate functional genes. The routine sequence exchange is one of the main mechanisms of R gene evolution and development. Allele mining for resistance genes can be an important method to identify additional resistance alleles and new haplotypes along with the development of allele-specific markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Allele mining can be visualised as a vital link between effective utilisation of genetic and genomic resources in genomics-driven modern plant breeding. This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  16. Rosli R, Amiruddin N, Ab Halim MA, Chan PL, Chan KL, Azizi N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(4):e0194792.
    PMID: 29672525 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194792
    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  17. Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Latif MA
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2017 Jul;97(9):2810-2818.
    PMID: 27778337 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8109
    BACKGROUND: The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor.

    RESULTS: Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219.

    CONCLUSION: The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  18. Ridzuan R, Rafii MY, Ismail SI, Mohammad Yusoff M, Miah G, Usman M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Oct 11;19(10).
    PMID: 30314374 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19103122
    Chili anthracnose is one of the most devastating fungal diseases affecting the quality and yield production of chili. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the chili anthracnose disease, as well as to explore the use of marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at improving anthracnose disease resistance in this species. This disease is caused by the Colletotrichum species complex, and there have been ongoing screening methods of chili pepper genotypes with resistance to anthracnose in the field, as well as in laboratories. Conventional breeding involves phenotypic selection in the field, and it is more time-consuming compared to molecular breeding. The use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) on the basis of inheritance, the segregation ratio of resistance to susceptibility, and the gene-controlling resistance may contribute to the development of an improved chili variety and speed up the selection process, while also reducing genetic drag in the segregating population. More importantly, by using molecular markers, the linkage groups are determined dominantly and co-dominantly, meaning that the implementation of a reliable method to produce resistant varieties is crucial in future breeding programs. This updated information will offer a supportive direction for chili breeders to develop an anthracnose-resistant chili variety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  19. Arora S, Steuernagel B, Gaurav K, Chandramohan S, Long Y, Matny O, et al.
    Nat. Biotechnol., 2019 02;37(2):139-143.
    PMID: 30718880 DOI: 10.1038/s41587-018-0007-9
    Disease resistance (R) genes from wild relatives could be used to engineer broad-spectrum resistance in domesticated crops. We combined association genetics with R gene enrichment sequencing (AgRenSeq) to exploit pan-genome variation in wild diploid wheat and rapidly clone four stem rust resistance genes. AgRenSeq enables R gene cloning in any crop that has a diverse germplasm panel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
  20. Steuernagel B, Periyannan SK, Hernández-Pinzón I, Witek K, Rouse MN, Yu G, et al.
    Nat. Biotechnol., 2016 06;34(6):652-5.
    PMID: 27111722 DOI: 10.1038/nbt.3543
    Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5-15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Diseases/genetics*
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