Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.
In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater.
Antibacterial coating is important to prevent the colonization of medical devices by biofilm forming bacteria that would cause infection and sepsis in patients. Current coating techniques such as immobilization of antimicrobial compounds, time-releasing antibiotic agents and silver nanoparticles, require multiple processing steps, and they have low efficacy and low stability. We proposed a single-step plasma polymerization of an essential oil known as carvone to produce a moderately hydrophobic antibacterial coating (ppCar) with an average roughness of <1nm. ppCar had a static water contact angle of 78°, even after 10days of air aging and it maintained its stability throughout 24h of LB broth immersion. ppCar showed promising results in the live-dead fluorescence assay and crystal violet assay. The biofilm assay showed an effective reduction of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by 86% and 84% respectively. ppCar is also shown to rupture the bacteria membrane for its bactericidal effects. The cytotoxicity test indicated that the coating is not cytotoxic to the human cell line. This study would be of interest to researcher keen on producing a bacteria-resistance and biocompatible coating on different substrates in a cost-effective manner.
A novel nitrogen/argon (N2/Ar) radio frequency (RF) plasma functionalized graphene nanosheet/graphene nanoribbon (GS/GNR) hybrid material (N2/Ar/GS/GNR) was developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Various nitrogen mites introduced into GS/GNR hybrid structure was evidenced by a detailed microscopic, spectroscopic and surface area analysis. Owing to the unique structure and properties originating from the enhanced surface area, nitrogen functional groups and defects introduced on both the basal and edges, N2/Ar/GS/GNR/GCE showed high electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidations of AA, DA, and UA with the respective lowest detection limits of 5.3, 2.5 and 5.7 nM and peak-to-peak separation potential (ΔEP) (vs Ag/AgCl) in DPV of 220, 152 and 372 mV for AA/DA, DA/UA and AA/UA respectively. Moreover, the selectivity, stability, repeatability and excellent performance in real time application of the fabricated N2/Ar/GS/GNR/GCE electrode suggests that it can be considered as a potential electrode material for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, and UA.
Consumers' demand is increasing for safe foods without impairing the phytochemical and sensory quality. In turn, it has increased research interest in the exploration of innovative food processing technologies. Cold plasma technology is getting popularity now days owing to its high efficacy in decontamination of microbes in fruit and fruit-based products. As a on-thermal approach, plasma processing maintains the quality of fruits and minimizes the thermal effects on nutritional properties. Cold plasma is also exploited for inactivating enzymes and degrading pesticides as both are directly related with quality loss and presently are most important concerns in fresh produce industry. The present review covers the influence of cold plasma technology on reducing microbial risks and enhancing the quality attributes in fruits.
Role of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) groups in promoting cell adhesion or commonly known as biocompatibility, is well established, but their role in reducing bacterial attachment and growth is less explored or not well-understood. Natural sulfur-based compounds, i.e. sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfinic groups, have shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Hence, we mimicked these surfaces by plasma polymerizing thiophene (ppT) and air-plasma treating this ppT to achieve coatings with S of similar oxidation states as natural compounds (ppT-air). In addition, the effects of these N and S groups from ppT-air were also compared with the biocompatible amine-amide from n-heptylamine plasma polymer. Crystal violet assay and live and dead fluorescence staining of E. coli and S. aureus showed that all the N and S coated surfaces generated, including ppHA, ppT and ppT-air, produced similarly potent, growth reduction of both bacteria by approximately 65% at 72 h compared to untreated glass control. The ability of osteogenic differentiation in Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were also used to test the cell biocompatibility of these surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging of these WJ-MSCs growths indicated that ppHA, and ppT-air were cell-friendly surfaces, with ppHA showing the highest osteogenic activity. In summary, the N and S containing surfaces could reduce bacteria growth while promoting mammalian cell growth, thus serve as potential candidate surfaces to be explored further for biomaterial applications.