Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Nordin N, Lai MI, Veerakumarasivam A, Ramasamy R, Abdullah S, Wendy-Yeo WY, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):4-9.
    PMID: 23765134 MyJurnal
    The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been met with much enthusiasm and hailed as a breakthrough discovery by the scientific and research communities amidst the divisive and ongoing debates surrounding human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research. The discovery reveals the fact that embryonic pluripotency can be generated from adult somatic cells by the induction of appropriate transcriptional factor genes essential for maintaining the pluripotency. They provide an alternative source for pluripotent stem cells, thus representing a powerful new research tool besides their potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, the historical background of iPSCs generation will be discussed together with their properties and characteristics as well as their potential therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells*
  2. Higuchi A, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Chang Y, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2015 Jan;95(1):26-42.
    PMID: 25365202 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.132
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a platform to obtain patient-specific cells for use as a cell source in regenerative medicine. Although iPSCs do not have the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells, iPSCs have not been widely used in clinical applications, as they are generated by gene transduction. Recently, iPSCs have been generated without the use of genetic material. For example, protein-induced PSCs and chemically induced PSCs have been generated by the use of small and large (protein) molecules. Several epigenetic characteristics are important for cell differentiation; therefore, several small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic-modifying enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone demethylases, are potential candidates for the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs. In this review, we discuss what types of small chemical or large (protein) molecules could be used to replace the viral transduction of genes and/or genetic reprogramming to obtain human iPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*
  3. Sung TC, Li HF, Higuchi A, Ling QD, Yang JS, Tseng YC, et al.
    J Vis Exp, 2018 02 03.
    PMID: 29443075 DOI: 10.3791/57314
    The effect of physical cues, such as the stiffness of biomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, has been investigated by several researchers. However, most of these investigators have used polyacrylamide hydrogels for stem cell culture in their studies. Therefore, their results are controversial because those results might originate from the specific characteristics of the polyacrylamide and not from the physical cue (stiffness) of the biomaterials. Here, we describe a protocol for preparing hydrogels, which are not based on polyacrylamide, where various stem, cells including human embryonic stem (ES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be cultured. Hydrogels with varying stiffness were prepared from bioinert polyvinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid (P-IA), with stiffness controlled by crosslinking degree by changing crosslinking time. The P-IA hydrogels grafted with and without oligopeptides derived from extracellular matrix were investigated as a future platform for stem cell culture and differentiation. The culture and passage of amniotic fluid stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, human ES cells, and human iPS cells is described in detail here. The oligopeptide P-IA hydrogels showed superior performances, which were induced by their stiffness properties. This protocol reports the synthesis of the biomaterial, their surface manipulation, along with controlling the stiffness properties and finally, their impact on stem cell fate using xeno-free culture conditions. Based on recent studies, such modified substrates can act as future platforms to support and direct the fate of various stem cells line to different linkages; and further, regenerate and restore the functions of the lost organ or tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology; Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism*; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology
  4. Srijaya TC, Pradeep PJ, Zain RB, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH, Govindasamy V
    Stem Cells Int, 2012;2012:423868.
    PMID: 22654919 DOI: 10.1155/2012/423868
    Induced pluripotent stem cell-based therapy for treating genetic disorders has become an interesting field of research in recent years. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the applicability of induced pluripotent stem cells in dental research. Recent advances in the use of induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential for developing disease-specific iPSC lines in vitro from patients. Indeed, this has provided a perfect cell source for disease modeling and a better understanding of genetic aberrations, pathogenicity, and drug screening. In this paper, we will summarize the recent progress of the disease-specific iPSC development for various human diseases and try to evaluate the possibility of application of iPS technology in dentistry, including its capacity for reprogramming some genetic orodental diseases. In addition to the easy availability and suitability of dental stem cells, the approach of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells will undoubtedly benefit patients suffering from orodental disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  5. Khoo TS, Jamal R, Abdul Ghani NA, Alauddin H, Hussin NH, Abdul Murad NA
    Stem Cell Rev Rep, 2020 04;16(2):251-261.
    PMID: 32016780 DOI: 10.1007/s12015-020-09956-x
    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 marked a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine, enabling reversal of terminally differentiated somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells. The embryonic stem (ES) cells-like pluripotency and unlimited self-renewal capability of iPS cells have granted them enormous potential in many applications, particularly regenerative therapy. Unlike ES cells, however, iPS cells exhibit somatic memories which were carried over from the tissue of origin thus limited its translation in clinical applications. This review provides an updated overview of the retention of various somatic memories associated with the cellular identity, age and metabolism of tissue of origin in iPS cells. The influence of cell types, stage of maturation, age and various other factors on the retention of somatic memory has been discussed. Recent evidence of somatic memory in the form of epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolic signatures and its functional manifestations in both in vitro and in vivo settings also have been reviewed. The increasing number of studies which had adopted isogenic cell lines for comparisons in recent years had facilitated the identification of genuine somatic memories. These memories functionally affect iPS cells and its derivatives and are potentially tumorigenic thus, raising concerns on their safety in clinical application. Various approaches for memory erasure had since being reported and their efficacies were highlighted in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  6. Kumar SS, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Singh AJ, Peng IC, Priya SP, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(12):23418-47.
    PMID: 25526563 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151223418
    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*; Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects*; Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  7. Ramasamy TS, Ong ALC, Cui W
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 10 26;1077:41-66.
    PMID: 30357683 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-0947-2_4
    Generation of functional hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is a vital tool to produce large amounts of human hepatocytes, which hold a great promise for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. Despite a tremendous progress in developing the differentiation protocols recapitulating the developmental signalling and stages, these resulting hepatocytes from hPSCs yet achieve maturation and functionality comparable to those primary hepatocytes. The absence of 3D milieu in the culture and differentiation of these hepatocytes may account for this, at least partly, thus developing an optimal 3D culture could be a step forward to achieve this aim. Hence, review focuses on current development of 3D culture systems for hepatic differentiation and maturation and the future perspectives of its application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*
  8. Tai L, Teoh HK, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Dec;40(3):325-329.
    PMID: 30580364
    INTRODUCTION: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that exhibit embryonic stem cell-like properties with unlimited self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, are a potential cell source in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy. Although retroviral and lentiviral transduction methods to generate iPSC are well established, the risk of mutagenesis limits the use of these products for therapeutic applications.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) into iPSC was carried out using non-integrative Sendai virus for transduction. The iPSC clones were characterised based on the morphological changes, gene expression of pluripotency markers, and spontaneous and directed differentiation abilities into cells of different germ layers.

    RESULTS: On day 18-25 post-transduction, colonies with embryonic stem cell-like morphology were obtained. The iPSC generated were free of Sendai genome and transgene after passage 10, as confirmed by RT-PCR. NHDF-derived iPSC expressed multiple pluripotency markers in qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. When cultured in suspension for 8 days, iPSC successfully formed embryoid body-like spheres. NHDF-derived iPSC also demonstrated the ability to undergo directed differentiation into ectoderm and endoderm.

    CONCLUSION: NHDF were successfully reprogrammed into iPSC using non-integrating Sendai virus for transduction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*
  9. Higuchi A, Hirad AH, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA
    Acta Biomater, 2020 10 15;116:162-173.
    PMID: 32911107 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2020.09.010
    Thermoresponsive surfaces enable the detachment of cells or cell sheets by decreasing the temperature of the surface when harvesting the cells. However, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, cannot be directly cultured on a thermoresponsive surface; hPSCs need a specific extracellular matrix to bind to the integrin receptors on their surfaces. We prepared a thermoresponsive surface by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) and recombinant vitronectin to provide an optimal coating concentration for the hPSC culture. hPSCs can be cultured on the same thermoresponsive surface for 5 passages by partial detachment of the cells from the surface by decreasing the temperature for 30 min; then, the remaining hPSCs were subsequently cultured on the same dishes following the addition of new cultivation media. The detached cells, even after continual culture for five passages, showed high pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into cells derived from the 3 germ layers and the ability to undergo cardiac differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  10. Daneshvar N, Abdullah R, Shamsabadi FT, How CW, Mh MA, Mehrbod P
    Cell Biol. Int., 2013 May;37(5):415-9.
    PMID: 23504853 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10051
    Nanotechnology has provided new technological opportunities, which could help in challenges confronting stem cell research. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, a new class of macromolecular polymers with high molecular uniformity, narrow molecular distribution specific size and shape and highly functionalised terminal surface have been extensively explored for biomedical application. PAMAM dendrimers are also nanospherical, hyperbranched and monodispersive molecules exhibiting exclusive properties which make them potential carriers for drug and gene delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism
  11. Higuchi A, Ku NJ, Tseng YC, Pan CH, Li HF, Kumar SS, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2017 10;97(10):1167-1179.
    PMID: 28869589 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2017.100
    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in advanced countries. Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for acute and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. The current status of stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction is discussed from a bioengineering and biomaterial perspective in this review. We describe (a) the current status of clinical trials of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) compared with clinical trials of human adult or fetal stem cells, (b) the gap between fundamental research and application of human stem cells, (c) the use of biomaterials in clinical and pre-clinical studies of stem cells, and finally (d) trends in bioengineering to promote stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction. We explain why the number of clinical trials using hPSCs is so limited compared with clinical trials using human adult and fetal stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology; Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation
  12. Simat SF, Chua KH, Abdul Rahman H, Tan AE, Tan GC
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:53-4.
    PMID: 19024980
    The aim of the study is to evaluate the stemness gene expression of cultured human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) in serial passages. HAECs obtained from human term placentae were cultured in F12:DMEM(1:1) + 10% FBS +10ng/ml EGF in serial passages (P0, P1, P2 and P4). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the gene expression analysis. The results showed that cultured HAECs expressed and downregulated the stemness genes expression for Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog3, FGF4, Rex-1, FZD-9, BST-1 ABCG2. However, vimentin and nestin gene expression were upregulated. The results suggested that cultured HAECs may have pluripotent and multipotent properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*; Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation
  13. Das AK, Pal R
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2010 Aug;4(6):413-21.
    PMID: 20084623 DOI: 10.1002/term.258
    Pluripotent stem cells possess the unique property of differentiating into all other cell types of the human body. Further, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 has opened up new avenues in clinical medicine. In simple language, iPSCs are nothing but somatic cells reprogrammed genetically to exhibit pluripotent characteristics. This process utilizes retroviruses/lentiviruses/adenovirus/plasmids to incorporate candidate genes into somatic cells isolated from any part of the human body. It is also possible to develop disease-specific iPSCs which are most likely to revolutionize research in respect to the pathophysiology of most debilitating diseases, as these can be mimicked ex vivo in the laboratory. These models can also be used to study the safety and efficacy of known drugs or potential drug candidates for a particular diseased condition, limiting the need for animal studies and considerably reducing the time and money required to develop new drugs. Recently, functional neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic islet cells, hepatocytes and retinal cells have been derived from human iPSCs, thus re-confirming the pluripotency and differentiation capacity of these cells. These findings further open up the possibility of using iPSCs in cell replacement therapy for various degenerative disorders. In this review we highlight the development of iPSCs by different methods, their biological characteristics and their prospective applications in regenerative medicine and drug screening. We further discuss some practical limitations pertaining to this technology and how they can be averted for the betterment of human life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism
  14. Chen YM, Chen LH, Li MP, Li HF, Higuchi A, Kumar SS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 23;7:45146.
    PMID: 28332572 DOI: 10.1038/srep45146
    Establishing cultures of human embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells in xeno-free conditions is essential for producing clinical-grade cells. Development of cell culture biomaterials for human ES and iPS cells is critical for this purpose. We designed several structures of oligopeptide-grafted poly (vinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels with optimal elasticity, and prepared them in formations of single chain, single chain with joint segment, dual chain with joint segment, and branched-type chain. Oligopeptide sequences were selected from integrin- and glycosaminoglycan-binding domains of the extracellular matrix. The hydrogels grafted with vitronectin-derived oligopeptides having a joint segment or a dual chain, which has a storage modulus of 25 kPa, supported the long-term culture of human ES and iPS cells for over 10 passages. The dual chain and/or joint segment with cell adhesion molecules on the hydrogels facilitated the proliferation and pluripotency of human ES and iPS cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology*; Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism*
  15. Hui,J.H.P., Azura M., Lee, E.H.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(1):4-12.
    Regenerative medicine using stem cell therapy has sparked much interest in this 21st century not only because of the controversies that surround the ethics involving pluripotent stem cells but their potential for use in the clinic. The ability of stem cells to repair and regenerate new tissues and organs holds tremendous promise for the treatment of many serious diseases and injuries. This review provides a brief summary of the current status of research in stem cells with special emphasis on where we are in terms of the possible clinical application of stem cell therapy in orthopaedic surgery. We look at the available evidence and examine the ethical issues and considerations associated with the clinical use of stem cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells
  16. Tan AW, Tay L, Chua KH, Ahmad R, Akbar SA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:5389-401.
    PMID: 25473278 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72659
    Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly, TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly upregulate the expressions of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, and Nestin. These results demonstrate that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces can be used to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation while simultaneously maintaining the stemness of ADSCs, thereby representing a promising approach for their potential application in the field of bone tissue engineering as well as regenerative therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects*
  17. Huang CJ, Nguyen PN, Choo KB, Sugii S, Wee K, Cheong SK, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(8):824-33.
    PMID: 24936146 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8358
    A miRNA precursor generally gives rise to one major miRNA species derived from the 5' arm, and are called miRNA-5p. However, more recent studies have shown co-expression of miRNA-5p and -3p, albeit in different concentrations, in cancer cells targeting different sets of transcripts. Co-expression and regulation of the -5p and -3p miRNA species in stem cells, particularly in the reprogramming process, have not been studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism*
  18. Yap MS, Nathan KR, Yeo Y, Lim LW, Poh CL, Richards M, et al.
    Stem Cells Int, 2015;2015:105172.
    PMID: 26089911 DOI: 10.1155/2015/105172
    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) derived from either blastocyst stage embryos (hESCs) or reprogrammed somatic cells (iPSCs) can provide an abundant source of human neuronal lineages that were previously sourced from human cadavers, abortuses, and discarded surgical waste. In addition to the well-known potential therapeutic application of these cells in regenerative medicine, these are also various promising nontherapeutic applications in toxicological and pharmacological screening of neuroactive compounds, as well as for in vitro modeling of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Compared to alternative research models based on laboratory animals and immortalized cancer-derived human neural cell lines, neuronal cells differentiated from hPSCs possess the advantages of species specificity together with genetic and physiological normality, which could more closely recapitulate in vivo conditions within the human central nervous system. This review critically examines the various potential nontherapeutic applications of hPSC-derived neuronal lineages and gives a brief overview of differentiation protocols utilized to generate these cells from hESCs and iPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  19. Romli F, Alitheen NB, Hamid M, Ismail R, Abd Rahman NM
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2013 Jun;114(6):1230-7.
    PMID: 23239017 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.24477
    The first successful attempt to reprogram somatic cell into embryonic-like stem cell was achieved on 2006. Since then, it had sparked a race against time to bring this wonderful invention from bench to bedside but it is not easily achieved due to severe problems in term of epigenetic and genomic. With each problem arise, new technique and protocol will be constructed to try to overcome it. This review addresses the various techniques made available to create iPSC with problems hogging down the technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology*
  20. Dutta S, Singh G, Sreejith S, Mamidi MK, Husin JM, Datta I, et al.
    CNS Neurosci Ther, 2013 Jan;19(1):5-11.
    PMID: 23253099 DOI: 10.1111/cns.12027
    Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating because they cause increasing loss of cognitive and physical functions and affect an estimated 1 billion individuals worldwide. Unfortunately, no drugs are currently available to halt their progression, except a few that are largely inadequate. This mandates the search of new treatments for these progressively degenerative diseases. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been successfully isolated, propagated, and characterized from the adult brains of mammals, including humans. The confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain via NSCs opens up fresh avenues for treating neurological problems. The proof-of-concept studies demonstrating the neural differentiation capacity of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo have raised widespread enthusiasm toward cell-based interventions. It is anticipated that cell-based neurogenic drugs may reverse or compensate for deficits associated with neurological diseases. The increasing interest of the private sector in using human stem cells in therapeutics is evidenced by launching of several collaborative clinical research activities between Pharma giants and research institutions or small start-up companies. In this review, we discuss the major developments that have taken place in this field to position stem cells as a prospective candidate drug for the treatment of neurological disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology
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