Five cases of spontaneous pneumothorax were treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). These included four cases of recurrent pneumothorax and one case of persistent pneumothorax. The mean age was 33 years. The identified bullae were eliminated with either endoloop ligation (in one patient) or stapled excision (in four patients). There were no recurrences reported in a mean follow-up of 9.4 months. In conclusion, VATS offers an equally effective and less morbid alternative to open thoracotomy in the management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
Liquid silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) is an inert material that is commonly used for cosmetic purpose. Silicone embolization syndrome (SES) can rapidly progress to pneumonitis as a consequence of the injection of nonmedical-grade liquid silicone. We describe a case of severe silicone pneumonitis complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bilateral pneumothorax secondary to silicone gluteal augmentation. In this case report, we aim to discuss our experience and approach in managing an uncommon case of SES.
Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare condition. We report a case of a 36-year-old female who presented with dyspnoea every time before she had her regular menses. Further investigation confirmed that she had catamenial pneumothorax. With this case we wish to highlight this rare diagnostic entity that every clinician should keep in mind.
A young male who developed ipsilateral pulmonary oedema on two occasions as a complication of treatment of pneumothoraces involving the left lung is reported. The importance of large pneumothoraces, the rapidity of decompression and the application of suction to the pleural space as factors predisposing to the development of re-expansion pulmonary oedema is well demonstrated by this case. The re-expansion pulmonary oedema was more severe on the second occasion when the lung had collapsed for a longer duration compared to the first pneumothorax which was of more recent onset.
We describe a patient with empyema thoracis that had eroded through the apical chest wall to the supraclavicular fossa and lung parenchyma, ultimately leading to a bronchopleural fistula manifesting as lobulated, localized subcutaneous emphysematous swellings over the chest wall and supraclavicular fossa. This is a rarely reported phenomenon and the reason why the lobulated subcutaneous emphysematous swellings remained localized is unknown.
Pneumothorax is the presence of air in the pleural cavity. It can be classified into spontaneous, traumatic or iatrogenic. The majority of pneumothorax cases are spontaneous, which can be further classified into primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) or secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP), defined by the absence or presence of obvious underlying lung disease respectively. The treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax includes simple aspiration, intercostal tube drainage or surgical intervention. When intercostal tube drainage is used, it is usually attached to an underwater-seal system. Mobile chest drains, such as the Heimlich valve, replace the underwater-seal and allow outpatient management of spontaneous pneumothoraces. The Heimlich valve however, is costly and not readily available in many local hospitals. Cheaper and easily obtainable alternatives which are also safe are being sought. This is a case report describing the use of the urine bag in the management of a patient with spontaneous pneumothrax.
Study site: Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children is more extensive and is a rare cause of spontaneous secondary pneumothorax (SSP) which tends to be recurrent and refractory to conventional treatment. Its occurrence in paediatric patients posed great challenge to the choice of surgical management. Surgery in the form of pleurodesis is only considered if SSP does not improve after chemotherapy and after considering all relevant risk and benefits of surgery to patients. Chemical pleurodesis will not give the expected effect to eradicate SSP in this patient. Therefore mechanical pleurodesis is the treatment of choice. There are various techniques to perform mechanical pleurodesis; from pleural abrasion to pleurectomy. In the authors' experience, bilateral total pleurectomy provided the best outcome for this 9-year-old patient with persistent respiratory distress from SSP due to extensive pulmonary LCH.
Twenty-nine patients (16 males, 13 females) with spontaneous pneumothorax admitted into Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, from September 1984 to September 1990 were reviewed. Their ages ranged from newborn to 75 years. The commonest chief presenting symptom was dyspnoea (69%), followed by chest pain (35%). Four patients had chronic obstructive airway disease, 7 had pneumonia, 2 had pulmonary tuberculosis, one patient had emphysema while 4 patients had multiple underlying lung disorders. The left and right lungs were involved with equal frequency. Bilateral pneumothorax occurred in one patient. Most patients had a single episode of pneumothorax but recurrent pneumothoraces occurred in 3 patients (10%). Six patients were observed conservatively, 20 patients required chest tube insertion alone and 3 patients also required pleurodesis. Death occurred in 8 patients (28%) mainly due to coexisting infection and respiratory failure.
A 36-year-old lady presented with four episodes of right sided pneumothorax during pregnancy requiring multiple chest drain insertion. It was complicated with persistent air leak despite low pressure high volume suction applied to the chest drainage. She delivered safely through spontaneous vaginal delivery with chest drainage. Further imaging by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of thorax done revealed bilateral scattered pulmonary cysts and sub pleural bullae and was later followed up with respiratory unit. She had no further episodes of pneumothorax postpartum. This case highlights the vital importance of prompt recognition and management of pneumothorax in pregnancy as the patient involved is at higher risk for acute respiratory failure leading to maternal and/or foetal mortality. It is essential for early involvement of obstetric team and to expedite the delivery for a better perinatal and maternal outcome.
From 10th September 1998 till 5th June 1999, the Paediatric and Cardiothoracic Surgery Units of Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru managed three children with lung collapse secondary to pneumonia. The dominant initial clinical presentation in all three cases was acute abdominal pain. Basal pneumonia was diagnosed in two cases post-operatively after surgical contributory causes were excluded intra-operatively. Thoracotomy, evacuation of infected debris and decortication of the collapsed lung was done in all three cases. In children presenting with acute abdominal pain, basal pneumonia should be considered as a possible contributory cause.
A case of massive pyopneumothorax as a rare sequelae of retropharyngeal abscess following fish bone ingestion is reported. An initial attempt at removal of the fish bone in the oesophagus using the fibroptic oesophagoscope was unsuccessful, causing failure of its removal and the development of this rare and potentially fatal complication. The intercommunication of the retropharyngeal space with other spaces of the neck and thorax that allow this and most other complications to occur is described. Rigid endoscopes are the instrument of choice in retrieving sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus.
Extra pelvic endometriosis is rare and its presentation is varied. A case of pulmonary and umbilical endometriosis which presented as catamenial pneumothorax is presented. Due to poor response to medical treatment, a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done to relieve the patient of her recurrent symptoms.
Percutaneous insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) is a valuable procedure in managing critically ill patients. However, placement of CVC is not without its complications. The author reports a case in which a CVC was inserted into the right pleural cavity which was not detected by the usual clinical methods of confirming catheter placement and an antero-posterior (A-P) chest x-ray.