Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Nasser AB, Zamli KZ, Alsewari AA, Ahmed BS
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0195187.
    PMID: 29718918 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195187
    The application of meta-heuristic algorithms for t-way testing has recently become prevalent. Consequently, many useful meta-heuristic algorithms have been developed on the basis of the implementation of t-way strategies (where t indicates the interaction strength). Mixed results have been reported in the literature to highlight the fact that no single strategy appears to be superior compared with other configurations. The hybridization of two or more algorithms can enhance the overall search capabilities, that is, by compensating the limitation of one algorithm with the strength of others. Thus, hybrid variants of the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) are proposed in the current work. Four hybrid variants of FPA are considered by combining FPA with other algorithmic components. The experimental results demonstrate that FPA hybrids overcome the problems of slow convergence in the original FPA and offers statistically superior performance compared with existing t-way strategies in terms of test suite size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  2. Takano KT, Repin R, Mohamed MB, Toda MJ
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2012 Jul;14(4):555-64.
    PMID: 22289145 DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2011.00541.x
    Two taxonomically undescribed Colocasiomyia species were discovered from inflorescences of Alocasia macrorrhizos in Kota Kinabalu City, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. The aims of this study were to investigate the reproductive ecology of the flies and the plant, ascertain the importance of the flies as pollinators and examine the intimate association between flowering events and life history of the flies. We conducted sampling, observations and field pollination experiments. The flies were attracted by the odour of female-phase inflorescences in the early morning on the first day of anthesis. They fed, mated and oviposited in the inflorescences for 1 day. On the second day, the flies, covered with pollen grains, left the male-phase inflorescences for the next female-phase inflorescences. The immature forms of both fly species hatched, developed and pupated within the infructescences without damaging the fruits, and developed adults emerged when the mature infructescences dehisced. The flowering events and fly behaviours were well synchronized. In field pollination experiments, inflorescences bagged with a fine mesh (insect exclusion) produced almost no fruits, whereas those bagged with a coarse mesh (bee exclusion) produced as many fruits as the open-pollinated controls. These results indicate that these flies are the most efficient and specialised pollinators for their host, A. macrorrhizos. These flies, in return, depend on A. macrorrhizos for food and habitat through most of their life cycle. This study provides a deeper insight into the less recognised, highly intimate pollination mutualism between Araceae plants and Colocasiomyia flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  3. Azmi WA, Wan Sembok WZ, Yusuf N, Mohd Hatta MF, Salleh AF, Hamzah MAH, et al.
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2019 02 12;112(1):20-24.
    PMID: 30277528 DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy290
    Rockmelon (Cucumis melo Linnaeus (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae)) is a novel commercialized fruit in Malaysia and has great potential to become an important horticultural crop for the international market. In this study, we investigated the effects of pollination by the Indo-Malaya stingless bee Heterotrigona itama Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on measures of yield and quality of rockmelon cultivated in the greenhouse, compared with hand cross-pollination and self-pollination. Results showed that rockmelon produced from plants pollinated by stingless bees and hand cross-pollination had higher fruit set, were heavier and larger, and contained higher numbers of seed per fruit compared with those produced by self-pollination. Pollination by stingless bees produced fruit with greater sweetness than either hand cross-pollination or self-pollination. This study demonstrated that stingless bee pollination produced rockmelon fruit of similar quality, but better yields compared to the other pollination treatments. We showed that stingless bees should be considered as an alternative, effective pollinator for the improved production of high quality rockmelon in commercial greenhouse cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  4. Keong BP, Harikrishna JA
    Biochem Genet, 2012 Feb;50(1-2):135-45.
    PMID: 22089543 DOI: 10.1007/s10528-011-9479-8
    A preliminary screening was conducted on BC3F1 and BC4F1 backcross families developed from crossing Oryza sativa (MR219) and O. rufipogon (IRGC105491). Despite earlier results showing that O. rufipogon alleles (wild introgression) contributed to both number of panicles (qPPL-2) and tillers (qTPL-2) at loci RM250, RM208, and RM48 in line A20 of the BC2F2 population, we observed that wild introgression was lost at loci RM250 and RM208 but retained at locus RM48 in BC3F1 and BC4F1. Progeny tests conducted utilizing genotype and phenotype data on both BC4F1 and a reference population, BC2F7 (A20 line), did not show significant differences between groups having the MR219 allele and wild introgression at locus RM48. This suggests that there is no additive and transgressive effect of wild introgression in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generated. The presence of wild introgression was largely due to gene contamination by cross-pollination during field breeding practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination/genetics
  5. Sulaiman B, Boyce PC
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010 Dec;21(2):85-90.
    PMID: 24575201 MyJurnal
    Homalomena galbana Baharuddin S. & P.C. Boyce is described from the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, representing the first species of the Homalomena Supergroup to be recorded from Sabah, and the first mesophytic species of the Supergroup to be described from Borneo. The species is illustrated and a brief discussion on the pollination role of interpistillar staminodes is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  6. Low SL, Wong SY, Ooi IH, Hesse M, Städler Y, Schönenberger J, et al.
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2016 Jan;18(1):84-97.
    PMID: 25688576 DOI: 10.1111/plb.12320
    Homoplastic evolution of 'unique' morphological characteristics in the Schismatoglottideae - many previously used to define genera - prompted this study to compare morphology and function in connection with pollination biology for Aridarum nicolsonii, Phymatarum borneense and Schottarum sarikeense. Aridarum nicolsonii and P. borneense extrude pollen through a pair of horned thecae while S. sarikeense sheds pollen through a pair of pores on the thecae. Floral traits of spathe constriction, presence and movement of sterile structures on the spadix, the comparable role of horned thecae and thecae pores, the presence of stamen-associated calcium oxalate packages, and the timing of odour emission are discussed in the context of their roles in pollinator management. Pollinators for all investigated species were determined to be species of Colocasiomyia (Diptera: Drosophilidae).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination/physiology*
  7. Tani N, Tsumura Y, Kado T, Taguchi Y, Lee SL, Muhammad N, et al.
    Ann Bot, 2009 Dec;104(7):1421-34.
    PMID: 19808773 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcp252
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Knowledge of pollen dispersal patterns and variation of fecundity is essential to understanding plant evolutionary processes and to formulating strategies to conserve forest genetic resources. Nevertheless, the pollen dispersal pattern of dipterocarp, main canopy tree species in palaeo-tropical forest remains unclear, and flowering intensity variation in the field suggests heterogeneity of fecundity.

    METHODS: Pollen dispersal patterns and male fecundity variation of Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia on Peninsular Malaysian were investigated during two general flowering seasons (2001 and 2002), using a neighbourhood model modified by including terms accounting for variation in male fecundity among individual trees to express heterogeneity in flowering.

    KEY RESULTS: The pollen dispersal patterns of the two dipterocarp species were affected by differences in conspecific tree flowering density, and reductions in conspecific tree flowering density led to an increased selfing rate. Active pollen dispersal and a larger number of effective paternal parents were observed for both species in the season of greater magnitude of general flowering (2002).

    CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of general flowering, male fecundity variation, and distance between pollen donors and mother trees should be taken into account when attempting to predict the effects of management practices on the self-fertilization and genetic structure of key tree species in tropical forest, and also the sustainability of possible management strategies, especially selective logging regimes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  8. Fort H, Vázquez DP, Lan BL
    Ecol. Lett., 2016 Jan;19(1):4-11.
    PMID: 26498731 DOI: 10.1111/ele.12535
    A frequent observation in plant-animal mutualistic networks is that abundant species tend to be more generalised, interacting with a broader range of interaction partners than rare species. Uncovering the causal relationship between abundance and generalisation has been hindered by a chicken-and-egg dilemma: is generalisation a by-product of being abundant, or does high abundance result from generalisation? Here, we analyse a database of plant-pollinator and plant-seed disperser networks, and provide strong evidence that the causal link between abundance and generalisation is uni-directional. Specifically, species appear to be generalists because they are more abundant, but the converse, that is that species become more abundant because they are generalists, is not supported by our analysis. Furthermore, null model analyses suggest that abundant species interact with many other species simply because they are more likely to encounter potential interaction partners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  9. Huda AN, Salmah MR, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Razak MN
    J. Insect Sci., 2015;15.
    PMID: 26246439 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev090
    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  10. Wong MM, Lim CL, Wilson JJ
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2015 Aug;105(4):515-20.
    PMID: 25913190 DOI: 10.1017/S0007485315000358
    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination/physiology*
  11. Wee SL, Tan SB, Jürgens A
    Phytochemistry, 2018 Sep;153:120-128.
    PMID: 29906658 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.06.005
    The plants of the enigmatic genus Rafflesia are well known for their gigantic flowers and their floral features such as pungent floral scent and vivid dark color, which mimics the food/brood sites of carrion. However, information on the pollination biology of this plant group remains limited and mostly anecdotal. In the present paper, we studied the floral volatiles of R. cantleyi Solms-Laubach and their role in pollinator attraction. To achieve these aims, the floral scent was collected in situ in the field using a dynamic headspace method followed by chemical analysis via GC-MS. The olfactory preferences of pollinators to the identified chemical compounds, were tested singly and in blends, in flight tunnel bioassays and compared with responses to headspace floral extracts. In addition, flower-visiting calliphorid flies and the local carrion fly community were sampled and identified. Five species of calliphorid flies (subfamilies of Chrysomyinae and Calliphorinae), all females, were found on the flowers, whereas nine species were found in the traps that were baited with tainted meat in the surrounding habitat. However, only flower visitors of one blow fly species, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, were observed to carry R. cantleyi pollen after visiting male flowers. The floral volatiles emitted by male flowers in full bloom were dominated by two sulphur-containing compounds, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). These were accompanied by other minor compounds such as benzenoids (4), monoterpenoids (4), trace amounts of aliphatic compounds (1), and sesquiterpenes (1). In flight-tunnel bioassays, a female-specific positive response of C. chani flies to individual DMDS, DMTS, and a blend of DMDS and DMTS was evident. Our findings suggest that R. cantleyi biochemically mimics carrion and that relative ratio of oligosulfides in the floral scent play a key role in sex-biased pollinator specialization, attracting only female C. chani carrion flies to the flowers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination*
  12. Sakai S, Momose K, Yumoto T, Nagamitsu T, Nagamasu H, Hamid AA, et al.
    Am J Bot, 1999 Oct;86(10):1414-36.
    PMID: 10523283
    The first systematic observation of a general flowering, a phenomenon unique to lowland mixed-dipterocarp forests in Southeast Asia, is presented. During general flowering, which occurs at irregular intervals of 3-10 yr, nearly all dipterocarp species together with species of other families come heavily into flower. We monitored reproductive phenology of 576 individual plants representing 305 species in 56 families in Sarawak, Malaysia. Observations continued for 53 mo from August 1992 and covered one episode of a general flowering cycle. Among 527 effective reproductive events during 43 mo, 57% were concentrated in the general flowering period (GFP) of 10 mo in 1996. We classified 257 species into flowering types based on timing and frequency of flowering. The most abundant type was "general flowering" (35%), which flowered only during GFP. The others were "supra-annual" (19%), "annual" (13%), and "sub-annual" (5%) types. General flowering type and temporal aggregation in reproductive events were commonly found among species in various categories of taxonomic groups, life forms, pollination systems, and fruit types. Possible causes for general flowering, such as promotion of pollination brought about by interspecific synchronization and paucity of climatic cues suitable for flowering trigger, are proposed, in addition to the predator satiation hypothesis of Janzen (1974).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  13. Masuda S, Tani N, Ueno S, Lee SL, Muhammad N, Kondo T, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e82039.
    PMID: 24391712 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082039
    Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination/genetics; Pollination/physiology
  14. Sakai S, Kato M, Inoue T
    Am J Bot, 1999 May;86(5):646-58.
    PMID: 10330067
    The pollinators of 29 ginger species representing 11 genera in relation to certain floral morphological characteristics in a mixed-dipterocarp forest in Borneo were investigated. Among the 29 species studied, eight were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae), 11 by medium-sized Amegilla bees (Anthophoridae), and ten by small halictid bees. These pollination guilds found in gingers in Sarawak are comparable to the pollination guilds of neotropical Zingiberales, i.e., hummingbird-, and euglossine-bee-pollinated guilds. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that there were significant correlations between floral morphology and pollination guilds and suggests the importance of plant-pollinator interactions in the evolution of floral morphology. Most species in the three guilds were separated on the plot by the first and second canonical variables. Spiderhunter-pollinated flowers had longer floral tubes, while Amegilla-pollinated flowers had wider lips than the others, which function as a platform for the pollinators. Pistils and stamens of halictid-pollinated flowers were smaller than the others. The fact that gingers with diverse morphologies in a forest with high species diversity were grouped into only three pollination guilds and that the pollinators themselves showed low species diversity suggests that many species of rare understory plants have evolved without segregating pollinators in each pollination guild.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  15. Yumoto T
    Am J Bot, 2000 Aug;87(8):1181-8.
    PMID: 10948003
    Pollination ecology of three Durio species, D. grandiflorus, D. oblongus, and D. kutejensis (Bombacaceae), was studied in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, during a peak flowering period when at least 305 species of plants bloomed in 1996. Durio has been reported to be pollinated by bats in Peninsular Malaysia. However, my observations of flower visitors and pollination experiments indicated that two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and that the other species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and bats as well as birds. Hand-pollination experiments showed that all three species were obligate outbreeders. A resource limitation in fruit production was suggested. The former two species were visited only by spiderhunters, and the bagged flowers that were opened for animal visitors only at night bore no fruit, while those that were opened only during the day bore fruits, at comparable fruiting ratios to open pollination. Durio kutejensis was observed to be visited by giant honey bees, birds, and bats at different times of day, and three series of bagged experiments that exposed the flowers to animal visitors at different times of day bore fruits at a comparable ratio to open-pollination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  16. Momose K, Yumoto T, Nagamitsu T, Kato M, Nagamasu H, Sakai S, et al.
    Am J Bot, 1998 Oct;85(10):1477-501.
    PMID: 21684899
    Flowerings and flower visitors were observed continuously in alowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, for 53 mo in1992-1996. Flower visitors of 270 plant species were observed orcollected, and pollinators were assessed by observing body contact tostigmas and anthers. We recognized 12 categories of pollination systems.Among them, plants pollinated by social bees included the largest numberof species (32%) and were followed by beetle-pollinated species(20%). Pollination systems were significantly related with somefloral characters (flowering time of day, reward, and floral shape), butnot with floral color. Based on the relationships between pollinatorsand floral characters, we described pollination syndromes found in alowland dipterocarp forest. The dominance of social bees and beetlesamong pollinators is discussed in relation to the general floweringobserved in dipterocarp forests of West Malesia. In spite of high plantspecies diversity and consequent low population densities of lowlanddipterocarp forests, long-distance-specific pollinators were uncommoncompared with theNeotropics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  17. Pham QB, Sammen SS, Abba SI, Mohammadi B, Shahid S, Abdulkadir RA
    PMID: 33625698 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12792-2
    Precise monitoring of cyanobacteria concentration in water resources is a daunting task. The development of reliable tools to monitor this contamination is an important research topic in water resources management. Indirect methods such as chlorophyll-a determination, cell counting, and toxin measurement of the cyanobacteria are tedious, cumbersome, and often lead to inaccurate results. The quantity of phycocyanin (PC) pigment is considered more appropriate for cyanobacteria monitoring. Traditional approaches for PC estimation are time-consuming, expensive, and require high expertise. Recently, some studies have proposed the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the amount of PC concentration. Nonetheless, most of these researches are limited to standalone modeling schemas such as artificial neural network (ANN), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and support vector machine (SVM). The independent schema provides imprecise results when faced with highly nonlinear systems and data uncertainties resulting from environmental disturbances. To alleviate the limitations of the existing models, this study proposes the first application of a hybrid AI model that integrates the potentials of relevance vector machine (RVM) and flower pollination algorithm (RVM-FPA) to predict the PC concentration in water resources. The performance of the hybrid model is compared with the standalone RVM model. The prediction performance of the proposed models was evaluated at two stations (stations 508 and 478) using different statistical and graphical performance evaluation methods. The results showed that the hybrid models exhibited higher performance at both stations compared to the standalone RVM model. The proposed hybrid RVM-FPA can therefore serve as a reliable predictive tool for PC concentration in water resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  18. Aziz SA, Clements GR, McConkey KR, Sritongchuay T, Pathil S, Abu Yazid MNH, et al.
    Ecol Evol, 2017 11;7(21):8670-8684.
    PMID: 29152168 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3213
    Fruit bats provide valuable pollination services to humans through a unique coevolutionary relationship with chiropterophilous plants. However, chiropterophily in the Old World and the pollination roles of large bats, such as flying foxes (Pteropus spp., Acerodon spp., Desmalopex spp.), are still poorly understood and require further elucidation. Efforts to protect these bats have been hampered by a lack of basic quantitative information on their role as ecosystem service providers. Here, we investigate the role of the locally endangered island flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus in the pollination ecology of durian (Durio zibethinus), an economically important crop in Southeast Asia. On Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia, we deployed 19 stations of paired infrared camera and video traps across varying heights at four individual flowering trees in a durian orchard. We detected at least nine species of animal visitors, but only bats had mutualistic interactions with durian flowers. There was a clear vertical stratification in the feeding niches of flying foxes and nectar bats, with flying foxes feeding at greater heights in the trees. Flying foxes had a positive effect on mature fruit set and therefore serve as important pollinators for durian trees. As such, semi-wild durian trees-particularly tall ones-may be dependent on flying foxes for enhancing reproductive success. Our study is the first to quantify the role of flying foxes in durian pollination, demonstrating that these giant fruit bats may have far more important ecological, evolutionary, and economic roles than previously thought. This has important implications and can aid efforts to promote flying fox conservation, especially in Southeast Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  19. Noor Albannia Natasya Jabi, Hazmi Awang Damit
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(1):1-9.
    Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
  20. Swaray S, Y Rafii M, Din Amiruddin M, Firdaus Ismail M, Jamian S, Jalloh M, et al.
    Insects, 2021 Mar 04;12(3).
    PMID: 33806613 DOI: 10.3390/insects12030221
    This study was conducted to assess the Elaeidobius kamerunicus (EK) population density among the biparental dura × pisifera hybrids' palms on deep peat-soil. Twenty-four hybrids derived from 10 genetic sources were used. Variance analysis showed that the EK population density varies between different oil palm hybrids, with a more noticeable variation of a low population mean in the male weevil across the hybrids. The highest weevil population mean/spikelet was attained on the third day of anthesis. The maximum monthly population of EK/spikelet (12.81 ± 0.23) and population density of EK (1846.49 ± 60.69) were recorded in January. Accordingly, 41.67% of the hybrids recorded an EK population density greater than the trial means of 973.68 weevils. Hybrid ECPHP550 had the highest mean of EK/spikelet (10.25 ± 0.11) and the highest population density of EK/palm (1241.39 ± 73.74). The parental mean population was 963.24 weevils and parent Deli-Banting × AVROS recorded the highest EK population density (1173.01). The overall results showed a notable disparity in the EK population among the biparental hybrids. Parental Deli-Banting × AVROS and hybrid ECPHP550 could be more useful to optimize the weevil population for pollination improvements in palm plantations. However, we suggest that volatile production should be included as a desirable trait in oil palm selective breeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pollination
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