METHODS: (1) A population-based study was undertaken to estimate NMOSD prevalence in the multi-ethnic Penang Island, Malaysia, comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Medical records of NMOSD patients followed up at the Penang General Hospital (the neurology referral centre in Penang Island) were reviewed. The 2015 diagnostic criteria of the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis were used for case ascertainment. (2) A review of population-based prevalence studies of NMOSD worldwide was carried out. PubMed and conference proceedings were searched for such studies.
RESULTS: Of the 28 NMOSD patients, 14 were residents of Penang Island on prevalence day [13 (93%) Chinese and one (7%) Malay]. All 14 patients were females and aquaporin 4 seropositive. The prevalence of NMOSD in Penang Island was 1.99/100,000 population; according to ethnicities, the prevalence in Chinese was significantly higher than in Malays (3.31/100,000 vs 0.43/100,000, respectively, p = 0.0195).
CONCLUSION: Based on our and other population-based studies, among Asians, East Asian origin populations (Chinese and Japanese) appear to have higher NMOSD prevalence than other Asian ethnic groups. Worldwide, Blacks seem to have the highest NMOSD prevalence. More studies in different geographical regions and ethnic groups will be useful to further inform about potential factors in NMOSD pathogenesis.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will be guided by the smart technology adoption behaviours of elder consumers theoretical model (Elderadopt) by Golant and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews. First, we will conduct an internet search for nursing homes and websites and databases related to the stakeholders to retrieve the definitions, concepts and criteria of a smart nursing home (phase 1). Second, we will conduct an additional systematic electronic database search for published articles on any measures of technological feasibility and integration of medical services in nursing home settings and their acceptability by nursing home residents and caregivers (phase 2). The electronic database search will be carried out from 1999 to 30 September 2020 and limited to works published in English and Chinese languages. For phase 2, the selection of literature is further limited to residents of nursing homes aged ≥60 years old with or without medical needs but are not terminally ill or bed-bound. Qualitative data analysis will follow the Framework Methods and thematic analysis using combined inductive and deductive approaches, conducted by at least two reviewers.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is registered on osf.io (URL: https://osf.io/qtwz2/). Ethical approval is not necessary as the scoping review is not a primary study, and the information is collected from selected articles that are publicly available sources. All findings will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.