METHODS: (1) A population-based study was undertaken to estimate NMOSD prevalence in the multi-ethnic Penang Island, Malaysia, comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Medical records of NMOSD patients followed up at the Penang General Hospital (the neurology referral centre in Penang Island) were reviewed. The 2015 diagnostic criteria of the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis were used for case ascertainment. (2) A review of population-based prevalence studies of NMOSD worldwide was carried out. PubMed and conference proceedings were searched for such studies.
RESULTS: Of the 28 NMOSD patients, 14 were residents of Penang Island on prevalence day [13 (93%) Chinese and one (7%) Malay]. All 14 patients were females and aquaporin 4 seropositive. The prevalence of NMOSD in Penang Island was 1.99/100,000 population; according to ethnicities, the prevalence in Chinese was significantly higher than in Malays (3.31/100,000 vs 0.43/100,000, respectively, p = 0.0195).
CONCLUSION: Based on our and other population-based studies, among Asians, East Asian origin populations (Chinese and Japanese) appear to have higher NMOSD prevalence than other Asian ethnic groups. Worldwide, Blacks seem to have the highest NMOSD prevalence. More studies in different geographical regions and ethnic groups will be useful to further inform about potential factors in NMOSD pathogenesis.
METHOD: This study was performed among the indigenous people in Kuching and Sibu (Sarawak) and Kota Kinabalu (Sabah) using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale. A higher score indicates poorer attitude.
RESULT: A total of 360 respondents (41.7% Kadazan-Dusun, 30.6% Bidayuh, and 24.7% Iban) aged 34.6 ± 12.6 years completed the questionnaire. They were predominantly females and had lower education level and income compared with the West Malaysians. The Sabah population had significantly lower mean scores (better attitudes) than those in Sarawak, in both personal and general domains (p