METHODS: A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of using OSN to detect and track a pandemic was conducted. We conducted an electronic literature search for eligible English articles published between 2004 and 2015 using PUBMED, IEEExplore, ACM Digital Library, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. First, the articles were screened on the basis of titles and abstracts. Second, the full texts were reviewed. All included studies were subjected to quality assessment.
RESULT: OSNs have rich information that can be utilized to develop an almost real-time pandemic surveillance system. The outcomes of OSN surveillance systems have demonstrated high correlations with the findings of official surveillance systems. However, the limitation in using OSN to track pandemic is in collecting representative data with sufficient population coverage. This challenge is related to the characteristics of OSN data. The data are dynamic, large-sized, and unstructured, thus requiring advanced algorithms and computational linguistics.
CONCLUSIONS: OSN data contain significant information that can be used to track a pandemic. Different from traditional surveys and clinical reports, in which the data collection process is time consuming at costly rates, OSN data can be collected almost in real time at a cheaper cost. Additionally, the geographical and temporal information can provide exploratory analysis of spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious disease spread. However, on one hand, an OSN-based surveillance system requires comprehensive adoption, enhanced geographical identification system, and advanced algorithms and computational linguistics to eliminate its limitations and challenges. On the other hand, OSN is probably to never replace traditional surveillance, but it can offer complementary data that can work best when integrated with traditional data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was conducted among key informants in the National Cancer Registry (NCR) and reporting facilities from FebMay 2012 and was based on US CDC guidelines. Representativeness was assessed by matching cancer case in the Health Information System (HIS) and state pathology records with those in NCR. Data quality was measured through case finding and reabstracting of medical records by independent auditors. The reabstracting portion comprised 15 data items. Selfadministered questionnaires were used to assess simplicity and acceptability. Timeliness was measured from date of diagnosis to date of notification received and data dissemination.
RESULTS: Of 4613 cancer cases reported in HIS, 83.3% were matched with cancer registry. In the state pathology centre, 99.8% was notified to registry. Duplication of notification was 3%. Data completeness calculated for 104 samples was 63.4%. Registrars perceived simplicity in coding diagnosis as moderate. Notification process was moderately acceptable. Median duration of interval 1 was 5.7 months.
CONCLUSIONS: The performances of registry's attributes are fairly positive in terms of simplicity, case reporting sensitivity, and predictive value positive. It is moderately acceptable, data completeness and inflexible. The usefulness of registry is the area of concern to achieve registry objectives. Timeliness of reporting is within international standard, whereas timeliness to data dissemination was longer up to 4 years. Integration between existing HIS and national registration department will improve data quality.
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the application of the new VAE surveillance definition in paediatric population and examine the potential challenges in clinical practice.
REVIEW METHODS: A systematic approach was used to locate and synthesise the relevant paediatric literature. Studies were appraised according to epidemiological appraisal instrument (EAI) and the grades of evidence in the National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines.
RESULTS: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality of study methods was above 50% on the EAI. The overall grade of evidence was assessed as C (satisfactory). The incidence of VAE in children ranged from 1.1 to 20.9 per 1000 ventilator days as a result of variations in surveillance criteria across included studies. There is little agreement between the new VAE and PNU/VAP surveillance definition in the identification of VAP. Challenges in the application of VAE surveillance were related to; the difference in modes of ventilation used in children versus adults, inconclusive criteria tailored to paediatric samples and a lack of data that support for automatic data extraction applied in paediatric studies.
CONCLUSION: This review demonstrated promising evidence using the new VAE surveillance definition to define the VAE in children, but the level of the evidence is low. Before the possibility of real implementation in clinical settings, challenges related to VAE paediatric specific criteria' and the value of automated data collection need to be considered.
RESULTS: Based on 517 cases of AFP reported during this 5-year period, the overall rate of AFP was 1.2 per 100 000 children below 15 years old. The major clinical diagnosis associated with AFP were Guillain-Barre syndrome (30.2%), central nervous system infection (16.2%), transverse myelitis (10.6%) non-polio enterovirus infection (6.2%), and hypokalaemic paralysis (5.2%). This unusual pattern with an excess of CNS infection and non-polio enterovirus infection was attributed to the outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection nation-wide in 1997. According to the WHO virological classification, there was no case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus. Three cases were 'polio compatible', there were no cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), while 62 cases (12.0%) were merely classified as 'non-polio AFP'.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus in Malaysia from 1997 to 2001. The pattern of AFP in this study is different from other published reports.
METHODS: All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic.
RESULTS: The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r = 0.553, p