Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 189 in total

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  1. Cheong WH, Mahadevan S
    PMID: 7147014
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  2. Cheong WH, Mahadevan S, Loong KP
    PMID: 7147013
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  3. Wartel TA, Prayitno A, Hadinegoro SR, Capeding MR, Thisyakorn U, Tran NH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2017 Jan;29(1):7-16.
    PMID: 28198645 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516675701
    We described and quantified epidemiologic trends in dengue disease burden in 5 Asian countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam) and identified and estimated outbreaks impact over the last 3 decades. Dengue surveillance data from 1980 to 2010 were retrieved from DengueNet and from World Health Organization sources. Trends in incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) were systematically analyzed using annual average percent change (AAPC), and the contribution of epidemic years identified over the observation period was quantified. Over the 30-year period, incidence increased in all countries (AAPC 1980-2010: 6.7% in Thailand, 10.4% in Vietnam, 12.0% in Indonesia, 18.1% in Malaysia, 24.4% in Philippines). Mortality also increased in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines (AAPC: 6.8%, 7.0%, and 29.2%, respectively), but slightly decreased in Thailand and Vietnam (AAPC: -1.3% and -2.5%), and CFR decreased in all countries (AAPC: -4.2% to -8.3%). Epidemic years, despite representing less than a third of the observation period, contributed from 1 to 3 times more cases versus nonepidemic years. Implementation of more sensitive surveillance methods over the study period may have contributed to a reporting or ascertainment bias in some countries. Nonetheless, these data support the urgent need for novel, integrated, or otherwise effective dengue prevention and control tools and approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance*
  4. Jarrett S, Morgan JA, Wlodek BM, Brown GW, Urech R, Green PE, et al.
    Med. Vet. Entomol., 2010 Sep;24(3):227-35.
    PMID: 20497318 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00867.x
    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance/methods
  5. Bravo LC, Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group
    Vaccine, 2009 Dec 9;27(52):7282-91.
    PMID: 19393708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.046
    This paper represents a collaborative effort by the Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group to collate data on the disease burden due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in participating Asian countries and territories; namely, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. A review of both published and unpublished data revealed that the incidence of IPD in some countries is well documented by way of large, long-duration studies, while in other countries, much of the available data have been extrapolated from international studies or have come from small population studies of limited geographical coverage. This paper confirms that data regarding the incidence of IPD in Asia are grossly lacking and reinforces the need for urgent and more substantial studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance*
  6. Al-Garadi MA, Khan MS, Varathan KD, Mujtaba G, Al-Kabsi AM
    J Biomed Inform, 2016 08;62:1-11.
    PMID: 27224846 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2016.05.005
    BACKGROUND: The popularity and proliferation of online social networks (OSNs) have created massive social interaction among users that generate an extensive amount of data. An OSN offers a unique opportunity for studying and understanding social interaction and communication among far larger populations now more than ever before. Recently, OSNs have received considerable attention as a possible tool to track a pandemic because they can provide an almost real-time surveillance system at a less costly rate than traditional surveillance systems.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of using OSN to detect and track a pandemic was conducted. We conducted an electronic literature search for eligible English articles published between 2004 and 2015 using PUBMED, IEEExplore, ACM Digital Library, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. First, the articles were screened on the basis of titles and abstracts. Second, the full texts were reviewed. All included studies were subjected to quality assessment.

    RESULT: OSNs have rich information that can be utilized to develop an almost real-time pandemic surveillance system. The outcomes of OSN surveillance systems have demonstrated high correlations with the findings of official surveillance systems. However, the limitation in using OSN to track pandemic is in collecting representative data with sufficient population coverage. This challenge is related to the characteristics of OSN data. The data are dynamic, large-sized, and unstructured, thus requiring advanced algorithms and computational linguistics.

    CONCLUSIONS: OSN data contain significant information that can be used to track a pandemic. Different from traditional surveys and clinical reports, in which the data collection process is time consuming at costly rates, OSN data can be collected almost in real time at a cheaper cost. Additionally, the geographical and temporal information can provide exploratory analysis of spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious disease spread. However, on one hand, an OSN-based surveillance system requires comprehensive adoption, enhanced geographical identification system, and advanced algorithms and computational linguistics to eliminate its limitations and challenges. On the other hand, OSN is probably to never replace traditional surveillance, but it can offer complementary data that can work best when integrated with traditional data.

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance/methods
  7. Takahashi K, Karjalainen A
    Int J Occup Environ Health, 2003 Jul-Sep;9(3):244-8.
    PMID: 12967160
    Information about asbestos issues at the national level was compiled for ten Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) regarding 1) bans and consumption levels; 2) occupational exposure limits (OELs) and medical follow-up schemes; and 3) statistics and compensation status of asbestosis and mesothelioma victims. Only Singapore and recently Japan have adopted a total ban an asbestos. China, a major producer of chrysotile, showed an increasing consumption trend, which was typical of the less industrialized countries. Considerable differences between countries existed in OELs (0.1 to 5.0 fibers/mL) and medical follow-up of exposed workers. National statistics for asbestosis and mesothelioma were available for only the industrialized countries, where reported cases as well as compensated cases were relatively few. There is need to improve the quality and quantity of information, but the available information attests to unfavorable conditions in the less industrialized countries. Hence the experience of industrialized countries regarding asbestos and its use should be utilized to the fullest to improve the situation worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance*
  8. Goldman N, Westoff CF, Paul LE
    Stud Fam Plann, 1985 Sep-Oct;16(5):252-9.
    PMID: 4060210 DOI: 10.2307/1966998
    The estimation of fecundability from survey data is plagued by methodological problems such as misreporting of dates of birth and marriage and the occurrence of premarital exposure to the risk of conception. Nevertheless, estimates of fecundability from World Fertility Survey data for women married in recent years appear to be plausible for most of the surveys analyzed here and are quite consistent with estimates reported in earlier studies. The estimates presented in this article are all derived from the first interval, the interval between marriage or consensual union and the first live birth conception.
    PIP: The estimation of fecundability from survey data is plagued by methodological problems such as misreporting of dates of birth and marriage and the occurrence of premarital exposure to the risk of conception. The availability of data collected with a standard interview schedule from over 40 countries in the World Fertility Survey (WFS) is an invaluable resource for assessing the potential utility of measures of fecundability derived from single-round surveys as well as for comparing estimates across countries and regions of the world. In this article, data are used from 5 WFSs in Latin America (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico and Paraguay) and 3 in Asia (Korea, Malaysia and Sri Lanka) to determine the general usefulness of single-round survey data for the estimation of fecundability from survey data, given the limited information on contraceptive use available from many surveys and the data quality problems associated with reports of dates of marriage and dates of birth. Explored in the process are several different procedures for estimation and variations in estimates of fecundability by country, time period, and women's age. For most of this analysis, the median waiting time to conception in the absence of contraception is used as a measure of fecundability. All of the estimates presented are derived from the 1st birth interval. The estimates are based on data collected in both the birth and the marriage histories in the WFS individual interviews. The 8 surveys chosen for this analysis are characterized by relatively complete reporting of dates of birth and marriage. The primary conclusion of this exercise is that reasonable estimates of fecundability can be derived from WFS data only if one is careful to avoid numerous methodological pitfalls. The most plausible estimates appear to be for women married in the period from about 2 to 10 years before the survey. The average waiting times to 1st conception range from about 4 to 7 months; the corresponding monthly probabilities of conception lie between 0.17 and 0.26. The effect of age at marriage on fecundability is most apparent for ages below 16; differences between women married at ages 16-17 and at ages 18 and above are more modest. Suggestions for improvement of the estimation of fecundability by including a number of questions in survey questionnaires are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance*
  9. Jeffree SM, Mihat O, Lukman KA, Ibrahim MY, Kamaludin F, Hassan MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(7):3123-9.
    PMID: 27509940
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in Sabah Malaysia with a reported agestandardized incidence rate was 104.9 per 100,000 in 2007. The incidence rate depends on nonmandatory notification in the registry. Underreporting will provide the false picture of cancer control program effectiveness. The present study was to evaluate the performance of the cancer registry system in terms of representativeness, data quality, simplicity, acceptability and timeliness and provision of recommendations for improvement.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was conducted among key informants in the National Cancer Registry (NCR) and reporting facilities from FebMay 2012 and was based on US CDC guidelines. Representativeness was assessed by matching cancer case in the Health Information System (HIS) and state pathology records with those in NCR. Data quality was measured through case finding and reabstracting of medical records by independent auditors. The reabstracting portion comprised 15 data items. Selfadministered questionnaires were used to assess simplicity and acceptability. Timeliness was measured from date of diagnosis to date of notification received and data dissemination.

    RESULTS: Of 4613 cancer cases reported in HIS, 83.3% were matched with cancer registry. In the state pathology centre, 99.8% was notified to registry. Duplication of notification was 3%. Data completeness calculated for 104 samples was 63.4%. Registrars perceived simplicity in coding diagnosis as moderate. Notification process was moderately acceptable. Median duration of interval 1 was 5.7 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: The performances of registry's attributes are fairly positive in terms of simplicity, case reporting sensitivity, and predictive value positive. It is moderately acceptable, data completeness and inflexible. The usefulness of registry is the area of concern to achieve registry objectives. Timeliness of reporting is within international standard, whereas timeliness to data dissemination was longer up to 4 years. Integration between existing HIS and national registration department will improve data quality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance/methods
  10. Partap U, Young EH, Allotey P, Soyiri IN, Jahan N, Komahan K, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2017 10 01;46(5):1370-1371g.
    PMID: 29024948 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx113
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance/methods*
  11. Heo CC, Kurahashi H, Nishida K, Tan Siew H, Mohamed Z, Mohamed AM, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Dec;25(3):254-6.
    PMID: 19287366
    Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 is newly recorded from peninsular Malaysia. This record is based on 4 male specimens from Mount Berembun, Brinchang, Cameron Highland, Pahang state, peninsular Malaysia. It is previously recorded from China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Bonin Island, Thailand and oriental region. The male of Fannia prisca can be differentiated from male Fannia scalaris by the following features: for F. prisca, mid-coxa without spine; mid-tibia normal or without stout triangular ventral projection; and hind tibia usually with 2 av, while F. scalaris has several stout hook-like spines on the anterior margin; mid-tibia with stout triangular ventral projection and hind tibia usually with 3 av. Both F. prisca and F. scalaris can be differentiated from Fannia leucosticta by looking at its hind tibia, which only has 1 av.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  12. Pang T, Bhutta ZA, Finlay BB, Altwegg M
    Trends Microbiol., 1995 Jul;3(7):253-5.
    PMID: 7551636
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  13. Mohd Ali NA, Jauncey-Cooke J, Bogossian F
    Aust Crit Care, 2019 01;32(1):55-62.
    PMID: 30554940 DOI: 10.1016/j.aucc.2018.11.063
    BACKGROUND: The complexity and variation in ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) definitions in paediatrics may pose threats to the reliable identification of VAP. The revision of the surveillance definition to ventilator-associated event (VAE) has been mandated in adult populations, to overcome these issues. However, the evidence for application of the definition is unknown in children.

    OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the application of the new VAE surveillance definition in paediatric population and examine the potential challenges in clinical practice.

    REVIEW METHODS: A systematic approach was used to locate and synthesise the relevant paediatric literature. Studies were appraised according to epidemiological appraisal instrument (EAI) and the grades of evidence in the National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines.

    RESULTS: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality of study methods was above 50% on the EAI. The overall grade of evidence was assessed as C (satisfactory). The incidence of VAE in children ranged from 1.1 to 20.9 per 1000 ventilator days as a result of variations in surveillance criteria across included studies. There is little agreement between the new VAE and PNU/VAP surveillance definition in the identification of VAP. Challenges in the application of VAE surveillance were related to; the difference in modes of ventilation used in children versus adults, inconclusive criteria tailored to paediatric samples and a lack of data that support for automatic data extraction applied in paediatric studies.

    CONCLUSION: This review demonstrated promising evidence using the new VAE surveillance definition to define the VAE in children, but the level of the evidence is low. Before the possibility of real implementation in clinical settings, challenges related to VAE paediatric specific criteria' and the value of automated data collection need to be considered.

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  14. Ravichandran J, Ravindran J
    BJOG, 2014 Sep;121 Suppl 4:47-52.
    PMID: 25236633 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12944
    Malaysia has successfully reduced maternal mortality through several efforts which, in the broad sense, include (i) the overall socio-economic development of the country; (ii) strengthened health services; and (iii) specific efforts and initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality, one of which is the audit of maternal deaths by the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  15. Graham WJ, Hussein J
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2006 Sep;94(3):234-42.
    PMID: 16836998
    This paper aims to highlight the importance of aspiring to achieve universal reporting of maternal deaths as a part of taking responsibility for these avoidable tragedies. The paper first discusses the reasons for reporting maternal deaths, distinguishing between individual case notification and aggregate statistics. This is followed by a summary of the status of reporting at national and international levels, as well as major barriers and facilitators to this process. A new framework is then proposed - the REPORT framework, designed to highlight six factors essential to universal reporting. Malaysia is used to illustrate the relevance of these factors. Finally, the paper makes a Call to Action by FIGO to promote REPORT and to encourage health professionals to play their part in improving the quality of reporting on all maternal deaths - not just those directly in their care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  16. Hussain IH, Ali S, Sinniah M, Kurup D, Khoo TB, Thomas TG, et al.
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2004 Mar;40(3):127-30.
    PMID: 15009577
    OBJECTIVE: The nation-wide surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was implemented in Malaysia in 1995 and further intensified in 1996 as part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) certification process for polio eradication in the Western Pacific Region. Clinical data on AFP cases during a 5-year surveillance period from 1997 to 2001 were compiled and analysed.

    RESULTS: Based on 517 cases of AFP reported during this 5-year period, the overall rate of AFP was 1.2 per 100 000 children below 15 years old. The major clinical diagnosis associated with AFP were Guillain-Barre syndrome (30.2%), central nervous system infection (16.2%), transverse myelitis (10.6%) non-polio enterovirus infection (6.2%), and hypokalaemic paralysis (5.2%). This unusual pattern with an excess of CNS infection and non-polio enterovirus infection was attributed to the outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection nation-wide in 1997. According to the WHO virological classification, there was no case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus. Three cases were 'polio compatible', there were no cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), while 62 cases (12.0%) were merely classified as 'non-polio AFP'.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus in Malaysia from 1997 to 2001. The pattern of AFP in this study is different from other published reports.

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  17. Sulaiman S, Jeffery J
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1994 Sep;10(3):460-1.
    PMID: 7807097
    Between April 1987 and March 1988, populations of immature Aedes albopictus and Toxorhynchites spp. in bamboo pots were sampled weekly. Populations of Ae. albopictus and rainfall varied from month to month. During the heavy rainfall months of September and October 1987, larval counts of Ae. albopictus were high, between 30.8 and 49.2 larvae per week compared to 16 larvae per week during the low rainfall month of January 1988. A higher population of Toxorhynchites spp. was associated with a low population of the vector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  18. Yap HH, Tan HT, Yahaya AM, Baba R, Chong NL
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1991 Mar;7(1):24-9.
    PMID: 1675256
    Five formulations of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) including aqueous suspension BSP 1, BSP 2, technical powder ABG 6184, corncob granules ABG 6185 (potencies 2 x 10(10), 2 x 10(7), 9.5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10) spore/g, respectively) and wettable powder ABG 6232 (1,000 BS ITU/mg) were tested against laboratory-cultured late third/early fourth instar larvae of Mansonia uniformis in floating screened cages in small plots at swampy ditches on Penang Island, Malaysia. Mean dosage/response values at 90% mortality levels were 6.93, 95.32, 1.45, 11.92 and 2.86 liters or kg per ha, respectively, for the formulations tested. There were practically no residual effects for the formulations tested with larvae introduced at 48, 96, and 168 h post-treatment. In trials of BSP 1, ABG 6184 and ABG 6185 (1 liter or 1 kg per ha) against immature Mansonia spp. in impounded paddy field ditches, improved efficacy and residual effects were obtained with mean reductions of 93.1, 91.9 and 80.4% at days 3, 7 and 14 posttreatment, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance
  19. Azil AH, Ritchie SA, Williams CR
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Oct;27(7):705-14.
    PMID: 25186807 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514548760
    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance/methods
  20. Chan TC, Hwang JS, Chen RH, King CC, Chiang PH
    BMC Public Health, 2014 Jan 08;14:11.
    PMID: 24400725 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-11
    BACKGROUND: Severe epidemics of enterovirus have occurred frequently in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Cambodia, and China, involving cases of pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and encephalitis, and an effective vaccine has not been available. The specific aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance data.

    METHODS: All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic.

    RESULTS: The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r = 0.553, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Surveillance*
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