Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Kumara TK, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    PMID: 23691627
    The larval growth of Liosarcophaga dux Thompson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was studied under varying indoor room temperatures in Malaysia. Five replicates were established. The immature growth of this species from first instar until adult emergence was 307.0+/-3.0 hours. The mean larval length measured for second instar, third instar, post-feeding stage and puparia were 6.5+/-0.5 mm (n=10), 11.8+/-3.7 mm (n=31), 12.7+/-0.8 mm (n=16), and 9.5+/-0.5 mm (n=15), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  2. Mahat NA, Yin CL, Jayaprakash PT
    J Forensic Sci, 2014 Mar;59(2):529-32.
    PMID: 24745083
    This study investigated the influence of paraquat, a prevalent poison used by suicides, on initial oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) using minced-beef substrates. Paraquat in lethal dose for human (40 mg/kg), two times the lethal dose (80 mg/kg) and five times the lethal dose (200 mg/kg) were mixed thoroughly with respective minced-beef substrates (1 kg each) that were decomposed in a shaded habitat fully protected from rain. Results of four replications of the above experiment revealed that the presence of paraquat neither delayed initial oviposition nor prolonged the developmental stages of C. megacephala. Therefore, estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on empirical baseline data obtained using animal models devoid of any poisons would still be appropriate for estimating PMI in paraquat-related deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  3. Zuha RM, Omar B
    Parasitol Res, 2014 Jun;113(6):2285-94.
    PMID: 24728523 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3883-z
    Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  4. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Hashim R, Otsuka Y
    J Med Entomol, 2014 May;51(3):517-28.
    PMID: 24897845
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) leparense sp. nov. is described from females, males, and pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the ceylonicum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the female and male scuta covered with dark-brown short hairs, smaller number of male upper-eye facets, presence of shiny paired spots on the male abdominal segments 2-8, and absence of grapnel-shaped hooklets on the pupal abdominal segment 9. The male and pupa of S. capillatum Takaoka, which was originally described from larvae collected from Sarawak and Sabah, are described for the first time. Keys to identify all 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group including 27 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  5. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Lester PJ
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Sep;50(5):1014-24.
    PMID: 24180106
    The presence of predators can have dramatic consequences on prey communities, not only by the direct effects of consumption but also through sublethal effects. We investigated the survival rate and subsequent life history of the mosquito Culex pervigilans Bergroth under the influence of its major predator, the backswimmer Anisops wakefieldi White. We established a field experiment with various treatments: 1) control without predators, 2) free-roaming A. wakefieldi (with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi per container), 3) caged A. wakefieldi (empty cage without predators, with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi in each cage, and 4) A. wakefieldi cues (with cues concentrations of one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi). Cx. pervigilans eggs were then taken from these four experimental treatments and reared in two different laboratory conditions: 1) in clean water without any traces of predators, or 2) in water with the same treatments as in field. The survival rate of Cx. pervigilans was significantly reduced by the presence of predators or their cues. Even after a brief exposure to waters containing predators or residual cues, the subsequent progeny and the ontogeny of the remaining survivors were still affected. The percentage of eggs that hatched, and the resulting mosquito population, was influenced by the presence of predators or their cues. Our results suggest that sublethal effects may be carried by surviving individuals primarily through the effects of stress, perhaps by epigenetic mechanisms. We may expect to observe similar plasticity in species or populations with high temporal or spatial variability in predation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  6. Bong LJ, Neoh KB, Jaal Z, Lee CY
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Sep;50(5):1003-13.
    PMID: 24180105
    The effects of four temperatures (15, 23.5, 28, and 35 degrees C) on the biological characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied, and its cuticular permeability also was measured. Specimens successfully developed to adulthood at each temperature tested, but development time of each preadult stage significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Both egg and L1 stages required at least 80 degree days above a threshold of approximately 10 degrees C to develop to the subsequent stage. The lengthy development time and high survival rate of preadults at 15 degrees C suggests that P. fuscipes can survive in a harsh environment during cold weather by hibernating, and this ability could allow preadults to succeed ecologically in temperate countries. However, adult longevity was short, and no fecundity was recorded at 15 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, P. fuscipes exhibited a high survival rate of adults, which had a longer life span and high fecundity; thus, the population had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1)) and the shortest mean generation time (48.57 +/- 1.43 d) at 28 degrees C. At this temperature, the population might reach a size that could facilitate invasion into residential areas. However, in the absence of a hygric environment, P. fuscipes was unable to survive despite favorable temperature. Unlike in adults and pupae, high cuticular permeability values were found in the larval stages. This indicates that larvae are highly susceptible to desiccation, and it explains why the distribution of P. fuscipes is restricted to moist habitats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  7. Abu Tahir N, Ahmad AH
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Sep;50(5):999-1002.
    PMID: 24180104
    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  8. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A, Otsuka Y, Choochote W
    Zootaxa, 2013;3694:280-8.
    PMID: 26312290
    Simulium (Nevermannia) khunklangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This new species is placed in the vernum species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia and is similar to S. (N.) chomthongense Takaoka & Srisuka described from Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand, but is distinguished in the male by the number of enlarged upper-eye facets and the relative width of the hind basitarsus against the hind tibia and femur, and in the pupa by the short common basal stalk of the gill and the cocoon with an anterodorsal bulge or a short anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from five other known species of the vernum species-group, which share an accessory sclerite on the larval abdomen, a rare characteristics in this species-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  9. Dian-Xing F, Guang-Chun L
    Microsc Res Tech, 2012 Sep;75(9):1297-303.
    PMID: 22522698 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.22064
    In addition to causing myiasis in humans, Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz has also been reported as a forensically important fly. In this study, we presented the morphology of all larval instars and puparium of M. spiracularis using scanning electron microscopy. The first instar larva was composed of 12 segments. Antennae and maxillary palp complex were visible. Two spiracular slits could be seen at the posterior spiracle. The branch of posterior spiracular hairs was approximately equal to the palm-formed base in length. Second and third larval instars were very similar to first instar, except for the presence of anterior spiracle. The labium of the second instar larva was triangular and ventrally curved, whereas it was a bilobed structure and the tip forked in the first instar. The bubble membrance comprised of ≈40 globules presented at the third instar larvae. Puparia showed a retracted cephalic region and a pair of pupal respiratory horns on the dorsum. A comparison of the morphological features between immature stages of M. spiracularis and M. scalaris, a forensically important fly indoors in Germany, Malaysia, and China, was discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  10. Aliakbarpour H, Che Salmah MR, Dieng H
    Environ Entomol, 2010 Oct;39(5):1409-19.
    PMID: 22546435 DOI: 10.1603/EN10066
    Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  11. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A
    J Med Entomol, 2017 Jan;54(1):91-99.
    PMID: 28082635 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjw153
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) maleewongae sp. nov. is described based on the adult males and females, their pupal exuviae, and larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium gombakense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). It is characterized by the female cibarium with a cup-like appendage, male ventral plate deeply depressed ventromedially, pupal gill composed of an inflated structure and eight slender filaments, cone-shaped pupal terminal hooks, and cocoon with an anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from 10 other species of the same species-group known from China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Nepal, and Vietnam. Keys to identify all 11 species of the S. gombakense species-group are provided for females, males, pupae, and larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  12. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Chen CD, Lau KW, Halim MRA, Low VL, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2017 May 01;54(3):576-586.
    PMID: 27974360 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjw208
    Two new species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sunapii and S. (G.) rangatense, are described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. Simulium (G.) sunapii sp. nov. is placed in the S. asakoae species-group, representing the easternmost geographical record for the group in this archipelago. It is characterized by a small number of male upper-eye large facets in eight or nine vertical columns and 12 horizontal rows. Simulium (G.) rangatense sp. nov. is placed in the S. ceylonicum species-group and is characterized by the pupal gill with six filaments. This new species, together with two related species of the S. ceylonicum species-group in Flores, suggests the species radiation of this species-group might have been accompanied by a reduction of the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to four through six. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish these two new species from related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  13. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A
    J Med Entomol, 2018 05 04;55(3):569-574.
    PMID: 29361148 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx242
    Simulium (Asiosimulium) saeungae sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae collected from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. It is characterized by the medium-long cerci in the female, enlarged hind basitarsus, and broad ventral plate with its posterior margin not deeply concave in the male, arborescent pupal gill with 42-56 filaments in the pupa and smaller number of primary rays of the labral fan (30-33) in the larva. This is the fifth species of the subgenus Asiosimulium, the second smallest among 10 subgenera in the Oriental Region. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from the three known species from Thailand and one from Nepal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  14. Wingsanoi A, Siri N, McNeil JN
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2013 Aug;106(4):1648-52.
    PMID: 24020277
    The Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), is a pest of peppers (Capsicum spp.) in Thailand. A field trial was undertaken to determine whether five commonly used cultivars of C. annuum, with marked differences in morphology and pungency, varied in their susceptibility to infestation by B. latifrons. Experiments carried out in both the dry and rainy seasons showed temporal differences in the number of fruits per cultivar, but there was no effect of variety or season on the proportion of fruits attacked or the number of pupae obtained per infested fruit However, the number of dead larvae per infested fruit was significantly higher, and the percent of pupae giving rise to adults was lower for the larger sweet pepper than other cultivars tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  15. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 19;9:219.
    PMID: 27094088 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1492-7
    BACKGROUND: Preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important components of the stream ecosystem. However, there has been limited research undertaken on the vertical distribution of preimaginal black flies and their associated ecological factors. Stream conditions are generally variable along the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, we conducted an in-depth entomological survey to investigate the simuliid distribution pattern along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 432 collections were performed in this study (24 samplings at each of 18 fixed-streams at monthly intervals) from February 2012 to January 2014. Larvae and pupae attached on aquatic substrates such as grasses, leaves and stems, twigs, plant roots and rocks were collected by hand using fine forceps. Stream depth (m), width (m), velocity (m/s), water temperature (°C), acidity (pH), conductivity (mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) were measured at the time of each collection.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 black fly species were recorded in the present study. The most frequently collected species were Simulium tani (31.7%) and S. whartoni (21.5%), while the relatively common species were Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) (16.2%), S. decuplum (15.5%), S. angulistylum (14.8%), S. bishopi (13.2%) and S. izuae (11.8%). Total estimated species richness ranged between 39.8 and 41.3, which yielded more than 80% of sampling efficiency. Six simuliid species were distributed below 500 m, whereas eight species were distributed above 1400 m. Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) and S. asakoae were found from middle to high altitudes (711-1813 m). Simulium whartoni, S. brevipar and S. bishopi were distributed widely from low to high altitudes (159-1813 m). Regression analysis between species richness and PCs revealed that the species richness was significantly associated with wider, deeper and faster streams at low altitude, normal water temperature (23-25 °C), low conductivity, higher discharge, more canopy cover and riparian vegetation and with larger streambed particles (F = 20.8, df = 1, 422, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  16. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Low VL, Harmonis
    J Med Entomol, 2016 07;53(4):798-806.
    PMID: 27099400
    A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  17. Takaoka H, Ya'cob Z, Sofian-Azirun M
    J Med Entomol, 2015 Jan;52(1):38-49.
    PMID: 26336278 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tju009
    Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) murudense and Simulium (Simulium) cheedhangi, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. Both species belong to the Simulium melanopus Edwards species group. S. (S.) murudense sp. nov. is distinguished from most known species by a combination of the haired basal portion of the radial vein and the darkened fore coxae, and S. (S.) cheedhangi sp. nov. is characterized in the female by having a medium-sized claw tooth and in the pupa by six somewhat inflated gill filaments. Notes are given on the S. melanopus species-group in Sarawak and Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  18. Silahuddin SA, Latif B, Kurahashi H, Walter DE, Heo CC
    J Med Entomol, 2015 Jan;52(1):9-23.
    PMID: 26336275 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tju001
    The stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. Three New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. Representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. There were differences in decomposition rate and faunal succession between the carcasses. The fastest rate of decomposition was recorded in rural area, and the slowest rate of decomposition was recorded in highland area. The carcasses exhibited the same pattern of colonization by adult flies, but the dominant species of larvae and adult flies on each carcass in specific habitats were different. The primary species of flies recorded in jungle were Chrysomya megacephala F., Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya villenuevi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot), Hypopyiopsis fumipennis (Walker), Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart), and Hydrotaea spinigera Stein represented by both adults and larvae. Musca domestica L., Atherigona sp., Lioproctia pattoni (Senior-White), Lioproctia saprianovae Pape & Bänziger, and Seniorwhitea princeps (Wiedemann) were represented by adults only. The biodiversity of flies in the rural area were C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, H. ligurriens, Fannia canicularis L., Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and Hyd. spinigera represented by both adults and larvae, meanwhile M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Boettcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasarcophaga taenionota Wiedemann, Parasarcophaga scopariiformis Senior-White, and S. princeps were represented by adults only. The species of flies collected in the highland area were Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, C. villenuevi, C. pinguis, H. ligurriens, Hyd. spinigera, Hyd. chalcogaster, F. canicularis, and Boettcherisca highlandica Kurahashi & Tan represented by both adults and larvae, whereas C. nigripes, Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Parasarcophaga albiceps Meigen, P. taenionota, Sepsidae, Phoridae, and Millichidae were represented by adults only. Faunal succession followed the sequence of dominant flies, i.e., Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and lastly Stratiomyidae for jungle, or Sepsidae for rural and highland studies. Mites, from suborders Mesostigmata, Prostigmata, Astigmatina, and Oribatida, were also recovered throughout decomposition, which could be used for future implementation in forensic investigations. The data obtained from this study could provide more accurate indicators for local forensic scientists in solving criminal cases especially on the determination of time and primary location of death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
  19. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Lau KW, Pham HT
    Zootaxa, 2014;3838(3):347-66.
    PMID: 25081781 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3838.3.6
    Four new species of black flies are described, and three others are reported as newly recorded, based on adults reared from pupae, pupae and larvae collected in and near Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. New species include Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hongthaii sp. nov., S. (G.) tamdaoense sp. nov. (both species placed in the asakoae species-group), S. (Simulium) taythienense sp. nov. and S. (S.) xuandai sp. nov. (the two latter species placed in the striatum species-group). Newly recorded species are S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim, S. (Nevermannia) aureohirtum Brunetti and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies. These discoveries increase the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam from 21 to 28. 
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupa/growth & development
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