Methods: Young women (aged less than 50 years) newly diagnosed with stage I or II (T1-2 N0-1 M0) breast cancer in four hospitals in Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong in 1990-2012 were included. Overall survival (OS) was compared for patients treated by BCS and those who had a mastectomy. Propensity score analysis was used to account for differences in demographic, tumour and treatment characteristics between the groups.
Results: Some 63·5 per cent of 3536 women underwent mastectomy. Over a 15-year period, only a modest increase in rates of BCS was observed. Although BCS was significantly associated with favourable prognostic features, OS was not significantly different for BCS and mastectomy; the 5-year OS rate was 94·9 (95 per cent c.i. 93·5 to 96·3) and 92·9 (91·7 to 94·1) per cent respectively. Inferences remained unchanged following propensity score analysis (hazard ratio for BCS versus mastectomy: 0·81, 95 per cent c.i. 0·64 to 1·03).
Conclusion: The prevalence of young women with breast cancer treated by mastectomy remains high in Asian countries. Patients treated with BCS appear to survive as well as those undergoing mastectomy.
Case Report: A 74-year-old woman presented with a rapidly progressive neck swelling, with hoarseness and compressive symptoms. Physical examination revealed a multilobulated firm thyroid mass with unilateral vocal cord palsy. Histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of SCC while radiological investigations and panendoscopy findings ruled out the possibility of other primary tumors. A surgical intervention was performed; however, the patient eventually succumbed to death prior to undergoing an oncological treatment.
Conclusion: With no standard consensus to guide the management plan, SCC of the thyroid gland presents a great challenge for the managing team to come up with the best treatment option, due to its unfavorable rate of survival.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic online search was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Eligible publications reporting the overall survival (OS) and/or disease-specific survival (DSS) were included. A total of 14 studies, including 17,869 patients, were considered for analysis. The impact of therapeutic modalities on survival was assessed, with a risk of bias assessment according to the Newcastle Ottawa Scale.
RESULTS: For RP, RT, and HT, the mean 10-year OS was 70.7% (95% CI 61.3-80.2), 65.8% (95% CI 48.1-83.3), and 22.6% (95% CI 4.9-40.3; p = 0.001), respectively. The corresponding 10-year DSS was 84.1% (95% CI 75.1-93.2), 89.4% (95% CI 70.1-108.6), and 50.4% (95% CI 31.2-69.6; p = 0.0127), respectively. Among all treatment combinations, RP displayed significant improvement in OS when included in the treatment (Z = 4.01; p < 0.001). Adjuvant RT significantly improved DSS (Z = 2.7; p = 0.007). Combination of RT and HT favored better OS in comparison to monotherapy with RT or HT (Z = 3.61; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Improved outcomes in advanced PC were detected for RP plus adjuvant RT vs. RP alone and RT plus adjuvant HT vs. RT alone with comparable survival results between both regimens. RP with adjuvant RT may present the modality of choice when HT is contraindicated.
METHODS: This historical cohort study included women who underwent mastectomy after diagnosis with stage 0 to stage IIIa breast cancer from 2011 to 2015 in a tertiary hospital. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immediate breast reconstruction and to measure clinical outcomes.
RESULT: Out of 790 patients with early breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy, only 68 (8.6%) received immediate breast reconstruction. Immediate breast reconstruction was independently associated with younger age at diagnosis, recent calendar years, Chinese ethnicity, higher education level, and invasive ductal carcinomas. Although immediate breast reconstruction was associated with a higher risk of short-term local surgical complications (adjusted odds ratio: 3.58 [95% confidence interval 1.75-7.30]), there were no significant differences in terms of delay in initiation of chemotherapy, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival between both groups in the multivariable analyses.
CONCLUSION: Although associated with short-term surgical complications, immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy does not appear to be associated with delays in initiation of chemotherapy, recurrence, or mortality after breast cancer. These findings are valuable in facilitating shared surgical decision-making, improving access to immediate breast reconstruction, and setting priorities for surgical trainings in middle-income settings.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 1999, 55 patients with FIGO stage Ib1 lymph nodes-negative cervical carcinoma limited to the cervix were prescribed RT following radical surgery, based on their RS, as follows: RS <40, RT is omitted; RS >40 to <120, modified (smaller) field RT; and RS >120, standard field pelvic RT. Their incidence and site of recurrence were compared with a similar cohort of 40 patients who were treated prior to 1997.
RESULTS: Prior to 1997, of the 40 patients, 10 patients were given standard field RT. There were 2 (5%) recurrent diseases. The mean duration of follow-up was 61.6 months (range, 1 to 103 months). The RS of 23 of the 30 patients who were not given RT were available. The mean RS was 22 with 5 patients having a score of >40. From 1997 onwards, of the 55 patients, 28 (51%) did not require RT, 13 (23%) were treated with modified (smaller) field RT and 14 (26%) were given standard field RT. There were 2 (3.6%) cases of relapse. The mean duration of follow-up was 36.4 months (range, 5 to 60 months). All patients with a RS of <40 did not suffer any relapse. Their survival outcomes were better when compared to patients who did not have any RT in the GOG Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that postoperative adjuvant RT given to patients with a high GOG RS of >120, significantly improved their 5-year recurrence rate and disease-free survival, as compared with the similar group of patients who were without adjuvant therapy in the GOG study. Patients with a GOG risk-score of <40 may be safely spared from adjuvant pelvic RT. The current treatment protocol did not compromise the outcome in patients, compared with the use of a less precise treatment protocol in the past.
METHODS: All 5616 patients, diagnosed with breast cancer in University Malaya Medical Centre from 1999 to 2013 were included. In 945 elderly patients (aged 65 years and above), multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with treatment, following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor, and other treatment characteristics. The impact of lack of treatment on survival of the elderly was assessed while accounting for comorbidities.
RESULTS: One in five elderly patients had comorbidities. Compared to younger patients, the elderly had more favorable tumor characteristics, and received less loco-regional treatment and chemotherapy. Within stage I-IIIa elderly breast cancer patients, 10 % did not receive any surgery. These patients were older, more likely to be Malays, have comorbidities, and bigger tumors. In elderlies with indications for adjuvant radiotherapy, no irradiation (30 %) was associated with increasing age, comorbidity, and the absence of systemic therapy. Hormone therapy was optimal, but only 35 % of elderly women with ER negative tumors received chemotherapy. Compared to elderly women who received adequate treatment, those not receiving surgery (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.30, 95 %CI: 1.10-4.79), or radiotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.56, 95 %CI: 1.10-2.19), were associated with higher mortality. Less than 25 % of the survival discrepancy between elderly women receiving loco-regional treatment and no treatment were attributed to excess comorbidities in untreated patients.
CONCLUSION: While the presence of comorbidities significantly influenced loco-regional treatment decisions in the elderly, it was only able to explain the lower survival rates in untreated patients up to a certain extent, suggesting missed opportunities for treatment.
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