Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  2. Kamil M, Khalid I, Hashim H, Biswas M, Kaur G, Islam R
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2010 Apr;20(4):250-2.
    PMID: 20392401 DOI: 04.2010/JCPSP.250252
    To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  3. Mohamad Hanif EA, Shah SA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3341-3351.
    PMID: 30583339
    Breast cancer treatments leads to variable responses. Hormonal therapy is beneficial to receptor positive breast cancer
    subtypes and display better clinical outcome than triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) with FEC (5-Fluorouracil,
    Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide) the mainstay chemotherapy regiment. Owning to their negative expressions of
    estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and HER2 receptors, disease recurrence and metastasis befalls some patients indicating
    resistance to FEC. Involvement of epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation, histone methylation, acetylation and
    sumoylation may be the key player in FEC chemoresistance. Epigenetic and molecular profiling successfully classified
    breast cancer subtypes, indicating potential driver mechanisms to the progression of TNBCs but functional mechanisms
    behind chemoresistance of these molecular markers are not well defined. Several epigenetic inhibitors and drugs have
    been used in the management of cancers but these attempts are mainly beneficial in hematopoietic cancers and not
    specifically favourable in solid tumours. Hypothetically, upon administration of epigenetic drugs, recovery of tumour
    suppressor genes is expected. However, high tendency of switching on global metastatic genes is predicted. Polycomb
    repressive complex (PRC) such as EZH2, SETD1A, DNMT, is known to have repressive effects in gene regulation and
    shown to inhibit cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancers. Individual epigenetic regulators may be an option
    to improve chemo-drug delivery in cancers. This review discussed on molecular signatures of various breast cancer
    subtypes and on-going attempts in understanding underlying molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulators as well
    as providing insights on possible ways to utilize epigenetic enzymes/inhibitors with responses to chemotherapeutic
    drugs to re-program cellular and biological outcome in TNBCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  4. Horne HN, Beena Devi CR, Sung H, Tang TS, Rosenberg PS, Hewitt SM, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2015 Jan;149(1):285-91.
    PMID: 25537643 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-014-3243-9
    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*
  5. Couch FJ, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Nord S, Lilyquist J, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 Apr 27;7:11375.
    PMID: 27117709 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11375
    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*
  6. Teoh KH, Looi LM, Sabaratnam S, Cheah PL, Nazarina AR, Mun KS
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Jun;33(1):35-42.
    PMID: 21874750 MyJurnal
    Predictive biomarkers such as oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein have become a staple in breast cancer reports in the country as they increasingly play an important role in the treatment and prognosis of women with breast cancers. This study reviews the practice of histopathology reporting of these biomarkers in a Malaysian tertiary hospital setting. Retrospective data on demographic, pathological and biomarker profiles of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node clearance from 2005 to 2006 were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, Penang Hospital and analysed. The prevalence of ER positivity (55.8%), PR positivity (52.5%), c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression (24%) and triple negativity (ER negative, PR negative, c-erbB-2 negative) (15%) by immunohistochemistry were comparable with other studies. Notably, c-erbB-2 overexpression was equivocal (2+) in 15% of cases. Since about a quarter of equivocal (2+) cases usually show amplification by FISH, a small but certain percentage of patients would miss the benefit of anti-c-erbB-2 antibody therapy if FISH is not performed. New ASCO/CAP guidelines on the quantitation of ER and PR will probably increase the prevalence of ER/PR positivity, invariably leading to significant ramifications on the management of patients as more patients would be deemed eligible for endocrine therapy, as well as categorisation of triple negative breast cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  7. Bong PN, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Emran NA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):117-22.
    PMID: 21329183 MyJurnal
    The GATA3 gene is a potential tumour marker and putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Its expression is associated with better prognosis and disease free survival in breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate GATA3 transcriptome expression and mutation in breast carcinomas and correlate its expression with oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node (LN) status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression. Twenty-two breast infiltrating ductal carcinomas and paired normal tissues were used in Branch DNA assay to detect GATA3 mRNA expression. Normalized data for GATA3 mRNA expression were grouped according to the ER, PR and LN status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression of the tumours. Statistical significance was tested using t-test and ANOVA at 95% confidence interval level. Mutational analysis of GATA3 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding regions of GATA3 mRNA. Our findings showed that GATA3 gene were over-expressed and under-expressed by > 2 fold change in 12 and 4 tested samples, respectively. Eighty per cent of ER positive breast carcinomas were GATA3 positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between GATA3 expression and ER at 95% confidence interval level between the study groups. On the contrary, GATA3 expression was not statistically significant with PR, LN, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression in our study. In addition, we observed that there was no mutation in mRNA coding region in 16 breast carcinomas that showed GATA3 differential gene expression. Our preliminary results suggested that GATA3 is linked to the ER. This scenario suggests that GATA3 may play a crucial role in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Whether GATA3 expression is involved in regulating tumour cell growth in oestrogen responsive breast cancer is a key question that remains to be answered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  8. Rivers C, Idris J, Scott H, Rogers M, Lee YB, Gaunt J, et al.
    BMC Biol, 2015 Dec 22;13:111.
    PMID: 26694817 DOI: 10.1186/s12915-015-0220-7
    BACKGROUND: SAFB1 is a RNA binding protein implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as the regulation of transcription, stress response, DNA repair and RNA processing. To gain further insight into SAFB1 function we used iCLIP and mapped its interaction with RNA on a genome wide level.

    RESULTS: iCLIP analysis found SAFB1 binding was enriched, specifically in exons, ncRNAs, 3' and 5' untranslated regions. SAFB1 was found to recognise a purine-rich GAAGA motif with the highest frequency and it is therefore likely to bind core AGA, GAA, or AAG motifs. Confirmatory RT-PCR experiments showed that the expression of coding and non-coding genes with SAFB1 cross-link sites was altered by SAFB1 knockdown. For example, we found that the isoform-specific expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) and ASTN2 was influenced by SAFB1 and that the processing of miR-19a from the miR-17-92 cluster was regulated by SAFB1. These data suggest SAFB1 may influence alternative splicing and, using an NCAM1 minigene, we showed that SAFB1 knockdown altered the expression of two of the three NCAM1 alternative spliced isoforms. However, when the AGA, GAA, and AAG motifs were mutated, SAFB1 knockdown no longer mediated a decrease in the NCAM1 9-10 alternative spliced form. To further investigate the association of SAFB1 with splicing we used exon array analysis and found SAFB1 knockdown mediated the statistically significant up- and downregulation of alternative exons. Further analysis using RNAmotifs to investigate the frequency of association between the motif pairs (AGA followed by AGA, GAA or AAG) and alternative spliced exons found there was a highly significant correlation with downregulated exons. Together, our data suggest SAFB1 will play an important physiological role in the central nervous system regulating synaptic function. We found that SAFB1 regulates dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons and hence provide empirical evidence supporting this conclusion.

    CONCLUSIONS: iCLIP showed that SAFB1 has previously uncharacterised specific RNA binding properties that help coordinate the isoform-specific expression of coding and non-coding genes. These genes regulate splicing, axonal and synaptic function, and are associated with neuropsychiatric disease, suggesting that SAFB1 is an important regulator of key neuronal processes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*
  9. Chinigarzadeh A, Karim K, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2017 Apr;31(4).
    PMID: 27891704 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.21878
    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl(-) ) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl(-) /HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC26a6), Na(+) /HCO3(-) cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  10. Nesaretnam K, Jin Lim E, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Toxicology, 2000 Oct 26;151(1-3):117-26.
    PMID: 11074306
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The growth of breast cancer cells is either hormone-dependent or hormone-independent. Both types are represented in vitro by the estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 and the estrogen-receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. The pS2 gene is an estrogen-regulated gene and serves as a marker for the ER+ tumours. Carotenoids are pigments with anti-cancer properties besides having pro-vitamin A, antioxidant and free-radical quenching effects. This study was designed firstly, to compare the effect of palm oil carotene concentrate with retinoic acid on the growth of the ER+ MCF-7 and the ER- MDA-MB-231 cells; and secondly to evaluate the effect of the palm oil carotene concentrate on the regulation of pS2 mRNA. The growth experiments were performed with monolayer cells seeded in phenol red free RPMI 1640 culture media and subsequently treated with varying concentrations of either retinoic acid or palm oil carotenoids. The cell numbers were determined at the start of each experiment and then at successive time intervals. The results showed that the palm oil carotene concentrate caused dose-dependent inhibition of estradiol-stimulated growth of MCF-7 cells but did not affect the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Retinoic acid caused similar, albeit more potent effects, as significant inhibition was observed at lower concentrations than the palm oil carotenoids. In the pS2 gene expression experiment, cell monolayers were treated with the carotene concentrate (10(-6) M), either with or without supplemented estradiol (10(-8) M), and subsequently the RNA was extracted. Northern blotting was performed and the regulation of pS2 mRNA determined using a 32P-labelled pS2 cDNA probe. The results showed that the palm oil carotene concentrate did not affect the expression of pS2 mRNA and are therefore independent of the estrogen-regulated pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  11. Naidu R, Wahab NA, Yadav M, Kutty MK, Nair S
    Int J Mol Med, 2001 Aug;8(2):193-8.
    PMID: 11445874
    Amplification of int-2/FGF-3 gene was investigated by differential polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in 440 archival primary breast carcinoma tissues. Of these, 23 were comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 18 were non-comedo DCIS, 41 were comedo DCIS with adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 19 were non-comedo DCIS with adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 270 were invasive ductal carcinomas, 33 were invasive lobular carcinomas, 21 were colloid carcinomas and 15 were medullary carcinomas. Int-2 was amplified in 22% (96/440) of the primary breast carcinomas. It was shown that int-2 was amplified in 13% (3/23) of the comedo DCIS, 17% (7/41) of the comedo DCIS and 29% (12/41) of the adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 26% (71/270) of the invasive ductal carcinomas, 18% (6/33) of the invasive lobular carcinomas, 10% (2/21) of the colloid carcinomas and 13% (2/15) of the medullary carcinomas. In contrast, int-2 was not amplified in non-comedo DCIS and invasive ductal carcinomas with adjacent non-comedo DCIS lesions. A significant association was observed between int-2 amplification in the in situ components and adjacent invasive lesion (P<0.05). All tumors with int-2 amplification in the in situ lesions (7/7) also demonstrated same degree of amplification in the adjacent invasive components. However, 9% (5/53) of the tumors with no amplified int-2 gene in the in situ components showed int-2 amplification in the adjacent invasive lesions. A significant relationship was noted between amplification of int-2 and lymph node metastases (P<0.05) and poorly differentiated tumors (P<0.05) but not with estrogen receptor status (P>0.05) and proliferation index (Ki-67 and PCNA) (P>0.05). In Malaysia, majority of the patients belong to younger age group (<50 years old) but a comparison of the age groups showed that the amplification of int-2 was not statistically associated with patient age (P>0.05). These observations indicate that amplification of int-2 tends to strengthen the view that int-2 may have the potential to be an indicator of poor prognosis regardless of the age of the patient. Moreover, the presence of int-2 amplification in preinvasive, preinvasive and adjacent invasive lesions, and invasive carcinomas suggest that int-2 could be a marker of genetic instability occurring in early and late stages of tumor development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  12. Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 15;21(8).
    PMID: 32326396 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082724
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential for the initiation and maintenance of reproductive functions in vertebrates. To date, three distinct paralogue lineages, GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3, have been identified with different functions and regulatory mechanisms. Among them, hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons are classically known as the hypophysiotropic form that is regulated by estrogen feedback. However, the mechanism of action underlying the estrogen-dependent regulation of GnRH1 has been debated, mainly due to the coexpression of low levels of estrogen receptor (ER) genes. In addition, the role of sex steroids in the modulation of GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons has not been fully elucidated. Using single-cell real-time PCR, we revealed the expression of genes for estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, thyroid, and xenobiotic receptors in GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3 neurons in the male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. We further quantified expression levels of estrogen receptor genes (ERα, ERβ, and ERγ) in three GnRH neuron types in male tilapia of two different social statuses (dominant and subordinate) at the single cell level. In dominant males, GnRH1 mRNA levels were positively proportional to ERγ mRNA levels, while in subordinate males, GnRH2 mRNA levels were positively proportional to ERβ mRNA levels. These results indicate that variations in the expression of nuclear receptors (and possibly steroid sensitivities) among individual GnRH cells may facilitate different physiological processes, such as the promotion of reproductive activities through GnRH1 neurons, and the inhibition of feeding and sexual behaviors through GnRH2 neurons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  13. Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Soga T, Sakuma Y, Parhar I
    Endocrinology, 2007 Dec;148(12):5822-30.
    PMID: 17823257
    The role of steroid/thyroid hormones in the regulation of endocrine cells at the level of the pituitary has remained unclear. Therefore, using single-cell quantitative real-time PCR, we examined absolute amounts of transcripts for nuclear receptors [estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, beta, and gamma; androgen receptors (ARs) a and b; glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) 1, 2a, and 2b; and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) alpha1, alpha2, and beta] in pituitary cells of immature (IM) and mature (M) male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In the two reproductive stages, ACTH cells expressed only ERbeta, whereas all other pituitary cell types expressed ERalpha + beta, and a subpopulation coexpressed ARa, ARb, GR1, GR2b, and TRbeta but lacked ERgamma, GR2a, TRalpha1, and TRalpha2. IM males had high percentages of LH cells (IM 46.0% vs. M 10.0%), GH cells (IM 23.3% vs. M 7.9%), and prolactin cells (IM 68.8% vs. M 6.0%) with ERbeta, and TSH cells (IM 19.2% vs. M 0.0%) and MSH cells (IM 25.6% vs. M 0.0%) with ERalpha + TRbeta. A high percentage of FSH cells in IM males expressed ERbeta (IM 46.9% vs. M 18.8%), and FSH cells in M males showed significantly high GR1 transcripts (IM 76.0 +/- 5.0 vs. M 195.0 +/- 10.7 copies per cell; P < 0.05), suggesting that FSH cells are regulated differently in the two reproductive stages. Coexpression of ERalpha + beta in high percentages of cells of the GH family (GH, IM 43.8% vs. M 14.3%; prolactin, IM 8.3% vs. M 59.7%; somatolactin, IM 22.2% vs. M 42.2%) suggests that the expression of both ERs is important for functionality. Thus, differential coexpression of genes for nuclear receptors in subpopulations of pituitary cell types suggests multiple steroid/thyroid hormone regulatory pathways at the level of the pituitary during the two reproductive stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
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