Case Details: This is a case of Madam A, who presented with many non-specific symptoms and signs involving many systems which was finally diagnosed as seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. This case explores the challenges in reaching this uncommon diagnosis and how anti-inflammatory drugs can bring a miraculous relief to the patient's suffering.
Conclusion: The diagnosis of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis often presents a real challenge to the medical practitioner and often requires multiple visits and/or shared multidisciplinary care for confirmation of the diagnosis. Once diagnosed and treated with disease modifying anti- rheumatic drugs, often there is a miraculous relief to the patient's suffering.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using convenient sampling of 192 RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Clinic outpatient appointment, Hospital Melaka from June 2013 to December 2013. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) questionnaire was used to evaluate symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. RA disease activity was assessed using the DAS28-ESR formula. Functional status was assessed via the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI).
RESULTS: Out of 189 completed questionnaires, 46%(n=86) patients reported psychological distress symptoms, and 25%(n=48) experienced more than one negative emotional states. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among our patients were 23.3%(n=44), 42.3%(n=80) and 20.1%(n=38) respectively. There were significant positive correlations (p<0.05) between these psychological symptoms with disease activity, number of tender joints, general health, pain and HAQ score. Age was inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress. Higher number of swollen joints correlated positively with depression but not with anxiety and stress. HAQ was the only independent predictor for depression (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.07; 95%CI: 1.19 to 3.61) and anxiety (OR=1.81; 95%CI: 1.1 to 3.0) whilst pain was found to be independent predictor for stress (OR=1.04; 95%CI: 1.0 to 1.1).
CONCLUSION: The incidence of depression and anxiety in our Malaysian sample of RA patient was comparable to that observed in Caucasian populations. Functional status was an independent predictor of depression and anxiety, whereas pain was an independent predictor of stress.
Methods: A web-based Registry for Childhood Onset Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases was established in 2009 and seven PRCs in four SEA countries, where paediatric rheumatologists are available, participated in a prospective 24 month data collection (43 months for Singapore).
Results: The number of patients analysed was 4038 (788 from Malaysia, 711 from the Philippines, 1943 from Singapore and 596 from Thailand). Over 70% of patients evaluated in PRCs in Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand had rheumatic diseases (RDs), as compared with one-half of the proportion seen in Singaporean PRCs, which was similar to the Western PRC experience. Among RDs diagnosed (n = 2602), JIA was the most common disease encountered in Malaysia (41%) and Thailand (61%) as compared with systemic vasculitides in the Philippines (37%) and Singapore (35%) among which Henoch-Schönlein purpura was the most prevalent. SLE and related diseases were more common, but idiopathic pain syndrome and abnormal immunological laboratory tests were rarer than those seen in the West. JIA subtype distributions were different among countries. Among non-RDs (n = 1436), orthopaedic and related conditions predominated (21.7-59.4%).
Conclusion: The frequencies of RDs seen by SEA PRCs were different from those in the West. Systemic vasculitides and SLE were common in addition to JIA. Paediatric rheumatologist availability and healthcare accessibility partially explain these observed discrepancies.