Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Akinboro A, Bin Mohamed K, Asmawi MZ, Yekeen TA
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2014;61(4):779-85.
    PMID: 25520963
    Natural plant extracts offer a promising hope in the prevention/treatment of cancer arising from genetic mutations. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (AFMF) leaves on TA100 strain of Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus (Male Swiss albino mice), respectively. The antioxidant activity of AFMF against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, followed by its phytochemical elucidation using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography technique (UPLC). The mutagenicity of AFMF at 4, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 µg/well was <2.0 in S. typhimurium and the induced micronucleated polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg were not significantly different from the negative control (p≥0.05). The mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50.0% throughout the tested concentrations. Fifty percent of the free radicals from DPPH were scavenged by AFMF at 0.11 mg/ml. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of AFMF were 51.0 mg GAE/g and 27 mg QE/g, respectively. Rutin was elucidated by the UPLC technique, and thereby suspected to be the phytochemical responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity. Thus far, AFMF seems to contain a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention of genetic damage that is crucial for cancer development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  2. Noushad M, Kannan TP, Husein A, Abdullah H, Ismail AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2009 Sep;23(6):1145-50.
    PMID: 19505568 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.05.025
    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of a locally produced dental porcelain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) using the Ames and Comet assays. In the Ames assay, four genotypic variants of the Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1535) carrying mutations in several genes were used. The dental porcelain was incubated with these four strains in five different doses both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9) and the result was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. Concurrently, appropriate positive controls were used so as to validate the test. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with locally produced dental porcelain was less than double as compared to that of negative control. In the Comet assay, L929 (CCL-1 ATCC, USA) mouse fibroblast cells were treated with the dental porcelain in three different concentrations along with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment which was used as a measurement of DNA damage was almost equal to that of the negative control, suggesting that the locally produced dental porcelain did not induce any DNA damage. The results indicated that the locally produced dental porcelain is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  3. Mohd-Fuat AR, Kofi EA, Allan GG
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):49-59.
    PMID: 18209708 MyJurnal
    Three popular medicinal plants regarded as improving human sexual function in some parts of Southeast Asia were analysed for their mutagenic properties using modified Ames test (fluctuation test). Extract of one of the plants, Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl., was found to be mutagenic using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Extract of T. integrifolia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook were cytotoxic to human cell lines, Hep2 and HFL1, with IC50 ranging from 11 mug/ml to 55 mug/ml. Extract of E. longifolia was the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 11 mug/ml and 13 mug/ml on Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines respectively. Combined extract of T. integrifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on both Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines while combined extract of E. longifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on Hep2 cell lines. Under the conditions of this study it can be concluded that T. integrifolia is mutagenic and the combined extracts of the medicinal plants was highly cytotoxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  4. Azmi NN, Mahyudin NA, Wan Omar WH, Mahmud Ab Rashid NK, Ishak CF, Abdullah AH, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Dec 28;27(1).
    PMID: 35011396 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27010170
    Natural clays have recently been proven to possess antibacterial properties. Effective natural antimicrobial agents are needed to combat bacterial contamination on food contact surfaces, which are increasingly more prevalent in the food chain. This study sought to determine the antibacterial activity of clays against the food-borne pathogens Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565. Soils were processed to yield leachates and suspensions from untreated and treated clays. Soil particle size, pH, cation-exchange capacity, metal composition and mineralogy were characterized. Antibacterial screening was performed on six Malaysian soils via the disc diffusion method. In addition, a time-kill assay was conducted on selected antibacterial clays after 6 h of exposure. The screening revealed that Munchong and Carey clays significantly inhibit Salmonella typhimurium (11.00 ± 0.71 mm) and S. aureus (7.63 ± 0.48 mm), respectively. Treated Carey clay leachate and suspension completely kill Salmonella typhimurium, while S. aureus viability is reduced (2 to 3 log10). The untreated Carey and all Munchong clays proved ineffective as antibacterials. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of pyrite and magnetite. Treated Carey clays had a higher soluble metal content compared to Munchong; namely Al (92.63 ± 2.18 mg/L), Fe (65.69 ± 3.09 mg/L) and Mg (88.48 ± 2.29 mg/L). Our results suggest that metal ion toxicity is responsible for the antibacterial activity of these clays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  5. Er HM, Cheng EH, Radhakrishnan AK
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007 Sep 25;113(3):448-56.
    PMID: 17698306
    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in 4T1 cells and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whereas the methanol extract did not show any notable anti-proliferative effect in these cell lines, at any of the concentrations tested. Under the sub-optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whilst the methanol extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in both cell lines. An upward trend of apoptosis was observed in both 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells treated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extract. The level of apoptosis observed at all the concentrations of the aqueous extract tested was consistently higher than necrosis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of necrosis observed in the 4T1 cells treated with 300 microg/mL of the methanol extract. Generally, the level of necrosis was noted to be higher than that of apoptosis in the methanol extract-treated cells. The mutagenicity assay performed showed that in the absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the extract was not mutagenic up to the concentration of 165 microg/mL . However, in the presence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the aqueous extract was mutagenic at all the concentrations tested. This study shows that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  6. Farsi E, Esmailli K, Shafaei A, Moradi Khaniabadi P, Al Hindi B, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2016 Oct;39(4):461-73.
    PMID: 27033971 DOI: 10.3109/01480545.2016.1157810
    CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans (CN) is used traditionally for treating various illnesses. Robust safety data to support its use is lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was found in the animals upon single and repeated dose administration. However, significant body weight loss was observed at 2000 mg/kg during sub-chronic (90 d) exposure. In addition, increased eosinophil at 500 mg/kg and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase levels at 2000 mg/kg were observed in male rats. Variations in glucose and lipid profiles in treated groups were also observed compared to control. Ames test revealed no evidence of mutagenic or carcinogenic effects at 500 μg/well of AECNL.

    CONCLUSION: The median lethal dose (LD50) of the AECNL is >5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level is identified to be greater than 2000 mg/kg/day in 90-d study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  7. Thung TY, Mahyudin NA, Basri DF, Wan Mohamed Radzi CW, Nakaguchi Y, Nishibuchi M, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2016 Aug 01;95(8):1888-93.
    PMID: 27118863 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew144
    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates. All the isolates were resistance to erythromycin, penicillin, and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim. Our findings demonstrated that the retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  8. Ullah A, Ashraf M, Javeed A, Anjum AA, Attiq A, Ali S
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2016 Jul;45:227-34.
    PMID: 27327526 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.05.017
    Pathophysiological changes in diabetes like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia predispose cells to malignant transformation and damage DNA repair mechanism. This study was designed to explore the potential synergistic toxic effects of anti-diabetic drug (Metformin), and an analgesic drug (Celecoxib) at cellular level. MTT assay run on Vero cell line revealed that the combinations of Metformin and Celecoxib augment the anti-proliferative effects, whereas Single cell gel electrophoresis spotlighted that Metformin produce non-significant DNA damage with the threshold concentration of 400μg/ml in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and monocytes), while Celecoxib produced significant (P<0.05) DNA damage (class III comets) above the concentration of 75μg/ml, however the DNA damage or DNA tail protrusions by combinations of both drugs were less than what was observed with Celecoxib alone. Metformin or Celecoxib did not appear mutagenic against any mutant strains (TA 100 and TA 98) but their combination exhibited slight mutagenicity at much higher concentration. The results obtained at concentrations higher than the therapeutic level of drugs and reflect that Metformin in combination with Celecoxib synergistically inhibits the cell proliferation in a concentration dependent pattern. Since, this increase in cytotoxicity did not confer an increase in DNA damage; this combination could be adopted to inhibit the growth of malignant cell without producing any genotoxic or mutagenic effects at cellular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  9. Yahya MFZR, Alias Z, Karsani SA
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 2018 Jan;63(1):23-30.
    PMID: 28540585 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-017-0532-9
    Biofilms are complex microbial communities that tend to attach to either biotic or abiotic surface. Enclosed in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, the biofilms often cause persistent infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and afatinib against Gram-negative pathogens. Test microorganisms used in this study were Escherichia coli ATCC 1299, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028. Biofilms were developed in 96-well microplate at 37°C for 24 h. Following removal of non-adherent cells, analysis of biofilm viability, biofilm biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix were performed using resazurin assay, crystal violet assay, and attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Bradford protein assay was conducted to determine the total amount of EPS proteins. The results demonstrated that both 32% DMSO alone and its combination with 3.2 μg/mL afatinib were effective in killing biofilm cells and reducing biofilm biomass. IR spectral variations of EPS matrix of biofilms in the range between 1700 and 900 cm-1 were also observed. Reduction in EPS proteins verified the chemical modifications of EPS matrix. In conclusion, 32% DMSO alone and its combination with 3.2 μg/mL afatinib showed remarkable antibiofilm activities against Gram-negative pathogens. It was suggested that the biofilm inhibition was mediated by the chemical modification of EPS matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  10. Chen TI, Zhuang HW, Chiao YC, Chen CC
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Aug 26;149(1):70-4.
    PMID: 23773827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.001
    Lignosus rhinocerotis mushroom is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. Its sclerotium is the part of edibility and is traditionally used for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma and cancer. In view of its safety profile, very little information is found in scientific literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  11. Muhammad H, Gomes-Carneiro MR, Poça KS, De-Oliveira AC, Afzan A, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 27;133(2):647-53.
    PMID: 21044879 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.055
    Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth, also known as Misai Kucing in Malaysia and Java tea in Indonesia, is traditionally used in Southeastern Asia to treat kidney dysfunctions, diabetes, gout and several other illnesses. Recent studies of Orthosiphon stamineus pharmacological profile have revealed antioxidant properties and other potentially useful biological activities thereby lending some scientific support to its use in folk medicine. So far the genotoxicity of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts has not been evaluated. In this study the genotoxic potential of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract was investigated by the Salmonella/microsome mutation assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  12. Benacer D, Thong KL, Watanabe H, Puthucheary SD
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Jun;20(6):1042-52.
    PMID: 20622506
    Forty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium (33 zoonotic, 14 clinical) strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the standard disk diffusion method. Presence of relevant resistance genes and class 1 integrons were investigated by using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profiling were carried out to determine the genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium. Approximately 57.4% of S. Typhimurium were multidrug resistant (MDR) and showed high resistance rates to tetracycline (70.2%), sulphonamides (57.4%), streptomycin (53.1%), ampicillin (29.7%), nalidixic acid (27.6%), kanamycin (23.4%), chloramphenicol (21.2%) and trimethoprim (19.1%). Resistance towards cephalosporins was noted for cephalothin (27.6%), cephradine (21.2%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (17.0%) and cephalexin (17.0%). Resistance genes, blaTEM, strA, aadA, sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C) were detected among the drug resistant strains. Thirty-three strains (70.2%) carried class 1 integrons, which were grouped in 9 different profiles. DNA sequencing identified sat, aadA, pse-1 and dfrA genes in variable regions on class 1 integrons. Thirty-five strains (74.4%) were subtyped to 22 different plasmid profiles, each with 1 - 6 plasmids (2.0 to 95 kb). PFGE subtyped the 47 strains into 39 profiles. In conclusion, high rates of multidrug-resistance were found among the Malaysian Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium to cephalosporin antibiotics was also observed. The strains were very diverse and no persistent clone was observed. The emergence of MDR Salmonella Typhimurium is a worldwide problem and this report provides information for the better understanding of the prevalence and epidemiology of MDR S. Typhimurium in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
  13. Shafaei A, Esmailli K, Farsi E, Aisha AF, Abul Majid AM, Ismail Z
    PMID: 26467526 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0885-z
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Pharmacological effects of OS are attributed to the presence of lipophilic flavones. However; lipophilic compounds suffer from poor aqueous solubility which limits the OS oral bioavailability and therapeutic applications. Therefore, OS was prepared in nano formulation form using liposomes from soybean phospholipids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo oral toxicity of nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract (OS-EL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  14. Wahab NFAC, Kannan TP, Mahmood Z, Rahman IA, Ismail H
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2018 Mar;47:207-212.
    PMID: 29247761 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.12.002
    Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) with a ratio of 20/80 Hydroxyapatite (HA)/Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). In the current study, the genotoxicity of locally produced BCP of modified porosity (65%) with a mean pore size of 300micrometer (μm) was assessed using Comet and Ames assays. HDPCs were treated with BCP extract at three different inhibitory concentrations which were obtained based on cytotoxicity test conducted with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment of HDPCs treated with BCP extract at all three concentrations showed no significant difference compared to negative control (p>0.05), indicating that BCP did not induce DNA damage to HDPCs. The BCP was evaluated using five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1537 and TA1538. Each strain was incubated with BCP extract with five different concentrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9) mix. Concurrently, negative and positive controls were included. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with the BCP extract was less than double as compared to the number of revertant colonies in negative control plate and no dose-related increase was observed. Results from both assays suggested that the BCP of modified porosity did not exhibit any genotoxic effect under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  15. Ali AQ, Kannan TP, Ahmad A, Samsudin AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2008 Feb;22(1):57-67.
    PMID: 17892925
    The aims of this study are to determine the mutagenicity of a locally produced polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using Salmonella mutagenicity test and to find out if PHB altered the expression of p53 and c-myc proto-oncogenes and bcl-xl and bcl-xs anti-apoptotic genes in the human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5. Different concentrations of PHB were incubated with special genotypic variants of Salmonella strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100) carrying mutations in several genes both with and without metabolic activation (S9) and the test was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with PHB was less than double as compared to that of negative control. For the gene expression analyses, fibroblast cell lines were treated with PHB at different concentrations and incubated for 1, 12, 24 and 48 h separately. The total RNA was isolated and analysed for the expression of p53, c-myc, bcl-xl and bcl-xs genes. The PHB did not show over or under expression of the genes studied. The above tests indicate that the locally produced PHB is non-genotoxic and does not alter the expression of the proto-oncogenes and anti-apoptotic genes considered in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
  16. Yahya MFZR, Alias Z, Karsani SA
    Protein J, 2017 08;36(4):286-298.
    PMID: 28470375 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-017-9719-9
    Salmonella typhimurium is an important biofilm-forming bacteria. It is known to be resistant to a wide range of antimicrobials. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against S. typhimurium biofilm and investigate whole-cell protein expression by biofilm cells following treatment with DMSO. Antibiofilm activities were assessed using pellicle assay, crystal violet assay, colony-forming unit counting and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix assay whilst differential protein expression was investigated using a combination of one dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Treatment with 32% DMSO inhibited pellicle formation, biofilm viability, biofilm biomass and several important components of EPS matrix. Subtractive protein profiling identified two unique protein bands (25.4 and 51.2 kDa) which were present only in control biofilm and not in 32% DMSO-treated biofilm. In turn, 29 and 46 proteins were successfully identified from the protein bands of 25.4 and 51.2 kDa respectively. Protein interaction network analysis identified several biological pathways to be affected, including glycolysis, PhoP-PhoQ phosphorelay signalling and flagellar biosynthesis. The present study suggests that DMSO may inhibit multiple biological pathways to control biofilm formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*
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