Aluminum (Al3+) toxicity is one of the factors limiting crop production in acidic soils. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes for tolerance to Al3+ toxicity at seed germination can aid the development of new tolerant cultivars. The segregating population derived from Pak Basmati (Indica) × Pokkali (Indica) was used for mapping QTLs linked with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity ranging from 0 to 20 mM at pH 4 ± 0.2 at germination. The favorable alleles for all new QTLs were analyzed based on germination traits, i.e., final germination percentage (FG%), germination energy (GE), germination speed (GS), germination index (GI), mean germination time (MGT), germination value (GV), germination velocity (GVe), peak value of germination (GPV), and germination capacity (GC), and growth traits, such as root length (RL), shoot length (SL), total dry biomass (TDB) and germination vigor index (GVI). The phenotypic evolution showed transgressive variations. For genome-wide mapping, 90 polymorphic SSRs with 4 gene-specific markers and Win QTL Cart were used for QTL analysis. In all, 35 QTLs for germination and 11 QTLs for seedling growth were detected in distinct chromosomal regions by composite interval mapping (CIM), and multiple interval mapping (MIM) confirmed the pleiotropy at region RM128 on chromosome 1. Based on our genetic mapping studies, the genes/QTLs underlying tolerance to Al3+ toxicity could differ for both the germination and seedling stages in segregated populations. The QTLs identified in this study could be a source of new alleles for improving tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in rice.
Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to sustainable oil palm production especially in Southeast Asia and has brought economic losses to the oil palm industry around the world. With no definitive cure at present, this study introduces a new fertilizer technology called GanoCare®, as an effort to suppress BSR incidence in oil palm. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of GanoCare® on growth, physiology, and BSR disease suppression using sitting technique in the oil palm nursery stage. A follow-up using similar treatments was carried out in the field to test on severity of Ganoderma using baiting technique under natural condition. Treatments tested were 10 g/month and 30 g/three months given as pretreatment only or continuous treatment. Results showed that GanoCare® increased the height, bulb diameter, leaf area, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, and fresh and dry weight of the leaf, bole, and root of oil palm seedlings in the nursery trial. Seedlings treated with GanoCare® exhibited reduced percentage of disease severity, incidence, and dead seedlings, compared to the control. In nursery and field, lowest percentage of dead seedlings due to Ganoderma was found in seedlings given combination of pretreatment and continuous treatment of 30 g/three months (T4) with 5.56 and 6.67%, while control seedlings significantly marked the maximum percentage of 94.45 and 93.33%. The most successful treatment in both nursery and field was T4 with disease reductions of 77.78 and 82.36%, respectively, proving that nutrients contained in GanoCare® are essential in allowing better development of a strong defense system in the seedlings.
Amorphophallus bufo is a rarely studied plant in Malaysian tropical rainforests. We measured the spectral reflectance of different developmental stages of A. bufo (seedlings, juveniles and adults), background soil/ debris and leaves from other neighboring plant species. Results show that the leaves of A. bufo seedling have a similar reflectance curve as the background soil and debris. Adults and juveniles of A. bufo are similar to other neighboring plants' leaf colors. We hypothesize that the cryptic coloration of A. bufo seedlings plays an important role in camouflage and that the numerous black spots on the surface of the petioles and rachises, may serve as a defensive mimicry against herbivores.
Macaranga bancana is considered as a successful pioneer plant species. Usually found in disturbed and open areas, most of the current research focused on its relations with ants. One of the unique feature of the plants is that the seedling leaves are red, resembling and almost matching the background. Using a portable spectrometer, we measured the color reflectance of M. bancana seedlings (less than 20 cm in height). We also measured the leaf litter reflectance, adult M. bancana leaves and also seedlings of several other species found in the vicinity of M. bancana seedlings. The reflectances of M. bancana seedlings are very similar to that of the leaf litter background. We suggest that this cryptic coloration is crucial during the early stages of the plant when it still cannot rely on the protection of ants.
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the 'insurance hypothesis' predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in species traits and ecologies. To test for potential insurance effects, we analyse the patterns of seedling mortality and growth in monoculture and mixture plots over the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment. Our results reveal the species differences required for potential insurance effects including a trade-off in which species with denser wood have lower growth rates but higher survival. This trade-off was consistent over time during the first decade, but growth and mortality varied spatially across our 500 ha experiment with species responding to changing conditions in different ways. Overall, average survival rates were extreme in monocultures than mixtures consistent with a potential insurance effect in which monocultures of poorly surviving species risk recruitment failure, whereas monocultures of species with high survival have rates of self-thinning that are potentially wasteful when seedling stocks are limited. Longer-term monitoring as species interactions strengthen will be needed to more comprehensively test to what degree mixtures of species spread risk and use limited seedling stocks more efficiently to increase diversity and restore ecosystem structure and functioning.
Matched MeSH terms: Seedlings/growth & development
Precipitation patterns are changing across the globe causing more severe and frequent drought for many forest ecosystems. Although research has focused on the resistance of tree populations and communities to these novel precipitation regimes, resilience of forests is also contingent on recovery following drought, which remains poorly understood, especially in aseasonal tropical forests. We used rainfall exclusion shelters to manipulate the interannual frequency of drought for diverse seedling communities in a tropical forest and assessed resistance, recovery and resilience of seedling growth and mortality relative to everwet conditions. We found seedlings exposed to recurrent periods of drought altered their growth rates throughout the year relative to seedlings in everwet conditions. During drought periods, seedlings grew slower than seedlings in everwet conditions (i.e., resistance phase) while compensating with faster growth after drought (i.e., recovery phase). However, the response to frequent drought was species dependent as some species grew significantly slower with frequent drought relative to everwet conditions while others grew faster with frequent drought due to overcompensating growth during the recovery phase. In contrast, mortality was unrelated to rainfall conditions and instead correlated with differences in light. Intra-annual plasticity of growth and increased annual growth of some species led to an overall maintenance of growth rates of tropical seedling communities in response to more frequent drought. These results suggest these communities can potentially adapt to predicted climate change scenarios and that plasticity in the growth of species, and not solely changes in mortality rates among species, may contribute to shifts in community composition under drought.
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are natural enemies which affect insect population and have long been recognized as biological control agents against many insect pests. Some isolates have also been established as endophytes, benefiting their host plants without causing any symptoms or negative effects. Here we demonstrated two entomopathogenic fungal species, Isariajavanica (Frieder. & Bally) Samson & Hywel-jone 2005 and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hou-braken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2011) as endophytes in tomato plants by using the seed inoculation method and examined their effect on plant growth, B. tabaci mortality, and adult emergence. Our study indicated that tomato seeds treated with a fungal suspension of I. javanica and P. lilacinum enabled their recovery from plant tissues (root, stem and leaf) up to 60 days after inoculation (DAI). Both endophytic isolates also caused significant mortality of adult B. tabaci on seedlings inoculated with, I. javanica (51.92±4.78%), and P. lilacinum (45.32±0.20%) compared to the control treatment (19.29±2.35). Adult emergence rates were significantly high in the control treatments (57.50±2.66%) compared to I. javanica (15.00±1.47%) and P. lilacinum (28.75±4.78%) treatments. This study provides evidence that endophytic isolates of I. javanica and P. lilacinum have a biocontrol potentials for used against whiteflies and could also explored as plant growth promoters.
To discuss the cold resistance performance of different Herba Rhodiolae and successfully transplant Herba Rhodiolae to the Gansu plateau area for nursing, domestication and planting, this paper systematically studies six physiological and biochemical features of Rhodiola kirilowii, Rhodiola algida, Rhodiola crenulata and Herba Rhodiolae that are closely associated with cold resistance features and concludes with the cold resistance capability of Rhodiola kirilowii. In the selected six main indexes of the Herba Rhodiolae, the POD, SOD and CAT activity and MDA and Pro content in the leaf are the main physiological and biochemical indexes to indicate the cold resistance performance of four Herba Rhodiolae seedlings and can be regarded as the preliminary indexes to assess the winter performance of Herba Rhodiolae. The research work will provide the theoretical basis for the wild variants of Herba Rhodiolae and GAPJ base construction.
Naturally occurring seedlings of Neuwiedia veratrifolia were found in three localities in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. Seedlings consisted of an irregular oblong protocorm and a terminal leafy rooted shoot. Protocorms contained mycotrophic tissue of the kind typical of orchid mycorrhiza (tolypophagy). This finding demonstrates an important synapomorphy between Neuwiedia and other orchids and strongly supports the monophyly of Orchidaceae in the broad sense, including apostasiod orchids.
Nitrate reductase inhibitor is usually found in the roots of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv MR7), but it was also produced in the shoots of aging plants. The inhibitor was inducible in the shoot of rice seedlings by dark, minus-nitrate or plus-ammonium treatments. There appears to be a general involvement of the inhibitor in the control of nitrate assimilation in the plant.
The system of rice intensification (SRI) is an agroecological approach to rice cultivation that seeks to create optimal conditions for healthy plant growth by minimizing inter-plant competition, transplanting widely spaced young single seedlings, and optimizing favorable soil conditions with organic amendments, increased soil aeration by weeding, and controlled water management. These practices improve rice plant growth with yields up to three times more than with conventional cultivation methods, and increase crop resilience under biotic and abiotic stresses. This review discusses the roles of beneficial microbes in improving rice plant growth, yield, and resilience when SRI practices are used, and how these modifications in plant, soil, water, and nutrient management affect the populations and diversity of soil microorganisms. Mechanisms whereby symbiotic microbes support rice plants' growth and performance are also discussed.
Animals can have both positive (e.g. via seed dispersal) and negative (e.g. via herbivory) impacts on plants. The net effects of these interactions remain difficult to predict and may be affected by overhunting and habitat disturbance, two widespread threats to tropical forests. Recent studies have documented their separate effects on plant recruitment but our understanding of how defaunation and logging interact to influence tropical tree communities is limited. From 2013 to 2016, we followed the fate of marked tree seedlings (n = 1489) from 81 genera in and outside experimental plots. Our plots differentially excluded small, medium and large-bodied mammal herbivores in logged and unlogged forest in Malaysian Borneo. We assessed the effects of experimental defaunation and logging on taxonomic diversity and plant trait (wood density, specific leaf area, fruit size) composition of seedling communities. Although seedling mortality was highest in the presence of all mammal herbivores (44%), defaunation alone did not alter taxonomic diversity nor plant trait composition. However, herbivores (across all body sizes) significantly reduced mean fruit size across the seedling community over time (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.09 to -0.01), particularly in logged forest (95% CI: -0.12 to -0.003). Our findings suggest that impacts of mammal herbivores on plant communities may be greater in forests with a history of disturbance and could subsequently affect plant functional traits and ecological processes associated with forest regeneration.
Estimates of general combining ability of parents for yield and girth obtained separately from seedlings and their corresponding clonal families in Phases II and IIIA of the RRIM breeding programme are compared. A highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.71***) is found between GCA estimates from seedling and clonal families for yield in Phase IIIA, but not in Phase II (r = -0.03(NS)) nor for girth (r= -0.27(NS)) in Phase IIIA. The correlations for Phase II yield and Phase IIIA girth, however, improve when the GCA estimates based on small sample size or reversed rankings are excluded.When the best selections (based on present clonal and seedling information) are compared, all five of the parents top-ranking for yield are common in Phase IIIA but only two parents are common for yield and girth in Phases II and IIIA respectively. However, only one parent for yield in Phase II and two parents for girth in Phase IIIA would, if selected on clonal performance, have been omitted from the top ranking selections made by previous workers using seedling information.These findings, therefore, justify the choice of parents based on GCA estimates for yield obtained from seedling performance. Similar justification cannot be offered for girth, for which analysis is confounded by uninterpretable site and seasonal effects.
A factorial experiment of three light intensities and three fertiliser levels was carried out on the potted seedlings of neobalanocarpus heimii as stock plants for subsequent rooting of cuttings. Light intensities used were 25%, 50% and 100% of the open sunlight and the fertilizer levels were 0 g, 1 g and 2 g plant-1 month-1. Results of 11 months after potting showed that the stock plants treated with 1 g and 2 g fertilizer had significantly better height and diameter increments than those without fertilizer in all light intensities tried. On the other hand, no significant effect of light intensity was obtained in height and diameter increments of the stock plants. Survival of stock plants of more than 86% was obtained in all light intensities tried with or without fertilizer application. Test on rooting of subsequent cuttings showed that light intensity of 25% and 0 g fertiliser, to stock plants gave the highest rooting percentage (73%) and the number of roots (2.0). The general trend showed that rooting decreased to below 60% when intensity of light was increased. In terms of size, cuttings with diameter between 1.2 mm and 2.3 mm is recommended as it yielded rooting of 65% to 75%. For practical application, a combination of 25% light intensity and 1 g of fertilizer plant-1 month-1 can be applied to the stock plants to maintain their healthy growth for continuous production of cutting materials for rooting.
The role of conspecific density dependence (CDD) in the maintenance of species richness is a central focus of tropical forest ecology. However, tests of CDD often ignore the integrated effects of CDD over multiple life stages and their long-term impacts on population demography. We combined a 10-year time series of seed production, seedling recruitment and sapling and tree demography of three dominant Southeast Asian tree species that adopt a mast-fruiting phenology. We used these data to construct individual-based models that examine the effects of CDD on population growth rates (λ) across life-history stages. Recruitment was driven by positive CDD for all species, supporting the predator satiation hypothesis, while negative CDD affected seedling and sapling growth of two species, significantly reducing λ. This negative CDD on juvenile growth overshadowed the positive CDD of recruitment, suggesting the cumulative effects of CDD during seedling and sapling development has greater importance than the positive CDD during infrequent masting events. Overall, CDD varied among positive, neutral and negative effects across life-history stages for all species, suggesting that assessments of CDD on transitions between just two stages (e.g. seeds seedlings or juveniles mature trees) probably misrepresent the importance of CDD on population growth and stability.
Understory plants in tropical forests often experience a low-light environment combined with high CO2 concentration. We hypothesized that the high CO2 concentration may compensate for leaf carbon loss caused by the low light, through increasing light-use efficiency of both steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties. To test the hypothesis, we examined CO2 gas exchange in response to an artificial lightfleck in Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. seedlings under contrasting CO2 conditions: 350 and 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) air in a tropical rain forest, Pasoh, Malaysia. Total photosynthetic carbon gain from the lightfleck was about double when subjected to the high CO2 when compared with the low CO2 concentration. The increase of light-use efficiency in dynamic photosynthesis contributed 7% of the increased carbon gain, most of which was due to reduction of photosynthetic induction to light increase under the high CO2. The light compensation point of photosynthesis decreased by 58% and the apparent quantum yield increased by 26% at the high CO2 compared with those at the low CO2. The study suggests that high CO2 increases photosynthetic light-use efficiency under both steady-state and fluctuating light conditions, which should be considered in assessing the leaf carbon gain of understory plants in low-light environments.
Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P 1 × P 5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P 2 × P 5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P 4 × P 5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96%) was observed in hybrid P 2 × P 4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI) and seedling vigor index (SVI) were found in hybrid P 1 × P 5 and P 2 × P 5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.
Matched MeSH terms: Seedlings/growth & development
Deforestation in the tropics is an important source of carbon C release to the atmosphere. To provide a sound scientific base for efforts taken to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) good estimates of C stocks and fluxes are important. We present components of the C balance for selectively logged lowland tropical dipterocarp rainforest in the Malua Forest Reserve of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Total organic C in this area was 167.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±3.8 (SD), including: Total aboveground (TAGC: 55%; 91.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±2.9 SEM) and belowground carbon in trees (TBGC: 10%; 16.5 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.5 SEM), deadwood (8%; 13.2 Mg C ha⁻¹±3.5 SEM) and soil organic matter (SOM: 24%; 39.6 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.9 SEM), understory vegetation (3%; 5.1 Mg C ha⁻¹±1.7 SEM), standing litter (<1%; 0.7 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.1 SEM) and fine root biomass (<1%; 0.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.1 SEM). Fluxes included litterfall, a proxy for leaf net primary productivity (4.9 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹±0.1 SEM), and soil respiration, a measure for heterotrophic ecosystem respiration (28.6 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹±1.2 SEM). The missing estimates necessary to close the C balance are wood net primary productivity and autotrophic respiration.Twenty-two years after logging TAGC stocks were 28% lower compared to unlogged forest (128 Mg C ha⁻¹±13.4 SEM); a combined weighted average mean reduction due to selective logging of -57.8 Mg C ha⁻¹ (with 95% CI -75.5 to -40.2). Based on the findings we conclude that selective logging decreased the dipterocarp stock by 55-66%. Silvicultural treatments may have the potential to accelerate the recovery of dipterocarp C stocks to pre-logging levels.
A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.
Tree seedlings in tropical rain forests are subject to both damage from natural enemies and intense interspecific competition. This leads to a trade-off in investment between defense and growth, and it is likely that tree species specialized to particular habitats tailor this balance to correspond with local resource availability. It has also been suggested that differential herbivore impacts among tree species may drive habitat segregation, favoring species adapted to particular resource conditions. In order to test these predictions, a reciprocal transplant experiment in Sabah, Malaysia, was established with seedlings of five species of Dipterocarpaceae. These were specialized to either alluvial (Hopea nervosa, Parashorea tomentella) or sandstone soils (Shorea multiflora, H. beccariana), or were locally absent (S. fallax). A total of 3000 seedlings were planted in paired gap and understory plots in five sites on alluvial and sandstone soils. Half of all seedlings were fertilized. Seedling growth and mortality were recorded in regular samples over 3.5 years, and rates of insect herbivore damage were estimated from censuses of foliar tissue loss on marked mature leaves and available young leaves. Greater herbivory rates on mature leaves had no measurable effects on seedling growth but were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of mortality during the following year. In contrast, new-leaf herbivory rates correlated with neither growth nor mortality. There were no indications of differential impacts of herbivory among the five species, nor between experimental treatments. Herbivory was not shown to influence segregation of species between soil types, although it may contribute toward differential survival among light habitats. Natural rates of damage were substantially lower than have been shown to influence tree seedling growth and mortality in previous manipulative studies.