METHODS: Data were collected from undergraduate students at all campuses of the Universiti Sains Malaysia. A total of 1,605 students completed the SEE-M (female: 71.5%, male: 28.5%), with the mean age of 20.3 years (SD = 1.5). Perceived self-efficacy was assessed with the 18-item SEE-M. Standard forward-backward translation was performed to translate the English version of the Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE) into the Malay version (SEE-M).
RESULTS: The 2 initial measurement models tested (1-factor and 3-factor models) did not result in a good fit to the data. Subsequent investigation of the CFA results recommended some modifications, including adding correlations between the item residuals within the same latent variable. These modifications resulted in good fit indices for the 1-factor model (RMSEA = .059, CFI = .939, TLI = .922, SRMR = .049) and the 3-factor model (RMSEA = .066, CFI = .924, TLI = .903, SRMR = .051). The final measurement models comprised all 18 SEE-M items, which had significant factor loadings of more than .40. The test-retest results indicated that the SEE-M was stable, with an intra-class correlation of .99. The composite reliability was .886 for the 1-factor model and .670-.854 for the 3-factor model.
CONCLUSIONS: The translated version of the SEE-M was valid and reliable for assessing the level of self-efficacy for exercise among university students in Malaysia.
PERSPECTIVE: This study examining the psychometric properties of the SEE scale based on CFA was the first to assess 2 proposed models (1-factor and 3-factor models) simultaneously and to translate the original, English-language SEE into Malay.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2) = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours.
CONCLUSIONS: To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.