Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 221 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Muniandy KV, Chung ELT, Jaapar MS, Hamdan MHM, Reduan MFH, Salleh A, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2021 Jun 25;53(3):372.
    PMID: 34173068 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02820-1
    The present study aims to determine the hematology, serum biochemistry, and acute phase proteins (APPs) responses of both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in sheep fed with low and high levels of Brachiaria decumbens (B. decumbens) diets at different time phases. A total of 30 6-month-old male Dorper cross sheep were randomly divided into three treatment groups consisted of 10 sheep each. Treatment 1 (control) sheep were fed with Pennisetum purpureum and concentrates as the basal diet, whereas Treatments 2 and 3 sheep were fed with low (10%) and high (60%) level of B. decumbens, respectively. The hematology results revealed that there were significant differences (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases*; Sheep, Domestic
  2. Muniandy KV, Chung ELT, Jaapar MS, Hamdan MHM, Salleh A, Jesse FFA
    Toxicon, 2020 Jan 30;174:26-31.
    PMID: 31989927 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.158
    Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread in some tropical countries due to its adaptation to a wide range of environments and soil types. However, a limiting factor for the use of this grass is its toxicity from steroidal saponins. Sporadic outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization in ruminants grazing on this grass have been reported. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. This review article will critically shed light on the B. decumbens profile, its toxic compounds, mechanisms, clinical responses, blood profile alterations, pathological changes, and acute phase responses related to signal grass intoxication. Further research is needed to integrate new findings on B. decumbens intoxication with previous preventive and therapeutic trials to minimize or remove its deleterious toxic effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep*; Sheep Diseases*
  3. Norhayati, Z., Wan Zahari, M., Shanmugavelu, S., Dzulfazly, A.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):43-44.
    MyJurnal
    This study was conducted to evaluate the meat quality of Dorper sheep weaned at different ages. 3 cuts of sirloin from 3 animals in each treatment groups were used in this study. 9 lambs were grouped into 3 different weaning groups (G1,G2, G3) of 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. G3 was served as control group based on current practice. When the animals reached the age of 270 days, 3 out of 9 lambs from each of the treated groups were slaughtered for meat quality analysis. Results from this study shows no significant (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep, Domestic
  4. Sheikh-Omar AR, Shah M
    Aust. Vet. J., 1984 Dec;61(12):410.
    PMID: 6534363
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/epidemiology*
  5. Lawan Z, Bala JA, Bukar AM, Balakrishnan KN, Mangga HK, Abdullah FFJ, et al.
    Anim Health Res Rev, 2021 06;22(1):40-55.
    PMID: 34016216 DOI: 10.1017/S1466252320000018
    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is an infectious disease of small ruminants caused by a parapoxvirus of family Poxviridae subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The disease is obviously distinguished by an establishment of scabby lesions and ulcerative formation on less hairy areas including muzzle, ears, nostril, and sometimes on genitalia. The disease is endemic in sheep and goats. The virus is transmissible to other ruminants and is a public health concern in humans. Although the disease is known as self-limiting, it may cause a significant economic threat and financial losses due to lower productivity in livestock production. Information with regard to the risk of the disease and epidemiology in most parts of the world is underreported. This paper aims to provide relevant information about the epidemiology of CE in selected regions of Europe, South America, North America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. An in-depth comprehension of virus infection, diagnoses, and management of the disease will enable farmers, researchers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, health personnel, and border controllers to improve their measures, skills, and effectiveness toward disease prevention and control, toward reducing unnecessary economic loss among farmers. A herd health program for significant improvement in management and productivity of livestock demands a well planned extension program that ought to encourage farmers to equip themselves with adequate skills for animal healthcare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases*
  6. Shen DD, Wang JF, Zhang DY, Peng ZW, Yang TY, Wang ZD, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Sep 19;10(1):437.
    PMID: 28927469 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2377-0
    BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife.

    METHODS: H. contortus specimens (n = 57) were isolated from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) inhabiting Helan Mountains (HM), China and additional H. contortus specimens (n = 20) were isolated from domestic sheep that were grazed near the natural habitat of the blue sheep. Complete ITS2 (second internal transcribed spacer) sequences and partial sequences of the nad4 (nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) gene were amplified to determine the sequence variations and population genetic diversities between these two populations. Also, 142 nad4 haplotype sequences of H. contortus from seven other geographical regions of China were retrieved from database to further examine the H. contortus population structure.

    RESULTS: Sequence analysis revealed 10 genotypes (ITS2) and 73 haplotypes (nad4) among the 77 specimens, with nucleotide diversities of 0.007 and 0.021, respectively, similar to previous studies in other countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia and Yemen. Phylogenetic analyses (BI, MP, NJ) of nad4 sequences showed that there were no noticeable boundaries among H. contortus populations from different geographical origin and population genetic analyses revealed that most of the variation (94.21%) occurred within H. contortus populations. All phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was little genetic differentiation but a high degree of gene flow among the H. contortus populations among wild blue sheep and domestic ruminants in China.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current work is the first genetic characterization of H. contortus isolated from wild blue sheep in the Helan Mountains region. The results revealed a low genetic differentiation and high degree of gene flow between the H. contortus populations from sympatric wild blue sheep and domestic sheep, indicating regular cross-infection between the sympatrically reared ruminants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep/parasitology; Sheep Diseases/parasitology*; Sheep, Domestic/parasitology
  7. Alahmed AM, Nasser MG, Sallam MF, Dawah H, Kheir S, AlAshaal SA
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Jun 01;37(2):499-512.
    PMID: 33612819
    Despite the medical, veterinary and forensic relevance of myiasis-causing flies, knowledge of their diversity in Saudi Arabia is limited especially in the southern region. Therefore, a survey of myiasis-causing flies in the Jazan region was carried out using Red Top Fly Catcher traps baited with either decomposing beef liver or a lure composed primarily from fishmeal during the period April 2013-March 2014. Twelve known species were identified and recorded in this study, seven species of them belonging to Calliphoridae (Chrysomya, Lucilia, and Hemipyrella) and five species belonging to Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga). Two of these species were recorded for the first time for Saudi Arabia, namely Hemipyrella pulchra (Wiedemann, 1830) and Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) exuberans Pandellé, 1896. Images of the species recorded are also provided for the first time. The results expand the knowledge of geographical distribution, fauna, and habitat of the myiasis-causing flies in Saudi Arabia. Biological information and world-wide geographical distribution of these species are included together with some taxonomic remarks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep/parasitology*
  8. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Hardcastle M, Williamson NB
    Vet Parasitol, 2015 Mar 15;208(3-4):150-8.
    PMID: 25638717 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.12.036
    Recent reports indicate N. caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the mode of transmission of neosporosis in sheep in New Zealand is limited. This study aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission that would occur in lambs born from experimentally inoculated ewes and to determine if previous inoculation would protect the lambs from N. caninum infection. A group of 50 ewes was divided into 2 groups with one group being inoculated with 5×10(6) N. caninum tachyzoites prior to pregnancy in Year 1. In Year 2, each of these groups was subdivided into 2 groups with one from each original group being inoculated with 1×10(7) N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation. Inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites into ewes prior to mating resulted in no congenital transmission in lambs born in Year 1 but without further inoculation, 7 out of 11 lambs in Year 2 were positive for N. caninum infection. Ewes that were inoculated in both years resulted in all 12 lambs born in Year 2 being positive for N. caninum infection. This indicates that previous inoculation in Year 1 did not result in any vertical transmission in that year but did not provide any protection against vertical transmission in Year 2. These results suggest that vertical transmission occurs readily once the ewe is infected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/parasitology*; Sheep Diseases/transmission*
  9. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Smith SL, Williamson NB
    Vet Parasitol, 2013 Nov 8;197(3-4):534-42.
    PMID: 23819894 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.06.002
    Recent reports from New Zealand indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep. Transmission of N. caninum via semen has been documented in cattle. This study aimed to investigate if horizontal transmission through semen was also possible in sheep. Initially, 6-month old crossbred ram lambs (n=32), seronegative to N. caninum, were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1 remained uninoculated whilst the remainder were inoculated with N. caninum tachyzoites intravenously as follows: Group 2 - 50 tachyzoites; Group 3 - 10(3) tachyzoites; Group 4 - 10(7) tachyzoites. Semen samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks for the detection of N. caninum DNA and quantified using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Plasma collected 1 month post-inoculation was subjected to ELISA (IDEXX Chekit) and Western blot. At 2 weeks post-infection, three rams from Group 1 (uninoculated) and three rams from Group 4 (10(7)tachyzoites/ml) were mated with two groups of 16 ewes over two oestrus cycles. Ewe sera collected 1 and 2 months post-mating were tested for seroconversion by ELISA and Western blot. All experimentally infected rams seroconverted by 1 month with ELISA S/P% values ranging from 11% to 36.5% in Group 2, 12-39.5% in Group 3 and 40-81% in Group 4. However, none of the ewes mated with the experimentally infected rams seroconverted. For the Western blot, responses towards immunodominant antigens (IDAs) were observed in ram sera directed against proteins at 10, 17, 21, 25-29, 30, 31, 33 and 37 kDa. Rams in Group 2, 3 and 4 were noted to have at least 3 IDAs present. None of the ewes showed any of the 8 prominent IDAs except for the one at 21 kDa which was seen in 30 out of 32 ewes in both groups. N. caninum DNA was detected intermittently in the ram's semen up to 5 weeks post-inoculation with the concentrations ranging from that equivalent to 1-889 tachyzoites per ml of semen. Low concentrations of N. caninum DNA were also detected in the brain tissue of two rams (Groups 1 and 4). These results suggest that although N. caninum DNA can be found in the semen of experimentally infected rams, the transmission of N. caninum via natural mating is an unlikely event.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/parasitology*; Sheep Diseases/transmission
  10. Khairi HM, Elsheikh HA, Salam Abdullah A
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2000 Aug;42(4):193-5.
    PMID: 10928679
    The effect of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) on drug-metabolizing enzymes was studied in sheep. After 14 d of grazing a pure signal grass pasture, significant declines were observed in hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline 4-hydroxylase (phase I biotransformation) and in conjugative enzymes UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase. Kidney enzymes were significantly decreased except for UDP-glucuronyltransferase. Enzyme activities were also compared for normal sheep and cattle livers and kidneys. Lower activities were found in cattle, indicating that factors other than biotransformation are responsible for the clincial tolerance of cattle to B. decumbens toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/enzymology*; Sheep Diseases/etiology
  11. Chooi KF, Hutagalung RI, Mohamed WW
    Aust. Vet. J., 1988 May;65(5):156-7.
    PMID: 3401164
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/chemically induced*; Sheep Diseases/pathology
  12. Abdullah AS, Nordin MM, Rajion MA
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 1988 Jun;30(3):256-8.
    PMID: 3388753
    In addition to generalized icterus, enlargement of the liver and severe photosensitization, signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity also caused ruminal stasis and a decreased rumen pH in sheep. Ruminal stasis, which occurred within 3 weeks of grazing on this grass, may be the effect of the toxin produced in the rumen rather than a sequele of a decreased rumen pH. Animals were anorexic and the volume of their rumen content was very much reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/metabolism; Sheep Diseases/physiopathology*
  13. Ulum MF, Nasution AK, Yusop AH, Arafat A, Kadir MR, Juniantito V, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2015 Oct;103(7):1354-65.
    PMID: 25385691 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33315
    Iron-bioceramic composites have been developed as biodegradable implant materials with tailored degradation behavior and bioactive features. In the current work, in vivo bioactivity of the composites was comprehensively studied by using sheep animal model. Five groups of specimens (Fe-HA, Fe-TCP, Fe-BCP composites, and pure-Fe and SS316L as controls) were surgically implanted into medio proximal region of the radial bones. Real-time ultrasound analysis showed a decreased echo pattern at the peri-implant biodegradation site of the composites indicating minimal tissue response during the wound healing process. Peripheral whole blood biomarkers monitoring showed a normal dynamic change of blood cellular responses and no stress effect was observed. Meanwhile, the released Fe ion concentration was increasing along the implantation period. Histological analysis showed that the composites corresponded with a lower inflammatory giant cell count than that of SS316L. Analysis of the retrieved implants showed a thicker degradation layer on the composites compared with pure-Fe. It can be concluded that the iron-bioceramic composites are bioactive and induce a preferable wound healing process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep
  14. Komala TS, Ramlan M, Yeoh NN, Surayani AR, Sharifah Hamidah SM
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Dec;25(3):196-201.
    PMID: 19287357
    A survey of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA), a bacterial infection in sheep and goats was conducted on small ruminant farms in two districts in Perak, namely Kinta and Hilir Perak. The objective of this survey is to determine the status of CLA infection in small ruminants. A total of 8 farms were screened, involving a total of 579 animals. Agar Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Absorbent Assay (ELISA) were conducted on serum samples obtained from the animals. Results show that 8.5% of the animals had a positive reaction for AGPT test. It was found that 36 samples (17%) were found positive using both AGPT and ELISA methods, 9 samples (4%) were found positive only using AGPT method, 14 samples (6%)were found positive only using ELISA and 157 samples (73%) were found negative using both methods. Since there is no available data on the prevalence of the disease in the country, further epidemiological studies as well as reliable diagnostic detection methods need to be assessed for aiding in control and eradication programmes for this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/diagnosis; Sheep Diseases/epidemiology*
  15. Rahman WA, Abd Hamid S
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):23-7.
    PMID: 17568374 MyJurnal
    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). This paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of H. contortus adults from the two hosts. There were more ridges in H. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. Total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/epidemiology; Sheep Diseases/parasitology*
  16. Mohammed K, Abba Y, Ramli NS, Marimuthu M, Omar MA, Abdullah FF, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2016 Jun;48(5):1013-20.
    PMID: 27038194 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-016-1049-y
    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/epidemiology*; Sheep Diseases/parasitology; Sheep, Domestic
  17. Kho KL, Amarajothi ADG, Koh FX, Panchadcharam C, Hassan Nizam QN, Tay ST
    Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports, 2017 12;10:149-153.
    PMID: 31014589 DOI: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2017.08.003
    This study reports the molecular detection of Theileria spp. from six cattle farms, a sheep farm and a goat farm located at different states in Peninsular Malaysia. Animal blood samples were screened for the presence of Theileria DNA using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A total of 155 (69.2%) of 224 cattle investigated were PCR-positive for Theileria DNA. The occurrences of Theileria spp. ranged from 17.5% to 100.0% across six cattle farms. Theileria DNA was detected from 90.0% of 40 sheep but none of 40 goats examined in this study. Sequence analyses of amplified 18S rRNA partial fragments (335-338bp) confirmed the identification of Theileria buffeli, Theileria sergenti, and Theileria sinensis in representative samples of cattle and ticks. T. luwenshuni was identified in the infected sheep. The high occurrences of Theileria spp. in our farm animals highlight the needs for appropriate control and preventive measures for theileriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep Diseases/blood; Sheep Diseases/epidemiology; Sheep Diseases/parasitology*
  18. Aravindran, S., Sahilah, A.M., Aminah, A.
    MyJurnal
    In Malaysia, halal certification status for some surimi-based product is still suspicious due to the incorporation of non-halal plasma protein additives as part of the food ingredient. This study was conducted to determine the presence of plasma protein additives that have been incorporated into surimi-based product using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Southern Hybridization method which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. A random of 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product was purchased from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA and 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, while remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) has no DNA species detected. In presence study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep, Domestic
  19. Saeed OA, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Ebrahimi M, Alimon AR, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2019 Jul 08;15(1):233.
    PMID: 31286932 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1976-8
    BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw.

    RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls.

    CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep, Domestic
  20. Saeed OA, Kee LT, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Jahromi MF, Alimon AR, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2019 Apr;9(4):146.
    PMID: 30944793 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1681-0
    This study aimed to determine influence of corn inclusion on glutathion peroxidase (GPx) activity, selected minerals concentration, and gene expression in sheep-fed palm kernel cake (PKC) and urea-treated rice straw. Twenty-seven of Dorper sheep were divided into three groups and fed a basal diet of (20% rice straw and 80% concentrate) with addition of ground corn at either 0% (T1), 5% (T2), or 10% (T3), respectively. After 120 days feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered and tissue samples of kidney, liver, and muscles were taken for enzyme and mineral analyses. The results showed that Cu concentration in the liver was lower treatment T3 compared to the control and T2. The serum activity of GPx was higher in T2 than in T3 at day 120 of experiment. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations decreased at day 80 in sheep on T3, whereas MDA of liver increased linearly with increasing corn supplementation. The qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant up-regulation of ATP7A and MIa genes in T3, while hepatic Cu/Zn SOD, GPx1, and GPx4 mRNA showed a higher expression in lamb hepatocytes in T3 compared to those on T1. Present study results suggest that feeding PKC as basal diet can increase antioxidant activity, but cause liver dysfunction in sheep. Inclusion corn was found to regulate transcriptional levels of the GPx family and metallothionein genes. These genes may play a role in the antioxidant protection response and reduce incidence of toxicity associated with Cu.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sheep; Sheep, Domestic
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links