Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Ampalam SD, Fang L
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Jun;25(4):282-4.
    PMID: 4261301
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/classification; Shigella/isolation & purification*; Shigella sonnei/isolation & purification
  2. Chapman SJ
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Sep;35(1):7-8.
    PMID: 7254003
    A survey of lettuce sold in Penang markets showed them to be heavily contaminated with faecal coliforms and nearly half the samples were positive for Salmonella or Shigella. The use of night soil on these vegetables is a likely cause of gastroenteritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/isolation & purification*
  3. BangaSingh KK, Nisha M, Lau HY, Ravichandran M, Salleh MZ
    Microb Pathog, 2016 Feb;91:123-8.
    PMID: 26706344 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.12.004
    Virulence of Shigella is attributed to the genes presence in chromosome or in the megaplasmid. The apy gene which is located in the megaplasmid of Shigella species encodes for apyrase enzyme, a pathogenesis-associated enzyme causing mitochondrial damage and host cell death. In this study we constructed an apy mutant of Shigella flexneri by insertional activation using a kanamycin resistant gene cassette. The wild type apy gene of S. flexneri 2a was PCR amplified, cloned and mutated with insertion of kanamycin resistant gene cassette (aphA). The mutated construct (apy: aphA) was subcloned into a conjugative suicidal vector (pWM91) at the unique Sma1 and Sac1 sites. The mutation of the wild apy gene in the construct was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutated construct was introduced into wild type S. flexneri 2a by conjugation with Escherichia coli. After undergoing homologous recombination, the wild apy gene was deleted from the construct using the sucrose selection method. Non-functional activity of the apyrase enzyme in the constructed strain by colorimetric test indicated the successful mutation of the apyrase enzyme. This strain with mutated apy gene was evaluated for its protective efficacy using the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. The strain was Sereny negative and it elicited a significant protection following challenge with wild S. flexneri strain. This apy mutant strain will form a base for the development of a vaccine target for shigellosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/enzymology*; Shigella flexneri/genetics; Shigella flexneri/pathogenicity*
  4. Harikrishnan H, Ismail A, Banga Singh KK
    Gut pathogens, 2013;5(1):38.
    PMID: 24330657 DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-5-38
    Bacteria exist widely in a diversity of natural environments. In order to survive adverse conditions such as nutrient depletion, biochemical and biological disturbances, and high temperature, bacteria have developed a wide variety of coping mechanisms. Temperature is one of the most important factors that can enhance the expression of microbial proteins. This study was conducted to investigate how outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the bacterium Shigella flexneri respond to stress, especially during fever when the host's body temperature is elevated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri
  5. Kan SKP, Chan MKC
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Sep;35(1):9-13.
    PMID: 7254007
    19,983 cases of diarrhoea throughout Sabah, Malaysia from January 1971 to December 1978 were bacteriologically examined for Shigella. A total of 241 Shigella isolates representing 9 serotypes were encountered. S. flexneri and S. sonnei accounted for 69.7% and 29.5% of the isolates respectively. S. flexneri type 2 was very common and comprised 47% of the flexneri strains. S. flexneri types 5.6 and Y were rarely found. Only two cases of S. boydii were isolated. S. dysenteriae was not encountered. Isolation rates ranged from 0.64% to 1.73% while the percentages or cases of diarrhoea bacteriologically examined in relation to the number notified range from 13.7 to 29.6. Kota Kinabalu. Tawau and Sandakan accounted for 50.6%. 21.2% and 8.2% of Shigella isolates respectively. However. no isolations were made from Lahad Datu, Semporna and Victoria [Labuan Island]. S. flexneri type 5 was only found in Sandakan while S. flexnert type Y was isolated from Kota Kinubulu. No S. Sonnel was found in Ranau and Tenom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/classification
  6. Cheong YM, Jegathesan M, Lim YS
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Mar;39(1):92-4.
    PMID: 6392838
    This is a report of a case of vulvovaginitis due to Shigella flexneri in a three-year-old child. This is probably the first documented case of shigella vulvovaginitis In Malaysia. The patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole. Extraintestinal infections by Shigella are rare and are briefly reviewed in this article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification
  7. Kimura T, Inoue A, Kawakami Y, Shirai C
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2006 Aug;59(4):274.
    PMID: 16936352
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella sonnei/isolation & purification*
  8. Harikrishnan H, Banga Singh KK, Ismail A
    PLoS One, 2017;12(8):e0182878.
    PMID: 28846684 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182878
    Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S. sonnei, with the aim of identifying presence of specific IgA and IgG in human serum against the candidate protein biomarkers. Three antigenic OMPs sized 33.3, 43.8 and 100.3 kDa were uniquely recognized by IgA and IgG from patients with S. sonnei infection, and did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The antigenic proteome data generated in this study are a first for OMPs of S. sonnei, and they provide important insights of human immune responses. Furthermore, numerous prime candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for the detection of S. sonnei.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella sonnei/immunology*; Shigella sonnei/isolation & purification; Shigella sonnei/metabolism
  9. Jegathesan M
    J Diarrhoeal Dis Res, 1984 Jun;2(2):102-4.
    PMID: 6501820
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/classification; Shigella/drug effects*
  10. Thong KL, Hoe CH, Koh YT, Yasin RM
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2002 Dec;20(4):356-8.
    PMID: 12659418
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/drug effects; Shigella/isolation & purification*
  11. Yahaya ML, Zakaria ND, Noordin R, Abdul Razak K
    PMID: 32935878 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2029
    Salmonella and Shigella genera are common pathogens that contaminate foods and beverages. Lateral flow assays (LFA) are commonly used to detect these pathogens. However, most of the developed LFAs are for single detection. Simultaneous detection of pathogens is required to reduce cost and time. In this work, 40 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using the seeding growth method as labeling agent. The AuNPs were characterized and conjugated with mouse anti-Gram negative endotoxin antibody. The nitrocellulose membrane HF135 was immobilized with anti-mouse IgG antibody as a control line and two separate test lines with either anti-Shigella or anti-Salmonella antibody, respectively. Color intensity of test lines was observed for positive samples. A milk sample was used as proof of concept to mimic actual contamination. The limit of detection of the LFA was 3.0 × 106 CFU/mL for multiplex detection of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhi and for both single detections. The result was comparable with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The produced LFA could differentiate between Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhi. The developed LFA was able to identify Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhi with good sensitivity in milk samples, thus, beneficial to ensure the safety of food before entering the market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella; Shigella boydii; Shigella flexneri
  12. Liew PS, Teh CS, Lau YL, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):709-20.
    PMID: 25776596 MyJurnal
    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/genetics; Shigella/isolation & purification*
  13. Hoe CH, Yasin RM, Koh YT, Thong KL
    J Appl Microbiol, 2005;99(1):133-40.
    PMID: 15960673
    Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella sonnei from Malaysia was determined and subtyping was carried by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess the extent of genetic diversity of these strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella sonnei/drug effects; Shigella sonnei/genetics*
  14. Koh XP, Chiou CS, Ajam N, Watanabe H, Ahmad N, Thong KL
    BMC Infect Dis, 2012;12:122.
    PMID: 22606962 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-122
    Shigellosis is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is an acute intestinal infection caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, with a minimum infective dose as low as 10-100 bacterial cells. Increasing prevalence of Shigella sonnei as the etiologic agent of shigellosis in Malaysia has been reported. As there is limited information on the genetic background of S. sonnei in Malaysia, this study aimed to characterize Malaysian S. sonnei and to evaluate the prospect of using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for subtyping of local S. sonnei.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella sonnei/classification*; Shigella sonnei/genetics; Shigella sonnei/isolation & purification*
  15. Takasaka M, Morota S, Kasono T, Abe M, Honjo S
    Jikken Dobutsu, 1973 Jul;22(3):227-36.
    PMID: 4204642
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification; Shigella sonnei/isolation & purification
  16. Tang SS, Biswas SK, Tan WS, Saha AK, Leo BF
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6225.
    PMID: 30984476 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6225
    Shigella-infected bacillary dysentery or commonly known as Shigellosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The gradual emergence of multidrug resistant Shigella spp. has triggered the search for alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Phage therapy could be one such suitable alternative, given its proven long term safety profile as well as the rapid expansion of phage therapy research. To be successful, phage therapy will need an adequate regulatory framework, effective strategies, the proper selection of appropriate phages, early solutions to overcome phage therapy limitations, the implementation of safety protocols, and finally improved public awareness. To achieve all these criteria and successfully apply phage therapy against multidrug resistant shigellosis, a comprehensive study is required. In fact, a variety of phage-based approaches and products including single phages, phage cocktails, mutated phages, genetically engineered phages, and combinations of phages with antibiotics have already been carried out to test the applications of phage therapy against multidrug resistant Shigella. This review provides a broad survey of phage treatments from past to present, focusing on the history, applications, limitations and effective solutions related to, as well as the prospects for, the use of phage therapy against multidrug resistant Shigella spp. and other multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella
  17. Thong KL, Hoe SL, Puthucheary SD, Yasin R
    BMC Infect Dis, 2005 Feb 14;5:8.
    PMID: 15707504
    In Malaysia, Shigella spp. was reported to be the third commonest bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium and confirmation of the disease by microbiological and biochemical methods remain as the "gold standard". This study aimed to detect the prevalence of four Shigella virulence genes present concurrently, in randomly selected Malaysian strains via a rapid multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella/genetics*; Shigella/isolation & purification; Shigella/pathogenicity*
  18. Tang SS, Carlin NI, Talukder KA, Cam PD, Verma NK
    BMC Microbiol., 2016 Jun 27;16(1):127.
    PMID: 27349637 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-016-0746-z
    BACKGROUND: Shigella spp. are the primary causative agents of bacillary dysentery. Since its emergence in the late 1980s, the S. flexneri serotype 1c remains poorly understood, particularly with regard to its origin and genetic evolution. This article provides a molecular insight into this novel serotype and the gtrIC gene cluster that determines its unique immune recognition.

    RESULTS: A PCR of the gtrIC cluster showed that serotype 1c isolates from different geographical origins were genetically conserved. An analysis of sequences flanking the gtrIC cluster revealed remnants of a prophage genome, in particular integrase and tRNA(Pro) genes. Meanwhile, Southern blot analyses on serotype 1c, 1a and 1b strains indicated that all the tested serotype 1c strains may have had a common origin that has since remained distinct from the closely related 1a and 1b serotypes. The identification of prophage genes upstream of the gtrIC cluster is consistent with the notion of bacteriophage-mediated integration of the gtrIC cluster into a pre-existing serotype.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that serotype 1c isolates from different geographical origins share an identical pattern of genetic arrangement, suggesting that serotype 1c strains may have originated from a single parental strain. Analysis of the sequence around the gtrIC cluster revealed a new site for the integration of the serotype converting phages of S. flexneri. Understanding the origin of new pathogenic serotypes and the molecular basis of serotype conversion in S. flexneri would provide information for developing cross-reactive Shigella vaccines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/genetics*; Shigella flexneri/immunology; Shigella flexneri/virology*
  19. Abidin Z, Iyngkaran N, Puthucheary SD
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):112-3.
    PMID: 6353185
    A three and a half year old boy with shigellosis developed fulminant hepatic failure. The hepatic derangements rapidly improved over a period of two weeks after treatment of the shigellosis with parenteral gentamicin. We believe this is the first documented report of fulminant hepatic failure due to shigella sepsis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification
  20. Rampal L, Oothuman P, Jeffery J, Daud MZ, Shekhar C, Senan P, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):104-7.
    PMID: 6353184
    Bacterial isolates were made from the intestinal tracts ofcarious species of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta brunnea, Periplaneta australasiae, Neostylopyga rhombifolia, Nauphoeta cinerea) trapped from kitchens and stores (houses and hospital), Shigello, flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were some of the bacteria isolated and identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification
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