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  1. Jaarin K, Hwa TC, Umar NA, Siti Aishah MA, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2010;161(5):429-33.
    PMID: 21057734
    Consumption of heated edible oils may be harmful. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes due to concurrent consumption of soy oil (either fresh or heated) and fatty diet and the changes in the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage*
  2. Rashid Jusoh A, Das S, Kamsiah J, Qodriyah HM, Faizah O
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(4):307-13.
    PMID: 24045513 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1578
    Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil has been linked with incidence of atherosclerosis particularly in oestrogen deficient states. In the present study, effect of curcumin extract on the prevention of atherosclerosis was evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  3. Yap SC, Choo YM, Hew NF, Yap SF, Khor HT, Ong AS, et al.
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1145-50.
    PMID: 8614305
    The oxidative susceptibilities of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from rabbits fed high-fat atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oil were investigated. New Zealand white rabbits were fed atherogenic semisynthetic diets containing 0.5% cholesterol and either (i) 13% coconut oil and 2% corn oil (CNO), (ii) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO), (iii) 15% crude palm olein (CPO), (iv) 15% soybean oil (SO), or (v) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein without cholesterol supplementation [RBDPO(wc)], for a period of twelve weeks. Total fatty acid compositions of the plasma and LDL were found to be modulated (but not too drastically) by the nature of the dietary fats. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased the plasma level of vitamin E and effectively altered the plasma composition of long-chain fatty acids in favor of increasing oleic acid. Oxidative susceptibilities of LDL samples were determined by Cu2(+)-catalyzed oxidation which provide the lag times and lag-phase slopes. The plasma LDL from all palm oil diets [RBDPO, CPO, and RBDPO(wc)] were shown to be equally resistant to the oxidation, and the LDL from SO-fed rabbits were most susceptible, followed by the LDL from the CNO-fed rabbits. These results reflect a relationship between the oxidative susceptibility of LDL due to a combination of the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  4. Shuid AN, Chuan LH, Mohamed N, Jaarin K, Fong YS, Soelaiman IN
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007;16(3):393-402.
    PMID: 17704019
    Palm oil is shown to have antioxidant, anticancer and cholesterol lowering effects. It is resistant to oxidation when heated compared to other frying oils such as soy oil. When a frying oil is heated repeatedly, it forms toxic degradation products, such as aldehydes which when consumed, may be absorbed into the systemic circulation. We have studied the effects of taking soy or palm oil that were mixed with rat chow on the bone histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1) normal control group; (2) ovariectomised-control group; (3) ovariectomised and fresh soy oil; (4) ovariectomised and soy oil heated once; (5) ovariectomised and soy oil heated five times; (6) ovariectomised and fresh palm oil; (7) ovariectomised and palm oil heated once; (8) ovariectomised and palm oil heated five times. These oils were mixed with rat chow at weight ratio of 15:100 and were given to the rats daily for six months. Ovariectomy had caused negative effects on the bone histomorphometric parameters. Ingestion of both fresh and once-heated oils, were able to offer protections against the negative effects of ovariectomy, but these protections were lost when the oils were heated five times. Soy oil that was heated five times actually worsens the histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Therefore, it may be better for postmenopausal who are at risk of osteoporosis to use palm oil as frying oil especially if they practice recycling of frying oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  5. Idris CA, Sundram K
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11 Suppl 7:S408-15.
    PMID: 12492627
    Nine cynomolgus monkeys were rotated randomly through four dietary treatments with each treatment lasting 6 weeks. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was maintained between each dietary rotation. The animals were fed diets containing 32% energy fat derived from palm olein (POL), lauric-myristic-rich oil blend (LM), American Heart Association (AHA) rich oil blend and hydrogenated soybean oil blend (trans). Diets were fed with (phase 1) or without (phase 2) the addition of dietary cholesterol (0.1%). In phase 1, when animals were fed without dietary cholesterol, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly raised and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly depressed by the trans diets relative to all other dietary treatments. The resulting LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was also significantly increased. The LM diet increased TC significantly relative to the AHA diet while LDL-C was significantly increased compared to both POL and AHA. Apolipoprotein (apo) B was not affected significantly by these dietary treatments. Apo A1 was significantly increased by POL relative to all other dietary treatments. The trans diet reduced apo A1 and the resulting apo B/A1 ratio was increased significantly by trans relative to all other dietary treatments. Addition of 0.1% dietary cholesterol to these diets almost doubled the plasma TC and LDL-C in all dietary treatments. However, HDL-C was only marginally higher with the addition of dietary cholesterol. The LM + C (cholesterol added) diet resulted in the highest TC and LDL-C that was significant compared to all other dietary treatments. Trans + C increased TC compared to POL + C and AHA + C diets while increases in the LDL-C did not attain significance. The addition of dietary cholesterol did not affect HDL-C between treatments whereas plasma triglycerides were significantly increased by the trans + C diet relative to all other treatments. Both the trans + C and LM + C diets increased apo B and decreased apo A1 relative to the POL + C and AHA + C diets. The resulting apo B/A1 ratio was similarly altered. These results affirm that the lauric + myristic acid combination, along with trans fatty acids, increased lipoprotein-associated coronary heart disease risk factors compared to either POL or AHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  6. Karupaiah T, Chuah KA, Chinna K, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Sundram K, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2016 Aug 17;15(1):131.
    PMID: 27535127 DOI: 10.1186/s12944-016-0301-9
    BACKGROUND: Mayonnaise is used widely in contemporary human diet with widespread use as a salad dressing or spread on breads. Vegetable oils used in its formulation may be a rich source of ω-6 PUFAs and the higher-PUFA content of mayonnaise may be beneficial in mediating a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study, therefore, evaluated the functionality of mayonnaise on cardiometabolic risk within a regular human consumption scenario.

    METHODS: Subjects underwent a randomized double-blind crossover trial, consuming diets supplemented with 20 g/day of either soybean oil-based mayonnaise (SB-mayo) or palm olein-based mayonnaise (PO-mayo) for 4 weeks each with a 2-week wash-out period. The magnitude of changes for metabolic outcomes between dietary treatments was compared with PO-mayo serving as the control. The data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the GLM model. Analysis was adjusted for weight changes.

    RESULTS: Treatments resulted in significant reductions in TC (diff = -0.25 mmol/L; P = 0.001), LDL-C (diff = -0.17 mmol/L; P = 0.016) and HDL-C (diff = -0.12 mmol/L; P  0.05). Lipoprotein particle change was significant with large LDL particles increasing after PO-mayo (diff = +63.2 nmol/L; P = 0.007) compared to SB-mayo but small LDL particles remained unaffected. Plasma glucose, apolipoproteins and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSIONS: Daily use with 20 g of linoleic acid-rich SB-mayo elicited reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations without significantly changing LDL-C:HDL-C ratio or small LDL particle distributions compared to the PO-mayo diet.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the National Medical Research Register, National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, (NMRR-15-40-24035; registered on 29/01/2015; https://www.nmrr.gov.my/fwbPage.jsp?fwbPageId=ResearchISRForm&fwbAction=Update&fwbStep=10&pk.researchID=24035&fwbVMenu=3&fwbResearchAction=Update ). Ethical approval was obtained from the National University of Malaysia's Medical Ethics Committee (UKM 1.5.3.5/244/SPP/NN-054-2011, approved on 25/05/2011).

    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage*
  7. Tekeleselassie AW, Goh YM, Rajion MA, Motshakeri M, Ebrahimi M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:757593.
    PMID: 24294136 DOI: 10.1155/2013/757593
    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  8. Leong XF, Mustafa MR, Das S, Jaarin K
    Lipids Health Dis, 2010;9:66.
    PMID: 20573259 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-9-66
    Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
  9. Yap SP, Yuen KH
    Int J Pharm, 2004 Aug 20;281(1-2):67-78.
    PMID: 15288344
    A single dose comparative bioavailability study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of tocotrienols from two self-emulsifying formulations, one of which produced an emulsion that readily lipolysed under in vitro condition (SES-A), while the other produced a finer dispersion with negligible lipolysis (SES-B) in comparison with that of a non-self-emulsifying formulation in soya oil. The study was conducted according to a three-way crossover design using six healthy human volunteers. Statistically significant differences were observed between the logarithmic transformed peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) values of both SES-A and -B compared to NSES-C indicating that SES-A and -B achieved a higher extent of absorption compared to NSES-C. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval of the AUC(0-infinity) values of both SES-A and -B over those of NSES-C were between 2-3 suggesting an increase in bioavailability of about two-three times compared to NSES-C. Both SES-A and -B also achieved a faster onset of absorption. However, both SES-A and -B had comparable bioavailability, despite the fact that SES-B was able to form emulsions with smaller droplet size. Thus, it appeared that both droplet sizes as well as the rate and extent of lipolysis of the emulsion products formed were important for enhancing the bioavailability of the tocotrienols from the self-emulsifying systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soybean Oil/administration & dosage
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