Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 369 in total

  1. Kestel A
    Science, 1999 May 7;284(5416):913.
    PMID: 10357670
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology*
  2. Binns C, Low WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8):677-678.
    PMID: 31762300 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519889539
    Matched MeSH terms: African Swine Fever/epidemiology*; Swine
  3. Heo CC, Teel PD, OConnor BM, Tomberlin JK
    Exp Appl Acarol, 2021 Dec;85(2-4):223-246.
    PMID: 34762225 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-021-00676-6
    Acari community structure and function associated with delayed pig carrion decomposition has not been examined. In this study, 18 swine carcasses were studied in central Texas, USA, during two consecutive summers (2013 and 2014). Samples of ca. 400 g soil were collected from beneath, aside, and 5 m away from each pig carcass over 180 days. Mites from soil samples were extracted using Berlese funnels and identified to order and family levels and classified according to ecological function. In total 1565 and 1740 mites were identified from the 2013 and 2014 soil samples, respectively. Significant differences were determined for mite community structure at order and family levels temporally on carrion (e.g., day 0 × day 14) regardless of treatments and between soil regions where mites were collected (e.g., soil beneath vs. soil 5 m away from carrion). However, no significant differences were found in mite community structure at the order level between pig carrion with and without delayed Diptera colonization (i.e., treatments). Analysis at the family level determined a significant difference across treatments for both summers. Ecological function of mites did not change significantly following the delayed decomposition of pig carcasses. However, detritivores and fungivores were significant indicator groups during the pig carrion decomposition process. Furthermore, 13 phoretic mite species associated with eight forensically important beetle species were documented. Data from this study indicated that the rate of nutrient flow into the soil impacted associated arthropod communities; however, detecting such shifts depends on the taxonomic resolution being applied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases*
  4. Borkenhagen LK, Mallinson KA, Tsao RW, Ha SJ, Lim WH, Toh TH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(7):e0201295.
    PMID: 30052648 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201295
    BACKGROUND: The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.

    STUDY: This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig feces, pig oral secretions, bioaerosols, and worker nasal wash samples were collected and analyzed via rPCR and rRT-PCR for respiratory and diarrheal viruses.

    RESULTS: In all, 55 pig fecal, 49 pig oral or water, 45 bioaerosol, and 78 worker nasal wash samples were collected across 16 sites. PCV2 was detected in 21 pig fecal, 43 pig oral or water, 3 bioaerosol, and 4 worker nasal wash samples. In addition, one or more bioaerosol or pig samples were positive for EV, IAV, and RVC, and one or more worker samples were positive for ADV, CoV, IBV, and IDV.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that nucleic acids from a number of targeted viruses were present in pig oral secretions and pig fecal samples, and that several viruses were detected in bioaerosol samples or in the nasal passages of humans with occupational exposure to pigs. These results demonstrate the need for future research in strengthening viral surveillance at the human-animal interface, specifically through expanded bioaerosol sampling efforts and a seroepidemiological study of individuals with exposure to pigs in this region for PCV2 infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/virology*
  5. Mohd Nor MN, Gan CH, Ong BL
    Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot., 2000 Apr;19(1):160-5.
    PMID: 11189713
    Between late 1998 and 1999, the spread of a new disease of pigs, characterized by a pronounced respiratory and neurological syndrome, sometimes accompanied by the sudden death of sows and boars, was recorded in pig farms in peninsular Malaysia. The disease appeared to have a close association with an epidemic of viral encephalitis among workers on pig farms. A previously unrecognised paramyxovirus was later identified from this outbreak; this virus was related to, but distinct from, the Hendra virus discovered in Australia in 1994. The new virus was named 'Nipah' and was confirmed by molecular characterization to be the agent responsible for the disease in both humans and pigs. The name proposed for the new pig disease was 'porcine respiratory and neurological syndrome' (also known as 'porcine respiratory and encephalitis syndrome'), or, in peninsular Malaysia, 'barking pig syndrome'. The authors describe the new disease and provide the epidemiological findings recorded among infected pigs. In addition, the control programmes which were instituted to contain the virus in the national swine herd are outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/epidemiology*; Swine Diseases/prevention & control; Swine Diseases/virology
  6. Easton A
    BMJ, 1999 May 08;318(7193):1232.
    PMID: 10231244
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/epidemiology; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology
  7. Kirkland PD, Daniels PW, Nor MN, Love RJ, Philbey AW, Ross AD
    Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract., 2002 Nov;18(3):557-71, ix.
    PMID: 12442583
    Viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae generally have not been recognized as a significant cause of disease in pigs until recently. Between 1997 and 1999, there were large outbreaks of disease in pigs in Australia and Malaysia due to infection with viruses that have been shown to be new members of the Paramyxoviridae family. This article reviews current knowledge of Menangle and Nipah virus infections in pigs, the only major species of domestic animals to experience serious disease after infection with these viruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/diagnosis; Swine Diseases/epidemiology*; Swine Diseases/prevention & control*
  8. Che'Amat A, Armenteros JA, González-Barrio D, Lima JF, Díez-Delgado I, Barasona JA, et al.
    Prev Vet Med, 2016 Dec 01;135:132-135.
    PMID: 27843020 DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.11.002
    We assessed the suitability of targeted removal as a means for tuberculosis (TB) control on an intensely managed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunting estate. The 60km(2) large study area included one capture (treatment) site, one control site, and one release site. Each site was fenced. In the summers of 2012, 2013 and 2014, 929 wild boar were live-captured on the treatment site. All wild boar were micro-chipped and tested using an animal side lateral flow test immediately after capture in order to detect antibodies to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The wild boar were released according to their TB status: Seropositive individuals onto the release site (hunted after summer), and seronegative individuals back onto the treatment site. The annual summer seroprevalence of antibodies to the MTC declined significantly in live-captured wild boar piglets from the treatment site, from 44% in 2012 to 27% in 2013 (a reduction of 39%). However, no significant further reduction was recorded in 2014, during the third capture season. Fall-winter MTC infection prevalence was calculated on the basis of the culture results obtained for hunter-harvested wild boar. No significant changes between hunting seasons were recorded on either the treatment site or the control site, and prevalence trends over time were similar on both sites. The fall-winter MTC infection prevalence on the release site increased significantly from 40% in 2011-2012 to 64% in 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 (60% increase). Recaptures indicated a persistently high infection pressure. This experiment, the first attempt to control TB in wild boar through targeted removal, failed to reduce TB prevalence when compared to the control site. However, it generated valuable knowledge on infection pressure and on the consequences of translocating TB-infected wild boar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/microbiology; Swine Diseases/epidemiology; Swine Diseases/prevention & control*
  9. Mohan Jacob D, Lee CY, Arshad SS, Selvarajah GT, Bande F, Ong BL, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2018 Apr;50(4):733-739.
    PMID: 29243138 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-017-1489-z
    Several strains of porcine bocaviruses have been reported worldwide since their first detection in Sweden in 2009. Subsequently, the virus has been reported to be associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory signs in weaner and grower pigs. Although Malaysia is host to a self-sufficient swine livestock industry, there is no study that describes porcine bocavirus in the country. This report is the first to describe porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Malaysian swine herds. PBoV was identified in various tissues from sick and runt pigs using the conventional PCR method with primers targeting conserved regions encoding for the nonstructural protein (NS1) gene. Out of 103 samples tested from 17 pigs, 32 samples from 15 pigs were positive for porcine bocavirus. In addition, a higher detection rate was identified from mesenteric lymph nodes (52.9%), followed by tonsil (37.0%), and lungs (33.3%). Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on a 658-bp fragment of NS1 gene revealed that the Malaysian PBoV strains are highly similar to PBoV3 isolated in Minnesota, USA. The presence of porcine bocavirus in Malaysia and their phylogenetic bond was marked for the first time by this study. Further studies will establish the molecular epidemiology of PBoV in Malaysia and clarify pathogenicity of the local isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/diagnosis; Swine Diseases/virology*
  10. Edwards S, Sands JJ
    DTW. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 1990 Feb;97(2):79-81.
    PMID: 2178905
    Nineteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with specificity for hog cholera virus (HCV) were prepared. They were used in an immune binding (peroxidase linked) assay to determine the reaction patterns of HCV isolates from Europe, Brazil, USA, Japan and Malaysia, as well as laboratory reference strains of the virus. A further panel of 17 MAbs raised against bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was included in the study, together with 5 MAbs raised against a non-HCV pestivirus of porcine origin. All the MAbs were also tested against representative strains of BVDV and border disease virus. Six MAbs were HCV-specific, reacting with all isolates of HCV and none of the ruminant viruses. Among the other HCV MAbs geographical variation in reaction patterns was observed. There was evidence of antigenic distinction between recent European isolates, and archive material originally isolated more than 10 years ago.
    Matched MeSH terms: Classical Swine Fever/immunology*; Swine
  11. Enserink M
    Science, 1999 Apr 16;284(5413):407, 409-10.
    PMID: 10232977 DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5413.407
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/epidemiology; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology
  12. Cantlay JC, Ingram DJ, Meredith AL
    Ecohealth, 2017 06;14(2):361-388.
    PMID: 28332127 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1229-x
    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine*
  13. Ren TT, Li XY, Wang Y, Zou YD, Liao XD, Liang JB, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Mar;24(8):7253-7263.
    PMID: 28101710 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-8252-2
    Sulfadimidine (SM2) is commonly used in the swine industry and enters the environment via faeces. In recent years, advances in the ecotoxicology of SM2 have become a popular research interest with two common research methods including swine manure collection from swine fed with a diet containing SM2 and directly adding SM2. The purpose of this experiment was to compare SM2 degradation behaviour in pig manure with two different SM2 addition methods. The results showed that the degradation half-lives of SM2 in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were 33.2 and 32.0 days at the initial addition level of SM2 at 32.1 and 64.3 mg/kg, respectively. This was significantly longer than that in manure directly adding SM2 treatment with the half-lives of 21.4 and 14.8 days. The metabolite of SM2 N(4)-acetyl-sulfamethazine occurred in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment but was not detected in directly adding SM2 treatment. The pH in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment was significantly lower than that in directly adding SM2 treatment, but the values of organic carbon, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were significantly higher than those in manure directly adding SM2 treatment. Meanwhile, although the copy number of bacteria had no significant difference between two treatments, there was a significant difference in bacteria diversity. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites, chemical property, and microbial diversity might be the reason for different SM2 degradation behaviours on different addition methods. Thus, the method using manure with SM2 collected from swine could obtain more accurate results for the ecotoxicological study of SM2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine*
  14. Kitsutani P, Ohta M
    Nippon Rinsho, 2005 Dec;63(12):2143-53.
    PMID: 16363687
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first recognized in 1999 as the causative agent of outbreaks of human encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore, in association with severe respiratory and neurological disease in pigs. Since then, outbreaks of NiV encephalitis have also occurred in Bangladesh during 2001-2004, but without an association to infected swine or other animals. Although NiV infections typically result in acute encephalitis with high mortality, other clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic infection, relapsed encephalitis, and pulmonary disease, have been observed. The article will summarize the virology, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and control and prevention of NiV infections in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine
  15. Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H, Miyashita M, Suzuki Y
    Parasite, 2001 Sep;8(3):215-22.
    PMID: 11584751
    We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*; Swine Diseases/parasitology
  16. Murray G
    Aust. Vet. J., 1999 May;77(5):339.
    PMID: 10376108
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/prevention & control*; Swine Diseases/transmission
  17. Koh FX, Kho KL, Panchadcharam C, Sitam FT, Tay ST
    Vet Parasitol, 2016 Aug 30;227:73-6.
    PMID: 27523941 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.05.025
    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/microbiology*; Swine Diseases/epidemiology
  18. Heo, Chong Chin, Mohamad Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery, John, Sofian-azirun, M., Chen, Chee Dhang, Wan Omar Abdullah, et al.
    An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine
  19. Tan DS, Omar M, Yap TC
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Dec;34(2):159-62.
    PMID: 548720
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/immunology*; Swine Diseases/epidemiology
  20. Yu J, Lv X, Yang Z, Gao S, Li C, Cai Y, et al.
    Viruses, 2018 10 19;10(10).
    PMID: 30347642 DOI: 10.3390/v10100572
    Nipah disease is a highly fatal zoonosis which is caused by the Nipah virus. The Nipah virus is a BSL-4 virus with fruit bats being its natural host. It is mainly prevalent in Southeast Asia. The virus was first discovered in 1997 in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Currently, it is mainly harmful to pigs and humans with a high mortality rate. This study describes the route of transmission of the Nipah virus in different countries and analyzes the possibility of the primary disease being in China and the method of its transmission to China. The risk factors are analyzed for different susceptible populations to Nipah disease. The aim is to improve people's risk awareness and prevention and control of the disease and reduce its risk of occurring and spreading in China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine; Swine Diseases/epidemiology; Swine Diseases/virology*
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