Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  2. Muhammad Aliff M, Muhammad Shazwan S, Nur Fariha MM, Hayati AR, Nur Syahrina AR, Maizatul Azma M, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):285-294.
    PMID: 28028299 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS.

    METHODOLOGY: Electronic search was performed until 31st March 2015 through PubMed and Embase databases; where the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms were used and they had been specified as the primary focus of the articles; gene, antiphospholipid, obstetric, and pregnancy in the title or abstract. From 502 studies retrieved from the search, only original publications that had performed gene expression analyses of human placental tissue that reported on differentially expressed gene in pregnancies with Obstetric APS were included. Two reviewers independently scrutinized the titles and the abstracts before examining the eligibility of studies that met the inclusion criteria. For each study; diagnostic criteria for APS, method for analysis, and the gene signature were extracted independently by two reviewers. The genes listed were further analysed with the DAVID and the KEGG pathways.

    RESULTS: Three eligible gene expression studies involving obstetric APS, comprising the datasets on gene expression, were identified. All three studies showed a reduction in transcript expression on PRL, STAT5, TF, DAF, ABCA1, and HBEGF in Obstetric APS. The high enrichment score for functionality in DAVID had been positive regulation of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, pertaining to the KEGG pathway, two pathways were associated with some of the listed genes, which were ErBb signalling pathway and JAK-STAT signalling pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Ultimately, studies on a genetic level have the potential to provide new insights into the regulation and to widen the basis for identification of changes in the mechanism of Obstetric APS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  3. Jia G, Ping J, Shu X, Yang Y, Cai Q, Kweon SS, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2022 Dec 01;109(12):2185-2195.
    PMID: 36356581 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.10.011
    By combining data from 160,500 individuals with breast cancer and 226,196 controls of Asian and European ancestry, we conducted genome- and transcriptome-wide association studies of breast cancer. We identified 222 genetic risk loci and 137 genes that were associated with breast cancer risk at a p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  4. Lau NS, Makita Y, Kawashima M, Taylor TD, Kondo S, Othman AS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 24;6:28594.
    PMID: 27339202 DOI: 10.1038/srep28594
    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis's capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  5. Alhasan AA, Izuogu OG, Al-Balool HH, Steyn JS, Evans A, Colzani M, et al.
    Blood, 2016 Mar 03;127(9):e1-e11.
    PMID: 26660425 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2015-06-649434
    In platelets, splicing and translation occur in the absence of a nucleus. However, the integrity and stability of mRNAs derived from megakaryocyte progenitor cells remain poorly quantified on a transcriptome-wide level. As circular RNAs (circRNAs) are resistant to degradation by exonucleases, their abundance relative to linear RNAs can be used as a surrogate marker for mRNA stability in the absence of transcription. Here we show that circRNAs are enriched in human platelets 17- to 188-fold relative to nucleated tissues and 14- to 26-fold relative to samples digested with RNAse R to selectively remove linear RNA. We compare RNAseq read depths inside and outside circRNAs to provide in silico evidence of transcript circularity, show that exons within circRNAs are enriched on average 12.7 times in platelets relative to nucleated tissues and identify 3162 genes significantly enriched for circRNAs, including some where all RNAseq reads appear to be derived from circular molecules. We also confirm that this is a feature of other anucleate cells through transcriptome sequencing of mature erythrocytes, demonstrate that circRNAs are not enriched in cultured megakaryocytes, and demonstrate that linear RNAs decay more rapidly than circRNAs in platelet preparations. Collectively, these results suggest that circulating platelets have lost >90% of their progenitor mRNAs and that translation in platelets occurs against the backdrop of a highly degraded transcriptome. Finally, we find that transcripts previously classified as products of reverse transcriptase template switching are both enriched in platelets and resistant to decay, countering the recent suggestion that up to 50% of rearranged RNAs are artifacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  6. Goh HH, Baharin A, Mohd Salleh F', Ravee R, Wan Zakaria WNA, Mohd Noor N
    Sci Rep, 2020 04 20;10(1):6575.
    PMID: 32313042 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63696-z
    Carnivorous pitcher plants produce specialised pitcher organs containing secretory glands, which secrete acidic fluids with hydrolytic enzymes for prey digestion and nutrient absorption. The content of pitcher fluids has been the focus of many fluid protein profiling studies. These studies suggest an evolutionary convergence of a conserved group of similar enzymes in diverse families of pitcher plants. A recent study showed that endogenous proteins were replenished in the pitcher fluid, which indicates a feedback mechanism in protein secretion. This poses an interesting question on the physiological effect of plant protein loss. However, there is no study to date that describes the pitcher response to endogenous protein depletion. To address this gap of knowledge, we previously performed a comparative RNA-sequencing experiment of newly opened pitchers (D0) against pitchers after 3 days of opening (D3C) and pitchers with filtered endogenous proteins (>10 kDa) upon pitcher opening (D3L). Nepenthes ampullaria was chosen as a model study species due to their abundance and unique feeding behaviour on leaf litters. The analysis of unigenes with top 1% abundance found protein translation and stress response to be overrepresented in D0, compared to cell wall related, transport, and signalling for D3L. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis identified DEGs with functional enrichment in protein regulation, secondary metabolism, intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport. The transcriptomic landscape of the pitcher dramatically shifted towards intracellular transport and defence response at the expense of energy metabolism and photosynthesis upon endogenous protein depletion. This is supported by secretome, transportome, and transcription factor analysis with RT-qPCR validation based on independent samples. This study provides the first glimpse into the molecular responses of pitchers to protein loss with implications to future cost/benefit analysis of carnivorous pitcher plant energetics and resource allocation for adaptation in stochastic environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  7. Lim CH, Zainal NZ, Kanagasundram S, Zain SM, Mohamed Z
    PMID: 27177356 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32457
    Although major progress has been achieved in research and development of antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder (BPD), knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder and the action of atypical antipsychotics remains incomplete. The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs)-small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, including genes involved in neuronal function and plasticity-are frequently altered in psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine changes in miRNA expression in bipolar mania patients after treatment with asenapine and risperidone. Using a miRNA microarray, we analyzed miRNA expression in the blood of 10 bipolar mania patients following 12 weeks of treatment with asenapine or risperidone. Selected miRNAs were validated by using real-time PCR. A total of 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed after treatment in the asenapine group, 14 of which were significantly upregulated and the other two significantly downregulated. However, all three differentially expressed miRNAs in the risperidone group were downregulated. MiRNA target gene prediction and gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways associated with immune system response and regulation of programmed cell death and transcription. Our results suggest that candidate miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of action of both antipsychotics in bipolar mania. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  8. Chan WH, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Zaki N, Kasim S, Omatu S, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2016 10 01;77:102-15.
    PMID: 27522238 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.08.004
    Incorporation of pathway knowledge into microarray analysis has brought better biological interpretation of the analysis outcome. However, most pathway data are manually curated without specific biological context. Non-informative genes could be included when the pathway data is used for analysis of context specific data like cancer microarray data. Therefore, efficient identification of informative genes is inevitable. Embedded methods like penalized classifiers have been used for microarray analysis due to their embedded gene selection. This paper proposes an improved penalized support vector machine with absolute t-test weighting scheme to identify informative genes and pathways. Experiments are done on four microarray data sets. The results are compared with previous methods using 10-fold cross validation in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and F-score. Our method shows consistent improvement over the previous methods and biological validation has been done to elucidate the relation of the selected genes and pathway with the phenotype under study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  9. Vikashini B, Shanthi A, Ghosh Dasgupta M
    Gene, 2018 Nov 15;676:37-46.
    PMID: 30201104 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.07.012
    Casuarina equisetifolia L. is an important multi-purpose, fast growing and widely planted tree species native to tropical and subtropical coastlines of Australia, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Melanesia, Polynesia and New Caledonia. It is a nitrogen-fixing tree mainly used for charcoal making, construction poles, landscaping, timber, pulp, firewood, windbreaks, shelterbelts, soil erosion and sand dune stabilization. Casuarina wood is presently used for paper and pulp production. Raw material with reduced lignin is highly preferred to increase the pulp yield. Hence, understanding the molecular regulation of wood formation in this tree species is vital for selecting industrially suitable phenotypes for breeding programs. The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied in tree species like Eucalypts, poplars, pines, Picea, Betula and Acacia sp. However, studies on wood formation at molecular level is presently lacking in casuarinas. Hence, in the present study, the transcriptome of the developing secondary tissues of 15 years old Casuarina equiseitfolia subsp. equisetifolia was sequenced, de novo assembled, annotated and mapped to functional pathways. Transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26,985 transcripts mapped to 31 pathways. Mining of the annotated data identified nine genes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathway and relative expression of the transcripts in four tissues including scale-like leaves, needle-like brachlets, wood and root were documented. The expression of CeCCR1 and CeF5H were found to be significantly high in wood tissues, while maximum expression of CeHCT was documented in stem. Additionally, CeTUBA and CeH2A were identified as the most stable reference transcript for normalization of qRT-PCR data in C. equisetifolia. The present study is the first wood genomic resource in C. equisetifolia, which will be valuable for functional genomics research in this genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  10. Abdul Sani NF, Amir Hamzah AIZ, Abu Bakar ZH, Mohd Yusof YA, Makpol S, Wan Ngah WZ, et al.
    Cells, 2021 06 27;10(7).
    PMID: 34199148 DOI: 10.3390/cells10071611
    The mechanism of cognitive aging at the molecular level is complex and not well understood. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive differences might also be caused by ethnicity. Thus, this study aims to determine the gene expression changes associated with age-related cognitive decline among Malay adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 healthy Malay subjects, aged between 28 and 79, and recruited around Selangor and Klang Valley, Malaysia. Gene expression analysis was performed using a HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip microarray kit. The top 20 differentially expressed genes at p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) = 1.2 showed that PAFAH1B3, HIST1H1E, KCNA3, TM7SF2, RGS1, and TGFBRAP1 were regulated with increased age. The gene set analysis suggests that the Malay adult's susceptibility to developing age-related cognitive decline might be due to the changes in gene expression patterns associated with inflammation, signal transduction, and metabolic pathway in the genetic network. It may, perhaps, have important implications for finding a biomarker for cognitive decline and offer molecular targets to achieve successful aging, mainly in the Malay population in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  11. Md-Mustafa ND, Khalid N, Gao H, Peng Z, Alimin MF, Bujang N, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2014;15:984.
    PMID: 25407215 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-984
    Panduratin A extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda is a flavonoid reported to possess a range of medicinal indications which include anti-dengue, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Boesenbergia rotunda is a plant from the Zingiberaceae family commonly used as a food ingredient and traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and China. Reports on the health benefits of secondary metabolites extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda over the last few years has resulted in rising demands for panduratin A. However large scale extraction has been hindered by the naturally low abundance of the compound and limited knowledge of its biosynthetic pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  12. Haris K, Ismail S, Idris Z, Abdullah JM, Yusoff AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(11):4499-505.
    PMID: 24969876
    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  13. Arloth J, Bogdan R, Weber P, Frishman G, Menke A, Wagner KV, et al.
    Neuron, 2015 Jun 03;86(5):1189-202.
    PMID: 26050039 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.05.034
    Depression risk is exacerbated by genetic factors and stress exposure; however, the biological mechanisms through which these factors interact to confer depression risk are poorly understood. One putative biological mechanism implicates variability in the ability of cortisol, released in response to stress, to trigger a cascade of adaptive genomic and non-genomic processes through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Here, we demonstrate that common genetic variants in long-range enhancer elements modulate the immediate transcriptional response to GR activation in human blood cells. These functional genetic variants increase risk for depression and co-heritable psychiatric disorders. Moreover, these risk variants are associated with inappropriate amygdala reactivity, a transdiagnostic psychiatric endophenotype and an important stress hormone response trigger. Network modeling and animal experiments suggest that these genetic differences in GR-induced transcriptional activation may mediate the risk for depression and other psychiatric disorders by altering a network of functionally related stress-sensitive genes in blood and brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  14. Yusuf NH, Ong WD, Redwan RM, Latip MA, Kumar SV
    Gene, 2015 Oct 15;571(1):71-80.
    PMID: 26115767 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.06.050
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  15. Kaur G, Balasubramaniam SD, Lee YJ
    Exp Mol Pathol, 2020 04;113:104362.
    PMID: 31870856 DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.104362
    OBJECTIVE: Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, IGFBP-2, is associated with many cancers, though its role in cervical cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of IGFBP-2 protein and the transcriptomics profile of genes involved in the IGF signaling pathway during cervical cancer development.

    DESIGN: Immunohistochemical expression of IGFBP-2 protein was semi-quantitatively assessed in tissue microarrays containing 9 normal cervix, 10 low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (LGCIN), 10 high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HGCIN) and 42 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. The gene expression profiles of IGFBP-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R, PTEN, MDM2, AKT1 and TP53 were determined in three cervical tissue samples each from normal cervix, human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected LGCIN, HGCIN and SCC, using Human Transcriptome Array 2.0.

    RESULTS: IGFBP-2 protein was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of SCC cells compared to normal cervix (p = .013). The expression was not significantly associated with CIN grade or SCC stage. Transcriptomics profiling demonstrated upregulation of IGFBP-2 and TP53 in HGCIN and SCC compared to normal cervix. IGF-1, IGF-1R and PTEN genes were downregulated in all histological groups. IGF-1 gene was significantly downregulated in SCC (p = .031), while PTEN gene was significantly downregulated in HGCIN (p = .012), compared to normal cervix. MDM2 and AKT1 genes were downregulated in LGCIN and HGCIN, while upregulated in SCC.

    CONCLUSION: In cervical carcinogenesis, IGFBP-2 appears to play an oncogenic role, probably through an IGF-independent mechanism.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  16. Foong LC, Chai JY, Ho ASH, Yeo BPH, Lim YM, Tam SM
    Sci Rep, 2020 09 30;10(1):16123.
    PMID: 32999341 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72997-2
    Impatiens balsamina L. is a tropical ornamental and traditional medicinal herb rich in natural compounds, especially 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) which is a bioactive compound with tested anticancer activities. Characterization of key genes involved in the shikimate and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) pathways responsible for MNQ biosynthesis and their expression profiles in I. balsamina will facilitate adoption of genetic/metabolic engineering or synthetic biology approaches to further increase production for pre-commercialization. In this study, HPLC analysis showed that MNQ was present in significantly higher quantities in the capsule pericarps throughout three developmental stages (early-, mature- and postbreaker stages) whilst its immediate precursor, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) was mainly detected in mature leaves. Transcriptomes of I. balsamina derived from leaf, flower, and three capsule developmental stages were generated, totalling 59.643 Gb of raw reads that were assembled into 94,659 unigenes (595,828 transcripts). A total of 73.96% of unigenes were functionally annotated against seven public databases and 50,786 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Expression profiles of 20 selected genes from four major secondary metabolism pathways were studied and validated using qRT-PCR method. Majority of the DHNA pathway genes were found to be significantly upregulated in early stage capsule compared to flower and leaf, suggesting tissue-specific synthesis of MNQ. Correlation analysis identified 11 candidate unigenes related to three enzymes (NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glycosyltransferases and S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase) important in the final steps of MNQ biosynthesis based on genes expression profiles consistent with MNQ content. This study provides the first molecular insight into the dynamics of MNQ biosynthesis and accumulation across different tissues of I. balsamina and serves as a valuable resource to facilitate further manipulation to increase production of MNQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  17. Moradipoor S, Ismail P, Etemad A, Wan Sulaiman WA, Ahmadloo S
    Biomed Res Int, 2016;2016:1845638.
    PMID: 27781209 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1845638
    Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an early sign indicating vascular damage and predicts the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Extensive clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction occurs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes patients. This study was carried out with an aim to appraise the expression levels in the peripheral blood of 84 genes related to endothelial cells biology in patients with diagnosed T2DM or prediabetes, trying to identify new genes whose expression might be changed under these pathological conditions. The study covered a total of 45 participants. The participants were divided into three groups: group 1, patients with T2DM; group 2, patients with prediabetes; group 3, control group. The gene expression analysis was performed using the Endothelial Cell Biology RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. In the case of T2DM, 59 genes were found to be upregulated, and four genes were observed to be downregulated. In prediabetes patients, increased expression was observed for 49 genes, with two downregulated genes observed. Our results indicate that diabetic and prediabetic conditions change the expression levels of genes related to endothelial cells biology and, consequently, may increase the risk for occurrence of endothelial dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  18. Rahman F, Hassan M, Rosli R, Almousally I, Hanano A, Murphy DJ
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0196669.
    PMID: 29771926 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196669
    Bioinformatics analyses of caleosin/peroxygenases (CLO/PXG) demonstrated that these genes are present in the vast majority of Viridiplantae taxa for which sequence data are available. Functionally active CLO/PXG proteins with roles in abiotic stress tolerance and lipid droplet storage are present in some Trebouxiophycean and Chlorophycean green algae but are absent from the small number of sequenced Prasinophyceaen genomes. CLO/PXG-like genes are expressed during dehydration stress in Charophyte algae, a sister clade of the land plants (Embryophyta). CLO/PXG-like sequences are also present in all of the >300 sequenced Embryophyte genomes, where some species contain as many as 10-12 genes that have arisen via selective gene duplication. Angiosperm genomes harbour at least one copy each of two distinct CLO/PX isoforms, termed H (high) and L (low), where H-forms contain an additional C-terminal motif of about 30-50 residues that is absent from L-forms. In contrast, species in other Viridiplantae taxa, including green algae, non-vascular plants, ferns and gymnosperms, contain only one (or occasionally both) of these isoforms per genome. Transcriptome and biochemical data show that CLO/PXG-like genes have complex patterns of developmental and tissue-specific expression. CLO/PXG proteins can associate with cytosolic lipid droplets and/or bilayer membranes. Many of the analysed isoforms also have peroxygenase activity and are involved in oxylipin metabolism. The distribution of CLO/PXG-like genes is consistent with an origin >1 billion years ago in at least two of the earliest diverging groups of the Viridiplantae, namely the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta, after the Viridiplantae had already diverged from other Archaeplastidal groups such as the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta. While algal CLO/PXGs have roles in lipid packaging and stress responses, the Embryophyte proteins have a much wider spectrum of roles and may have been instrumental in the colonisation of terrestrial habitats and the subsequent diversification as the major land flora.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics
  19. Taheri S, Abdullah TL, Rafii MY, Harikrishna JA, Werbrouck SPO, Teo CH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 28;9(1):3047.
    PMID: 30816255 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39944-2
    Curcuma alismatifolia widely used as an ornamental plant in Thailand and Cambodia. This species of herbaceous perennial from the Zingiberaceae family, includes cultivars with a wide range of colours and long postharvest life, and is used as an ornamental cut flower, as a potted plant, and in exterior landscapes. For further genetic improvement, however, little genomic information and no specific molecular markers are available. The present study used Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of two C. alismatifolia cvs, 'Chiang Mai Pink' and 'UB Snow 701', to develop simple sequence repeat markers for genetic diversity studies. After de novo assembly, 62,105 unigenes were generated and 48,813 (78.60%) showed significant similarities versus six functional protein databases. In addition, 9,351 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified with a distribution frequency of 12.5% total unigenes. Out of 8,955 designed EST-SSR primers, 150 primers were selected for the development of potential molecular markers. Among these markers, 17 EST-SSR markers presented a moderate level of genetic diversity among three C. alismatifolia cultivars, one hybrid, three Curcuma, and two Zingiber species. Three different genetic groups within these species were revealed using EST-SSR markers, indicating that the markers developed in this study can be effectively applied to the population genetic analysis of Curcuma and Zingiber species. This report describes the first analysis of transcriptome data of an important ornamental ginger cultivars, also provides a valuable resource for gene discovery and marker development in the genus Curcuma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  20. Siddiqui R, Rajendran K, Abdella B, Ayub Q, Lim SY, Khan NA
    Parasitol Res, 2020 Jul;119(7):2351-2358.
    PMID: 32451717 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06711-6
    Naegleria fowleri causes a deadly infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). To our knowledge, there are very few transcriptome studies conducted on these brain-eating amoebae, despite rise in the number of cases. Although the Naegleria genome has been sequenced, currently, it is not well annotated. Transcriptome level studies are needed to help understand the pathology and biology of this fatal parasitic infection. Recently, we showed that nanoparticles loaded with the flavonoid Hesperidin (HDN) are potential novel antimicrobial agents. N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with and without HDN-conjugated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver only, and then, 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The results revealed that the MIC of HDN-conjugated AgNPs was 12.5 microg/mL when treated for 3 h. As no reference genome exists for N. fowleri, de novo RNA transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq and differential gene expression analysis was performed using the Trinity software. Analysis revealed that more than 2000 genes were differentially expressed in response to N. fowleri treatment with HDN-conjugated AgNPs. Some of the genes were linked to oxidative stress response, DNA repair, cell division, cell signalling and protein synthesis. The downregulated genes were linked with processes such as protein modification, synthesis of aromatic amino acids, when compared with untreated N. fowleri. Further transcriptome studies will lead to understanding of genetic mechanisms of the biology and pathogenesis and/or the identification of much needed drug candidates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
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