Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Ng ZY, Veerapen MK, Hon WM, Lim RL
    Pediatr Int, 2014 Oct;56(5):689-97.
    PMID: 24628746 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12336
    BACKGROUND: Leptin (LEP) G-2548A (rs7799039), leptin receptor (LEPR) Q223R (rs1137101) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α G-308A (rs1800629) gene variants have been reported to be associated with obesity, although results for subjects from different countries have been controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Malaysian adolescents and the association of these polymorphisms with overweight and obese or over-fat adolescents.
    METHODS: A total of 613 adolescents (241 Malay, 219 Chinese, 153 Indian) were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements of body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were used to classify subjects as controls (non-overweight/obese or normal fat) or as cases (overweight/obese or over-fat). Genomic DNA was extracted from oral buccal mucosa cells for genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and data obtained were statistically analyzed.
    RESULTS: A total of 23.3% of subjects were overweight/obese whereas 11.4% were over-fat; there were significantly more overweight/obese and over-fat Indian and Malay adolescents compared to Chinese (P < 0.001). A allele was the minor one for LEPR Q223R and TNF-α G-308A in all ethnic groups, whereas G allele was minor for LEP G-2548A in Chinese and Malay adolescents, except for Indian adolescents. Indian male adolescents with AA genotype for LEP G-2548A were associated with overweight/obesity (P = 0.025; odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-11.54). Despite the lack of association observed for LEPR Q223R and TNF-α G-308A, Indian and Chinese subjects with AA risk genotype for LEPR Q223R/LEP G-2548A and TNF-α G-308A/LEP G-2548A, respectively, had increased mean BMI (P = 0.049, P = 0.016).
    CONCLUSIONS: Genotype distribution and association of these polymorphisms with overweight/obesity vary between ethnic groups and genders. Nevertheless, the LEP G-2548A risk allele may be associated with overweight/obese Indian male adolescents in Malaysia.
    KEYWORDS: adolescents; body fat percentage; body mass index; leptin; leptin receptor; single nucleotide polymorphism; tumor necrosis factor
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  2. Montazeri S, Nalliah S, Radhakrishnan AK
    Hereditas, 2010 Apr;147(2):94-102.
    PMID: 20536548 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.2009.02134.x
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as carbohydrate intolerance diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy, affects both maternal and fetal health. Possession of a specific genetic polymorphism can be a predisposing factor for susceptibility to some diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter gene of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) with the development of GDM. Two hundred and twelve consecutive series of eligible normal pregnant women (controls) and gestational diabetes mellitus women were selected based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped for IL-10 at three positions and TNF alpha for gene polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Plasma levels of IL-10 and TNF alpha at different gestational periods as well as postpartum were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of the study showed that the difference in the frequency of SNP at position -597 in the promoter of the human IL-10 gene between the control and GDM groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the frequency of SNP at the other two sites in the promoter region of the human IL-10 gene (-824 and -1082) as well as position -308 in the promoter of the human TNF-alpha (p > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of plasma levels of IL-10 as well as TNF alpha in different stages of pregnancy. SNP at position -597 was significantly associated with the development of GDM and shows potential for use as a predictive marker for GDM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  3. Montazeri S, Nalliah S, Radhakrishnan AK
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2010 May;88(2):139-45.
    PMID: 20189261 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.01.028
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate if an association exists between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta genes.
    METHODS: The DNA was extracted and SNP in the human TNF-alpha and TNF-beta genes at positions -308 (G/A) and 252 (A/G), respectively, was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha in different stages of pregnancy were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in genotype and allele frequency of SNP at position -308 (G/A) in the promoter region of the human TNF-alpha gene as well as the SNP at position 252 (A/G) in the human TNF-beta gene between the GDM and control subjects. Using the logistic regression model, it was found that the SNP in the TNF-alpha as well as TNF-beta were not associated with development of GDM. In addition, the TNF-alpha levels in the plasma of GDM and control mothers were not significantly different.
    CONCLUSIONS: In the population studied, the SNP in position -308 (G/A) of the human TNF-alpha or in position 252 (A/G) of the human TNF-beta gene is not an independent risk factor or a predictor for GDM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  4. Azizah MR, Kuak SH, Ainol SS, Rahim MN, Normaznah Y, Norella K
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2004;22(2-3):159-63.
    PMID: 15565953
    The etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is unknown but genetic factors seem to play a role in the disease pathogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) gene, encoded at the TNF locus in the MHC class III region, is now known to be an important candidate gene in SLE, due to the proinflammatory activities of the TNFa. The objectives of this study were to examine the role of the TNFa polymorphism for the susceptibility of Malaysian Chinese lupus patients to SLE and to determine its association with organ involvement. The allelic frequencies of the TNFa polymorphic variant (TNF2) of seventy lupus patients were determined during follow-up at the Medical Clinic of the National University Hospital Malaysia by PCR-RFLP technique. Sixty-four females and 6 males with a mean age of 33+/-12 years were included. Clinical data were obtained from case records. Autoantibody levels were measured by ELISA. Fifty-nine ethnically-matched blood donors were used as controls. The allelic frequency of the TNF2 variant was found to be significantly increased in the patients compared to the controls (52.8% vs 33.8%). SLE patients with the polymorphic TNF2 variant were found to be at increased risk of central nervous system involvement (p = 0.004, RR = 2.59) and to have an increased frequency of anti-La antibodies (p = 0.03). In view of these findings we suggest that TNF2 variant is playing a role in conferring susceptibility to SLE and in the disease pathogenesis.
    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  5. Tan EC, Lee BW, Tay AW, Chew FT, Tay AH
    Allergy, 1999 Apr;54(4):402-3.
    PMID: 10371104
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  6. Chauhan I, Beena VT, Srinivas L, Sathyan S, Banerjee M
    J. Interferon Cytokine Res., 2013 Aug;33(8):420-7.
    PMID: 23651237 DOI: 10.1089/jir.2012.0115
    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous condition that affects the oral mucous membrane as well as skin. It is a chronic cell-mediated autoimmune condition where the T-cell-mediated immune response plays an important part in the pathogenesis by causing damage to basal keratinocytes in oral mucosa. Cytokine gene polymorphisms have an unquestionable role in the orchestration of the immune response, leading to different functional scenarios, which in turn influence the outcome of the disease establishment and evolution. The purpose of this study was to understand the role of these cytokine gene polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 genes with OLP in 101 individuals of Malayalam-speaking ethnicity from South India (Kerala). We further investigated the role of these polymorphisms in patients suffering from OLP with other comorbid factors. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the A allele in the TNF-α -308 polymorphism could play an important role in the susceptibility to OLP. IL-1β +3954 in OLP was associated with other comorbid factors in both allelic and genotypic combinations. However, when patients suffering from OLP were stratified to understand the involvement of other comorbid factors, we observed that the T and C alleles were independent risk factors for chronic periodontitits and diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, IL-6 -597 did not show any disease association with OLP in the study population. This study indicates that proinflammatory cytokines are an important factor in understanding the disease burden of OLP and their comorbid factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  7. Ghodsian N, Akhlaghi M, Ramachandran V, Heidari F, Haghvirdizadeh P, Eshkoor SA, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015 Dec 29;14(4):18974-9.
    PMID: 26782547 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.29.4
    This study aims to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) G308A gene polymorphism on essential hypertension (EHT) with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The project was conducted on buccal epithelial and blood cells for case and control patients, respectively. Epithelial cells were obtained from the inner part of the cheeks. Techniques including DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were utilized to assess biomarkers of DNA damage. Our results demonstrated significant differences between wild and mutated genotypes among EHT patients without T2DM. We also found a significant association between wild and mutated allele frequencies in EHT patients (P < 0.05). Clinical characteristics between the groups (EHT with or without T2DM and controls) showed statistically significant association (P < 0.05). Overall, we show that G308A polymorphism of the TNF-αgene may be a significant genetic risk factor for EHT without T2DM patients in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  8. Mohamad Isa II, Abu Bakar S, Md Tohid SF, Mat Jais AM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Dec 24;194:469-474.
    PMID: 27732902 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.033
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Haruan, Channa striatus, is a freshwater fish which has been well-known locally to accelerate wound healing during post-operative and post-partum periods. The fish extract also has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess topical anti-inflammatory effect of Haruan cream on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced chronic-like dermatitis in mice.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomized into six groups of five mice each: acetone (vehicle), TPA alone (negative control), three Haruan treatment groups (Haruan 1%, Haruan 5% and Haruan 10%) and hydrocortisone 1% (positive control). Briefly, both surfaces of mouse ears were applied with TPA (2.5μg/20μl acetone) for five times on alternate days and with Haruan or hydrocortisone 1% cream for the last three days. Mouse ear thickness was measured 24h after final treatment with the cream and the ears were harvested for further histological analysis and gene expression studies of TNF-α by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

    RESULTS: Topical application of Haruan cream had reduced the mouse ear thickness 18.1-28%) with comparable effect to the positive control. In addition, histopathological comparison had shown evident reduction in various parameters of cutaneous inflammation including dermal oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, TPA application had resulted in the up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression by 353-fold, which was subsequently down-regulated by the Haruan cream (34- to 112-fold).

    CONCLUSION: Haruan is an effective topical anti-inflammatory agent in this mouse model of chronic-like dermatitis, thus suggesting its potential as a non-steroidal treatment option for chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  9. Ban EZ, Lye MS, Chong PP, Yap YY, Lim SYC, Abdul Rahman H
    PLoS One, 2018;13(6):e0198332.
    PMID: 29912899 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198332
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare form of cancer across the world except in certain areas such as Southern China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. NPC is considered a relatively radiosensitive tumor and patients diagnosed at early stages tend to survive longer compared to those with advanced disease. Given that early symptoms of NPC are non-specific and that the nasopharynx is relatively inaccessible, less invasive screening methods such as biomarker screening might be the key to improve NPC survival and management. A number of genes with their respective polymorphisms have been shown in past studies to be associated with survival of various cancers. hOGG1 and XPD genes encode for a DNA glycosylase and a DNA helicase respectively; both are proteins that are involved in DNA repair. ITGA2 is the alpha subunit of the transmembrane receptor integrin and is mainly responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. TNF-α is a cytokine that is released by immune cells during inflammation.

    METHODS: Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to genotype all the aforementioned gene polymorphisms. Kaplan-Meier survival function, log-rank test and Cox regression were used to investigate the effect of gene polymorphisms on the all-cause survival of NPC.

    RESULTS: NPC cases carrying T/T genotype of ITGA2 C807T have poorer all-cause survival compared to those with C/C genotypes, with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI = 1.14-3.72) in individual model. The 5-year survival rate of C/C carriers was 55% compared to those with C/T and T/T where the survival rates were 50% and 43%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The finding from the present study showed that ITGA2 C807T polymorphism could be potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker for NPC. However, the prognostic value of ITGA2 C807T polymorphism has to be validated by well-designed further studies with larger patient numbers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  10. Sam SS, Teoh BT, Chinna K, AbuBakar S
    Int J Med Sci, 2015;12(2):177-86.
    PMID: 25589894 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8988
    Dengue virus (DENV) infection usually presents with mild self-limiting dengue fever (DF). Few however, would present with the more severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In the present study, the association between IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-α gene polymorphisms and dengue severity was investigated.
    METHODS: A case-control study was performed on a total of 120 unrelated controls, 86 DF patients and 196 DHF/DSS patients. The polymorphisms in IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-α genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods.
    RESULTS: A protective association of TNF-α -308A allele and -308GA genotype against DHF/DSS was observed, while TNF-α -238A allele and -238GA genotype were associated with DHF/DSS. A combination of TNF-α -308GA+AA genotype and IL-10 non-GCC haplotypes, IL-12B pro homozygotes (pro1/pro1, pro2/pro2) and IL-12B 3'UTR AC were significantly correlated with protective effects against DHF/DSS. An association between the cytokine gene polymorphisms and protection against the clinical features of severe dengue including thrombocytopenia and increased liver enzymes was observed in this study.
    CONCLUSION: The overall findings of the study support the correlation of high-producer TNF-α genotypes combined with low-producer IL-10 haplotypes and IL-12B genotypes in reduced risk of DHF/DSS.
    KEYWORDS: Infectious disease; cytokine; dengue; genetics; polymorphism.; tropical
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*
  11. Chai HC, Phipps ME, Chua KH
    Clin. Dev. Immunol., 2012;2012:963730.
    PMID: 21941582 DOI: 10.1155/2012/963730
    SLE is an autoimmune disease that is not uncommon in Malaysia. In contrast to Malays and Indians, the Chinese seem to be most affected. SLE is characterized by deficiency of body's immune response that leads to production of autoantibodies and failure of immune complex clearance. This minireview attempts to summarize the association of several candidate genes with risk for SLE in the Malaysian population and discuss the genetic heterogeneity that exists locally in Asians and in comparison with SLE in Caucasians. Several groups of researchers have been actively investigating genes that are associated with SLE susceptibility in the Malaysian population by screening possible reported candidate genes across the SLE patients and healthy controls. These candidate genes include MHC genes and genes encoding complement components, TNF, FcγR, T-cell receptors, and interleukins. However, most of the polymorphisms investigated in these genes did not show significant associations with susceptibility to SLE in the Malaysian scenario, except for those occurring in MHC genes and genes coding for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1RN, and IL-6.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  12. Liu X, Yunus Y, Lu D, Aghakhanian F, Saw WY, Deng L, et al.
    Hum Genet, 2015 Apr;134(4):375-92.
    PMID: 25634076 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-014-1525-2
    The indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia, locally known as Orang Asli, continue to adopt an agro-subsistence nomadic lifestyle, residing primarily within natural jungle habitats. Leading a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in a tropical jungle environment, the Orang Asli are routinely exposed to malaria. Here we surveyed the genetic architecture of individuals from four Orang Asli tribes with high-density genotyping across more than 2.5 million polymorphisms. These tribes reside in different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia and belong to three main ethno-linguistic groups, where there is minimal interaction between the tribes. We first dissect the genetic diversity and admixture between the tribes and with neighboring urban populations. Later, by implementing five metrics, we investigated the genome-wide signatures for positive natural selection of these Orang Asli, respectively. Finally, we searched for evidence of genomic adaptation to the pressure of malaria infection. We observed that different evolutionary responses might have emerged in the different Orang Asli communities to mitigate malaria infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  13. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  14. Ankathil R, Mustapha MA, Abdul Aziz AA, Mohd Shahpudin SN, Zakaria AD, Abu Hassan MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 06 01;20(6):1621-1632.
    PMID: 31244280 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1621
    AIM: To investigate the frequencies and association of polymorphic genotypes of IL-8 -251 T>A, TNF-α -308
    G>A, ICAM-1 K469E, ICAM-1 R241G, IL-6 -174 G>C, and PPAR-γ 34 C>G in modulating susceptibility risk in
    Malaysian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: In this case-control study, peripheral blood samples of 560
    study subjects (280 CRC patients and 280 controls) were collected, DNA extracted and genotyped using PCR-RFLP
    and Allele Specific PCR. The association between polymorphic genotype and CRC susceptibility risk was determined
    using Logistic Regression analysis deriving Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Results: On comparing the frequencies of
    genotypes of all single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) in patients and controls, the homozygous variant genotypes
    IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA and variant A alleles were significantly higher in CRC patients. Investigation on
    the association of the variant alleles and genotypes singly, with susceptibility risk showed the homozygous variant A
    alleles and genotypes IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA to be at higher risk for CRC predisposition. Analysis based
    on age, gender and smoking habits showed that the polymorphisms IL8 -251 T>A and TNF – α 308 G>A contribute
    to a significantly higher risk among male and female who are more than 50 years and for smokers in this population.
    Conclusion: We observed an association between variant allele and genotypes of IL-8-251 T>A and TNF-α-308
    G>A polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk in Malaysian patients. These two SNPs in inflammatory response
    genes which undoubtedly contribute to individual risks to CRC susceptibility may be considered as potential genetic
    predisposition factors for CRC in Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  15. Yap WH, Ooi BK, Ahmed N, Lim YM
    J Biosci, 2018 Jun;43(2):277-285.
    PMID: 29872016
    Secretory phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is one of the key enzymes causing lipoprotein modification and vascular inflammation. Maslinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene which has potential cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent research showed that maslinic acid interacts with sPLA2-IIA and inhibits sPLA2-IIA-mediated monocyte differentiation and migration. This study elucidates the potential of maslinic acid in modulating sPLA2-IIA-mediated inflammatory effects in THP-1 macrophages. We showed that maslinic acid inhibits sPLA2-IIA-mediated LDL modification and suppressed foam cell formation. Further analysis revealed that sPLA2-IIA only induced modest LDL oxidation and that inhibitory effect of maslinic acid on sPLA2-IIA-mediated foam cells formation occurred independently of its anti-oxidative properties. Interestingly, maslinic acid was also found to significantly reduce lipid accumulation observed in macrophages treated with sPLA2-IIA only. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the effect observed in maslinic acid might be contributed in part by suppressing sPLA2-IIA-induced endocytic activity, thereby inhibiting LDL uptake. The study further showed that maslinic acid suppresses sPLA2-IIA-induced up-regulation of PGE2 levels while having no effects on COX-2 activity. Other pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-a and IL-6 were not induced in sPLA2-IIA-treated THP-1 macrophages. The findings of this study showed that maslinic acid inhibit inflammatory effects induced by sPLA2-IIA, including foam cells formation and PGE2 production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  16. Hussein SZ, Mohd Yusoff K, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e72365.
    PMID: 24015236 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072365
    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  17. Kanagasabapathy G, Kuppusamy UR, Abd Malek SN, Abdulla MA, Chua KH, Sabaratnam V
    PMID: 23259700 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-261
    BACKGROUND: Pleurotus sajor-caju (P. sajor-caju) has been extremely useful in the prevention of diabetes mellitus due to its low fat and high soluble fiber content for thousands of years. Insulin resistance is a key component in the development of diabetes mellitus which is caused by inflammation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vivo efficacy of glucan-rich polysaccharide of P. sajor-caju (GE) against diabetes mellitus and inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.
    METHODS: Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The mice were randomly assigned to 7 groups (n=6 per group). The control groups in this study were ND (for normal diet) and HFD (for high-fat diet). The treated groups were ND240 (for normal diet) (240 mg/kg b.w) and HFD60, HFD120 and HFD240 (for high-fat), where the mice were administrated with three dosages of GE (60, 120, 240 mg GE/kg b.w respectively). Metformin (2 mg/kg b.w) served as positive control. The glucose tolerance test, glucose and insulin levels were measured at the end of 16 weeks. Expressions of genes for inflammatory markers, GLUT-4 and adiponectin in the adipose tissue of the mice were assessed. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests (DMRT) were used to determine the significant differences between groups.
    RESULTS: GE treated groups improved the glucose tolerance, attenuated hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the mice by up-regulating the adiponectin and GLUT-4 gene expressions. The mice in GE treated groups did not develop insulin resistance. GE also down-regulated the expression of inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, SAA2, CRP and MCP-1) via attenuation of nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB).
    CONCLUSION: Glucan-rich polysaccharide of P. sajor-caju can serve as a potential agent for prevention of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  18. Rahiman SSF, Morgan M, Gray P, Shaw PN, Cabot PJ
    Peptides, 2017 04;90:48-54.
    PMID: 28219695 DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2017.02.004
    Dynorphin 1-17 (DYN 1-17) is biotransformed rapidly to a range of fragments in rodent inflamed tissue with dynorphin 3-14 (DYN 3-14) being the most stable and prevalent. DYN 1-17 has been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory response following tissue injury, in which the biotransformation fragments of DYN 1-17 may possess similar features. This study investigated the effects of DYN 3-14 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in differentiated THP-1 cells. Treatment with DYN 3-14 (10nM) resulted in 35% inhibition of the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. Furthermore, DYN 3-14 modulated both IL-1β and TNF-α release; inhibiting IL-1β and paradoxically augmenting TNF-α release in a concentration-independent manner. A number of opioids have been implicated in the modulation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), highlighting the complexity of their immunomodulatory effects. To determine whether DYN 3-14 modulates TLR4, HEK-Blue™-hTLR4 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of DYN 3-14. DYN 3-14 (10μM) inhibited TLR4 activation in a concentration-dependent fashion by suppressing the LPS signals around 300-fold lower than LPS-RS, a potent TLR4 antagonist. These findings indicate that DYN 3-14 is a potential TLR4 antagonist that alters cellular signaling in response to LPS and cytokine release, implicating a role for biotransformed endogenous opioid peptides in immunomodulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  19. Ali AH, Sudi S, Basir R, Embi N, Sidek HM
    J Med Food, 2017 Feb;20(2):152-161.
    PMID: 28146408 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3813
    Curcumin, a bioactive compound in Curcuma longa, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antimalarial effects. In silico docking simulation studies suggest that curcumin possesses glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory properties. The involvement of GSK3 in the antimalarial effects in vivo is yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the antimalarial effects of curcumin involve phosphorylation of host GSK3β. Intraperitoneal administration of curcumin into Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice resulted in dose-dependent chemosuppression of parasitemia development. At the highest dose tested (30 mg/kg body weight), both therapeutic and prophylactic administrations of curcumin resulted in suppression exceeding 50% and improved median survival time of infected mice compared to control. Western analysis revealed a 5.5-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.8-fold (prophylactic group) increase in phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β and 1.6-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.7-fold (prophylactic group) increase in Ser 473 Akt in liver of curcumin-treated infected animals. Following P. berghei infection, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 were elevated by 7.5-, 35.0-, 33.0-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Curcumin treatment (therapeutic) caused a significant decrease (by 6.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively) in serum TNF-α and IFN-γ level, while IL-10 and IL-4 were elevated (by 1.4- and 1.8-fold). Findings from the present study demonstrate for the first time that the antimalarial action of curcumin involved inhibition of GSK3β.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
  20. Subramani T, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Ho CL, Omar AR, Aziz SA, et al.
    J Cell Mol Med, 2014 Feb;18(2):305-13.
    PMID: 24266867 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.12188
    Vitamin C is generally thought to enhance immunity and is widely taken as a supplement especially during cancer treatment. Tamoxifen (TAM) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic properties for breast cancer. TAM engaged mitochondrial oestrogen receptor beta in MCF-7 cells and induces apoptosis by activation of pro-caspase-8 followed by downstream events, including an increase in reactive oxygen species and the release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria. In addition to that, TAM binds with high affinity to the microsomal anti-oestrogen-binding site and inhibits cholesterol esterification at therapeutic doses. This study aimed to investigate the role of vitamin C in TAM-mediated apoptosis. Cells were loaded with vitamin C by exposure to dehydroascorbic acid, thereby circumventing in vitro artefacts associated with the poor transport and pro-oxidant effects of ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with vitamin C caused a dose-dependent attenuation of cytotoxicity, as measured by acridine-orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) and Annexin V assay after treatment with TAM. Vitamin C dose-dependently protected cancer cells against lipid peroxidation caused by TAM treatment. By real-time PCR analysis, an impressive increase in FasL and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was detected after TAM treatment. In addition, a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential was observed. These results support the hypothesis that vitamin C supplementation during cancer treatment may detrimentally affect therapeutic response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
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