Fibrosarcoma is rare in the pediatric age group. It generally involves the extremities and the trunk but rarely involves the genital area. We report a case of a large fungating infantile fibrosarcoma of the penis in a 2-year-old Malay boy. Partial recovery of the penile structure was achieved after chemotherapy. The difficulty in managing the social and surgical aspect of this case is discussed in our report. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of infantile fibrosarcoma involving the penis in an Asian region.
Seventeen patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and vincristine (CAV) combination chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 76.5% with 47% achieving complete response and 29.5% partial response. In limited and extensive stage disease, complete response was achieved in 67% and 36.5% respectively. Chinese were the predominant ethnic group affected (82%). Six patients presenting with superior vena cava obstruction responded significantly to CAV chemotherapy alone. Median survival for patients with extensive disease was 7.4 months. All patients with limited disease were still alive. Two relapsed patients with limited disease achieved significant response to VP-16/Cisplatin combination chemotherapy.
A 14-yr-old male puma (Puma concolor) was presented to the veterinary staff of the National Zoo in Malaysia for an auricular mass. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy. Systemic administration of chemotherapy using vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 i.v. q. 7 days for six treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 7 days) caused side effects of vomiting, weight loss, and alopecia and did not improve the size or appearance of the tumor. Intralesional vincristine injections (0.2 mg q. 7 days for two treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 15 days) were administered, resulting in complete tumor regression after 14 days of treatment.
In the last decade, chemotherapy in combination with focal therapy (chemoreduction) has been increasingly used in intraocular retinoblastoma to avoid enucleation and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of chemoreduction in Malaysian children with retinoblastoma. This was a prospective study from August 2001 to January 2006. Twenty children (25 eyes) were given 4 cycles of chemoreduction, after which the response was assessed. Fourteen eyes showed a complete response, 10 eyes showed a partial response, and 1 eye had progressive disease. Twelve eyes developed progressive disease later, 9 after an initial complete response and 3 after a partial response. Overall, progressive disease occurred in 52%. There were 2 treatment failures, in Reese-Elsworth groups 3 and 4. Both eyes required enucleation. One eye in group 5 required second line chemotherapy to achieve a complete response. No eyes were irradiated. Five children (25%) defaulted follow-up, one of whom returned with disseminated disease. In conclusion, 4 cycles of chemoreduction achieved a durable complete response in only 12% of eyes. Chemoreduction is feasible in Malaysia but requires good patient compliance and close follow-up.
One hundred four children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were diagnosed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 1976 and 1982; 87 were evaluable with respect to treatment. They were divided into good prognosis (GP) and bad prognosis (BP) groups based on their initial total white cell count, their treatment differing only during the maintenance phase. Remission was achieved in 82 patients (94%) of whom ten (12%) subsequently died in remission from infection. Twenty-eight (34%) relapsed while on treatment and three while off therapy. Eleven patients ceased treatment after 3 yr of continuous complete remission (CCR). Three of these later relapsed, two within the first year. Survival in CCR was significantly better in the GP group up to 30 months, after which the difference diminished. There was no difference in survival between boys and girls. The overall disease-free survival at 3 yr and 5 yr was 40% and 25%, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 20 months (range 4-69 months). The reasons for the relatively low survival rates as compared with those in developed countries are discussed.
We report a 43-year-old woman who presented with post-coital bleeding. Pelvic examination revealed a uterine cervical mass, which confirmed to be large B cell lymphoma on histopathological examination. Computed tomography showed a primary lesion in the uterine cervix with no lymph node or other extranodal involvement. The patient responded to CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone) chemotherapy regime with no major side effects.
The cytological features of a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver are presented. The cytology smears showed singly dispersed polygonal and spindle cells as well as loose clusters of cells held together in myxoid material. Neoplastic cells were generally large with round, oval or lobulated nuclei. The cytoplasm was variable in amount with ill-defined borders. Occasional multinucleated cells were also present. Hyaline globules were present on sections of the cell block. Immunohistochemical studies performed showed positivity for vimentin, cytokeratin and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the tumour cells.
Three cases of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the middle ear and mastoid in children are presented. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. A multidisciplinary approach employing surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy is the method of choice in the management of this rare and highly lethal condition.
Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.
Reports on the outcome of treatment in ALL in Asian (non-Caucasian) adults have been few, and published results compare very unfavourably with results of treatment from 'Western' centres. Seventy-four newly diagnosed Malaysian patients with ALL between the ages of 15 and 69 were treated from 1986 to 1990. The clinical features and prognostic factors were similar to those reported in 'Western' series. The chemotherapy protocol utilized was adapted from the one used by Hoelzer et al in the multicentre German study. The complete remission rate was 73%. The probability of continuous complete remission at 5 years was 29% with a median duration of remission of 15 months. This compares with Hoelzer's initial results of 77% CR rate and 35% CCR at 5 years. Patients with an initial white cell count of less than 30 x 10(9)/l at presentation were found to have a significantly better disease-free survival than those with a count of more than 30 x 10(9)/l (35 vs 22%, P = 0.026, univariate analysis). There was no difference in leukaemia-free survival according to age, sex, ethnic group, or immunophenotype. These results show that the use of moderately intensive chemotherapy protocols in Asian (non-Caucasian) patients achieves similar results to those used in Caucasians. We also showed that the difficulties in 'curing' approximately 70% of adult patient with ALL are universal.
Lymphoma presenting with ulceration is not typical. We report a case of relapsed DLBCL in a 73-year-old man presenting with a chronic non-healing leg ulcer. He has underlying varicose veins with recurrent venous ulcers. This patient was diagnosed to have DLBCL six years earlier when he presented with recurrent epistaxis originating from a left nasal cavity nodule. Complete resolution was achieved after eight cycles of R-CHOP and intrathecal methotrexate. For this current problem, this patient was treated with rituximab combined with chemotherapy which resulted in healing of the ulcer.
FOXP2 shares partially overlapping normal tissue expression and functionality with FOXP1; an established diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) oncogene and marker of poor prognosis. FOXP2 is expressed in the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma but has not been studied in DLBCL, where a poor prognosis activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtype display partially blocked plasma cell differentiation. FOXP2 protein expression was detected in ABC-DLBCL cell lines, and in primary DLBCL samples tumoral FOXP2 protein expression was detected in both germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB DLBCL. In biopsies from DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP), ≥ 20% nuclear tumoral FOXP2-positivity (n = 24/158) correlated with significantly inferior overall survival (OS: P = 0.0017) and progression-free survival (PFS: P = 0.0096). This remained significant in multivariate analysis against either the international prognostic index score or the non-GCB DLBCL phenotype (P < 0.05 for both OS and PFS). Expression of BLIMP1, a marker of plasmacytic differentiation that is commonly inactivated in ABC-DLBCL, did not correlate with patient outcome or FOXP2 expression in this series. Increased frequency of FOXP2 expression significantly correlated with FOXP1-positivity (P = 0.0187), and FOXP1 co-immunoprecipitated FOXP2 from ABC-DLBCL cells indicating that these proteins can co-localize in a multi-protein complex. FOXP2-positive DLBCL had reduced expression of HIP1R (P = 0.0348), which is directly repressed by FOXP1, and exhibited distinct patterns of gene expression. Specifically in ABC-DLBCL these were associated with lower expression of immune response and T-cell receptor signaling pathways. Further studies are warranted to investigate the potential functional cooperativity between FOXP1 and FOXP2 in repressing immune responses during the pathogenesis of high-risk DLBCL.