METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of postsuppression VR (VL >1,000 copies/mL).
RESULTS: Of 1,379 eligible adolescents, 47% were males. At baseline, 22% were receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens; median CD4 cell count (interquartile range [IQR]) was 685 (448-937) cells/mm3; 2% had preadolescent virologic failure (VF) before subsequent suppression. During adolescence, 180 individuals (13%) experienced postsuppression VR at a rate of 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-3.9) per 100 person-years, which was consistent over time. Median time to VR during adolescence (IQR) was 3.3 (2.1-4.8) years. Wasting (weight-for-age z-score
SETTING: An Asian cohort in 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.
METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, patients younger than 20 years who achieved virologic suppression and had subsequent viral load testing were included. Early virologic failure was defined as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter within 12 months of virologic suppression, and late virologic as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter after 12 months following virologic suppression. Characteristics at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation and virologic suppression were described, and a competing risk time-to-event analysis was used to determine cumulative incidence of virologic failure and factors at virologic suppression associated with early and late virologic failure.
RESULTS: Of 1105 included in the analysis, 182 (17.9%) experienced virologic failure. The median age at virologic suppression was 6.9 years, and the median time to virologic failure was 24.6 months after virologic suppression. The incidence rate for a first virologic failure event was 3.3 per 100 person-years. Factors at virologic suppression associated with late virologic failure included older age, mostly rural clinic setting, tuberculosis, protease inhibitor-based regimens, and early virologic failure. No risk factors were identified for early virologic failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Around 1 in 5 experienced virologic failure in our cohort after achieving virologic suppression. Targeted interventions to manage complex treatment scenarios, including adolescents, tuberculosis coinfection, and those with poor virologic control are required.
METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). Individuals were included in this analysis if they started combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) after 2002, were being treated at a centre that documented a median rate of viral load monitoring ≥0.8 tests/patient/year among TAHOD enrolees, and experienced a minor or major treatment substitution while on virally suppressive cART. The primary endpoint to evaluate outcomes was clinical or virological failure (VF), followed by an ART class change. Clinical failure was defined as death or an AIDS diagnosis. VF was defined as confirmed viral load measurements ≥400 copies/mL followed by an ART class change within six months. Minor regimen substitutions were defined as within-class changes and major regimen substitutions were defined as changes to a drug class. The patterns of substitutions and rate of clinical or VF after substitutions were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of 3994 adults who started ART after 2002, 3119 (78.1%) had at least one period of virological suppression. Among these, 1170 (37.5%) underwent a minor regimen substitution, and 296 (9.5%) underwent a major regimen substitution during suppression. The rates of clinical or VF were 1.48/100 person years (95% CI 1.14 to 1.91) in the minor substitution group, 2.85/100 person years (95% CI 1.88 to 4.33) in the major substitution group and 2.53/100 person years (95% CI 2.20 to 2.92) among patients that did not undergo a treatment substitution.
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of clinical or VF was low in both major and minor substitution groups, showing that regimen substitution is generally effective in non-clinical trial settings in Asian countries.
RESULTS: The depletion of IgM+ cells and infiltration of macrophages were observed to be higher in bursa infected with AF2240 as compared to IBS002. In line with the increment of the macrophage population, higher nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents which indicated higher oxidative stress were also detected in bursa infected with NDV AF2240. In addition, higher pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine gene expression such as chicken CXCLi2, IL-18 and IFN-γ were observed in AF2240 infected bursa. Depletion of IgM+ cells was further confirmed with increased cell death and apoptosis of the cells in AF2240 infected bursa as compared to IBS002. However, it was found that the viral load for NDV strain IBS002 was comparatively higher than AF2240 although the magnitude of the pro- inflammatory cytokines expression and cell apoptosis was lower than AF2240.
CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrated that infection of NDV strains AF2240 and IBS002 caused apoptosis in bursa IgM+ cells and its severity was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine, macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress as the infection duration was prolonged. However, of the two viruses, we observed that NDV AF2240 induced a greater magnitude of apoptosis in chicken bursa IgM+ cells in comparison to IBS002. This might be due to the high level of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines/chemokine as well as lower IL10 expression which subsequently led to a high rate of apoptosis in the chicken bursa of Fabricius although the detected viral load of AF2240 was lower than IBS002.
METHODS: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-seropositive individuals (progressors, n=16) and long-term non-progressors (LTNPs, n=10) were recruited for this study. We employed multi-color flow cytometry on frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to determine iNKT subset frequencies, the levels of co-inhibitory 2B4 expression, and intracellular IFN-γ production. CD1d tetramer was used to characterize iNKT cells.
RESULTS: We report significantly lower level of 2B4 expression on bulk LTNPs iNKT cells as well as on their CD4 subsets compared to HIV progressors. Furthermore, the iNKT cells from LTNPs produced higher amount of IFN-γ than HIV progressors as detected by intracellular cytokine staining. Interestingly, the frequency of 2B4iNKT cells of progressors but not LTNPs significantly correlates with CD4 T cell count, HIV viral load and IFNγ production by iNKT cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in addition to suppressed HIV replication, diminished 2B4 expression and associated co-inhibitory signaling, and substantial production of IFN-γ could contribute to preserved iNKT cell phenotype in LTNPs.
METHODS: We searched for peer-reviewed studies in online databases. To be eligible for inclusion in this review, studies must have involved a population or sub-population of PWUD engaged in MMT; report improved uptake of HIV testing, exposure to ART, or HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load suppression; provide details on MMT services; and be published in English between 1 January 2006 until 31 December 2018.
RESULTS: Out of the 5594 identified records, 22 studies were eligible for this systematic review. Components of MMT services associated with HIV care cascade outcomes described in the studies were classified in three categories of care models: 1) standard MMT care with adequate doses, 2) standard MMT care and alongside additional medical component(s), and 3) standard MMT care, additional medical component(s) as well as informational or instrumental social support.
CONCLUSION: The few studies identified reflect a scarcity of evidence on the role of social support to increase the benefits of MMT for PWUD who are living with HIV. Further research is needed to assess the role of medical and social service components in MMT care delivery in advancing PWUD along the HIV care cascade.
METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system. A total of 96 plasma specimens ranging from 2.5 log10 copies ml-1 to 4.99 log10 copies ml-1 and proficiency testing panel specimens were used. Precision and accuracy were checked using the Pearson correlation co-efficient test and Bland-Altman analysis.
RESULTS: Compared to the Abbott RealTime PCR, the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay showed a good correlation (Pearson r=0.81; P<0.0001) with a mean difference of 0.27 log10 copies ml-1 (95 % CI, -0.41 to 0.96 log10 copies ml-1; sd, 0.35 log10 copies ml-1).
CONCLUSION: Reliable and ease of testing individual specimens could make the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay an efficient alternative method for ART monitoring in clinical management of HIV disease in resource-limited settings. The rapid test results (less than 2 h) could help in making an immediate clinical decision, which further strengthens patient care.