Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
The validity of using rainfall characteristics as lumped parameters for investigating the pollutant wash-off process such as first flush occurrence is questionable. This research study introduces an innovative concept of using sector parameters to investigate the relationship between the pollutant wash-off process and different sectors of the runoff hydrograph and rainfall hyetograph. The research outcomes indicated that rainfall depth and rainfall intensity are two key rainfall characteristics which influence the wash-off process compared to the antecedent dry period. Additionally, the rainfall pattern also plays a critical role in the wash-off process and is independent of the catchment characteristics. The knowledge created through this research study provides the ability to select appropriate rainfall events for stormwater quality treatment design based on the required treatment outcomes such as the need to target different sectors of the runoff hydrograph or pollutant species. The study outcomes can also contribute to enhancing stormwater quality modelling and prediction in view of the fact that conventional approaches to stormwater quality estimation is primarily based on rainfall intensity rather than considering other rainfall parameters or solely based on stochastic approaches irrespective of the characteristics of the rainfall event.
Undular hydraulic jumps are characterized by a smooth rise of the free surface, followed by a train of stationary waves. These jumps sometimes occur in natural waterways and rivers. Numerical difficulties are especially distinct when the flow condition is close to the critical value because of the high sensitivity of the near-critical flow field to flow and channel conditions. Furthermore, the free surface has a wavy shape, which may indicate the occurrence of several transitions from supercritical to subcritical states and vice versa (i.e., undular hydraulic jumps). In this study, a flow model is used to predict an undular hydraulic jump in a rectangular open channel. The model is based on the general two-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes flow equations. The resulting set of partial differential equations is solved using the FLOW-3D solver. The results are compared with the experimental data to validate the model. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed model yields good results. Several types of undular hydraulic jumps occurring in different situations are then simulated to prove the potential application of the model.
This study analyzes two wind-induced upwelling mechanisms, namely, Ekman transport and Ekman pumping that occur during the southwest monsoon. The results suggest that the coastline of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM) is affected by upwelling with spatiotemporal variations. Characterization of upwelling by using wind-induced upwelling indexes (UIW) indicate the existence of favorable upwelling conditions from May to September. Upwelling intensity increased in May and peaked in August before declining in September, decreasing intensity from the southern tip towards the northern tip along the coastline of the ECPM. The existence of upwelling along the ECPM has resulted in an important difference between the SSTs of the inshore and the oceanic regions. Nonetheless, the use of the SST gradient between the inshore and the oceanic SSTs to characterize upwelling (UISST) was found to be unsuitable because the SST along the ECPM was affected by water advection from the Java Sea and incessant changes in the SST. In order to indicate the major contributor of wind-induced upwelling along the ECPM in terms of the spatiotemporal scale, a comparison between Ekman transport and Ekman pumping was drawn by integrating Ekman pumping with respect to the distance where the positive wind stress curl existed. The estimation of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping indicated that Ekman pumping played a major role in contributing towards upwelling in any particular month during the southwest monsoon along the entire coastline of the ECPM as compared to Ekman transport, which contributed towards more than half of the total upwelling transport. By dividing the ECPM into three coastal sections, we observed that Ekman pumping was relatively predominant in the middle and northern coasts, whereas both Ekman transport and Ekman pumping were equally prevalent in the southern coast.
Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling.
Rainfall-runoff processes in a small oil palm catchment (8.2 ha) in Johor, Malaysia were examined. Storm hydrographs show rapid responses to rainfall with a short time to peak. The estimated initial hydrologic loss for the oil palm catchment is 5 mm. Despite the low initial loss, the catchment exhibits a high proportion of baseflow, approximately 54% of the total runoff. On an event basis, the stormflow response factor and runoff coefficient ranges from 0.003 to 0.21, and 0.02 to 0.44, respectively. Peakflow and stormflow volume were moderately correlated with rainfall. The hydrographs were satisfactorily modelled using the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). The efficiency indexes of the calibration and validation exercises are 0.81 and 0.82, respectively. Based on these preliminary findings, it could be suggested that an oil palm plantation would be able to serve reasonably well in regulating basic hydrological functions.
The understanding of how the sediment deposit thickness influences the incipient motion characteristic is still lacking in the literature. Hence, the current study aims to determine the effect of sediment deposition thickness on the critical velocity for incipient motion. An incipient motion experiment was conducted in a rigid boundary rectangular flume of 0.6 m width with varying sediment deposition thickness. Findings from the experiment revealed that the densimetric Froude number has a logarithmic relationship with both the thickness ratios ts/d and ts/y0 (ts: sediment deposit thickness; d: grain size; y0: normal flow depth). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using the data from the current study to develop a new critical velocity equation by incorporating thickness ratios into the equation. The new equation can be used to predict critical velocity for incipient motion for both loose and rigid boundary conditions. The new critical velocity equation is an attempt toward unifying the equations for both rigid and loose boundary conditions.
Here we provide the first evidence of long term reductions in flow in temporary streams on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca and use a simple metric of the degree of water permanence (the number of days with water) to highlight the implications of flow change for aquatic invertebrate diversity. Analysis of a 33year data set for 13 streams on the island yielded evidence of consistent downward trends in water permanence, particularly in spring and summer. Data from 27 relatively undisturbed mountain streams indicate that the diversity of benthic invertebrates in temporary streams across the island is directly related to water permanence. Streams with lower values of water permanence support few species overall and have less abundant invertebrate assemblages; the abundance and species richness of sensitive mayfly, stonefly and caddisfly taxonomic groups is also reduced in streams with lower water permanence. Although developed using spatial data, these flow-invertebrate relationships suggest that future reductions in water permanence may lead to reduced diversity. We argue that the 'number of days with water' is a simple but ecologically-relevant metric of water permanence that can be used effectively to monitor change in threatened temporary streams worldwide.
Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.
In this paper, stormwater runoff from a residential catchment located in Miri, Sarawak, was characterized to determine the pollutant concentrations and loading. The observed average event mean concentrations were 116 mg/L for TSS, 115 mg/L for COD, 1.5 mg/L for NH3-N, and 0.23 mg/L for Pb. Based on Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) for Malaysia, the average event mean concentration, EMC value for TSS exceeded class II (50 mg/L), exceeded class V (>100 mg/L) for COD, and exceeded class III (0.9 mg/L) for NH3-N. All four water quality parameters exhibited first flush characteristic but to varying magnitude which was influenced by the storm characteristics.
The selection of curve number to represent watersheds with similar land use and land cover is often subjective and ambiguous. Watershed with several soil groups further complicates curve number selection process while wrong curve number selection often produces unrealistic runoff estimates. The 1954 simplified Soil Conservation Services (SCS) runoff model over-predicted runoff with significant amount and further magnified runoff prediction error toward higher rainfall depths in this study. The model was statistically insignificant with the rejection of two null hypotheses and paved the way for regional model calibration study. This paper proposes a new direct curve number derivation technique from the given rainfall-runoff conditions under the guide of inferential statistics. The technique offers a swift and economical solution to improve the runoff prediction ability of the SCS runoff model with statistically significant results. A new rainfall-runoff model was developed with calibration according to the regional hydrological conditions. It out-performed the runoff prediction of the simplified SCS runoff model and the asymptotic runoff model. The derived curve number = 89 at alpha = 0.01 level. The technique can be adopted to predict flash flood and forecast urban runoff.
The existing knowledge regarding seawater intrusion and particularly upconing, in which both problems are linked to pumping, entirely relies on theoretical assumptions. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt is made to capture the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing using 2D resistivity measurement. For this work, two positions, one perpendicular and the other parallel to the sea, were chosen as profile line for resistivity measurement in the coastal area near the pumping wells of Kapas Island, Malaysia. Subsequently, water was pumped out of two pumping wells simultaneously for about five straight hours. Then, immediately after the pumping stopped, resistivity measurements were taken along the two stationed profile lines. This was followed by additional measurements after four and eight hours. The results showed an upconing with low resistivity of about 1-10 Ωm just beneath the pumping well along the first profile line that was taken just after the pumping stopped. The resistivity image also shows an intrusion of saline water (water enriched with diluted salt) from the sea coming towards the pumping well with resistivity values ranging between 10 and 25 Ωm. The subsequent measurements show the recovery of freshwater in the aquifer and how the saline water is gradually diluted or pushed out of the aquifer. Similarly the line parallel to the sea (L2) reveals almost the same result as the first line. However, in the second and third measurements, there were some significant variations which were contrary to the expectation that the freshwater may completely flush out the saline water from the aquifer. These two time series lines show that as the areas with the lowest resistivity (1 Ωm) shrink with time, the low resistivity (10 Ωm) tends to take over almost the entire area implying that the freshwater-saltwater equilibrium zone has already been altered. These results have clearly enhanced our current understanding and add more scientific weight to the theoretical assumptions on the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing.
The characteristics of urban stormwater pollution in the tropics are still poorly understood. This issue is crucial to the tropical environment because its rainfall and runoff generation processes are so different from temperate regions. In this regard, a stormwater monitoring program was carried out at three urban catchments (e.g. residential, commercial and industrial) in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 51 storm events were collected at these three catchments. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to interpret the stormwater quality data for pattern recognition and identification of possible sources. The most likely sources of stormwater pollutants at the residential catchment were from surface soil and leachate of fertilizer from domestic lawns and gardens, whereas the most likely sources for the commercial catchment were from discharges of food waste and washing detergent. In the industrial catchment, the major sources of pollutants were discharges from workshops and factories. The PCA factors further revealed that COD and NH3-N were the major pollutants influencing the runoff quality in all three catchments.
Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment.
Bukit Merah Reservoir is the main potable and irrigation water source for Kerian District, Perak State, Malaysia. For the past two decades, the reservoir has experienced water stress. Land-use activities have been identified as the contributor of the sedimentation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate and quantify the impacts of land-use change in the reservoir watershed. The SWAT was calibrated and two scenarios were constructed representing projected land use in the year 2015 and hypothetical land use to represent extensive land-use change in the catchment area. The simulation results based on 17 years of rainfall records indicate that average water quantity will not be significantly affected but the ground water storage will decrease and suspended sediment will increase. Ground water decrease and sediment yield increase will exacerbate the Bukit Merah Reservoir operation problem.
This paper examines the storm runoff quality from a commercial area in south Johor, Malaysia. Six storm events with a total of 68 storm runoff samples were analyzed. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) for all constituents analysed showed large inter-event variation. Site mean concentrations (SMC) for total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total phosphorus (Total P) and Soluble P are 261, 4.31, 74, 192, 1.5, 0.006, 1.9, 1.12 and 0.38 mg/L, respectively. The SMCs at the studied site are higher than those reported in many urban catchments. The mean baseflow concentrations were higher than the EMCs for COD, Soluble P, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, Total P and NO(2)-N. However, the reverse was observed for TSS and O&G. All pollutants showed the occurrence of first flush phenomenon with the highest strength was observed for TSS, COD and NH(3)-N.
The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009.
The approach of this paper is to predict the sand mass distribution in an urban stormwater holding pond at the Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART) Control Centre, Malaysia, using simulated depth average floodwater velocity diverted into the holding during storm events. Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied to derive the classification function to spatially distinguish areas of relatively high and low sand mass compositions based on the simulated water velocity variations at corresponding locations of gravimetrically measured sand mass composition of surface sediment samples. Three inflow parameter values, 16, 40 and 80 m(3) s(-1), representing diverted floodwater discharge for three storm event conditions were fixed as input parameters of the hydrodynamic model. The sand (grain size > 0.063 mm) mass composition of the surface sediment measured at 29 sampling locations ranges from 3.7 to 45.5%. The sampling locations of the surface sediment were spatially clustered into two groups based on the sand mass composition. The sand mass composition of group 1 is relatively lower (3.69 to 12.20%) compared to group 2 (16.90 to 45.55%). Two Fisher's linear discriminant functions, F 1 and F 2, were generated to predict areas; both consist of relatively higher and lower sand mass compositions based on the relationship between the simulated flow velocity and the measured surface sand composition at corresponding sampling locations. F 1 = -9.405 + 4232.119 × A - 1795.805 × B + 281.224 × C, and F 2 = -2.842 + 2725.137 × A - 1307.688 × B + 231.353 × C. A, B and C represent the simulated flow velocity generated by inflow parameter values of 16, 40 and 80 m(3) s(-1), respectively. The model correctly predicts 88.9 and 100.0% of sampling locations consisting of relatively high and low sand mass percentages, respectively, with the cross-validated classification showing that, overall, 82.8% are correctly classified. The model predicts that 31.4% of the model domain areas consist of high-sand mass composition areas and the remaining 68.6% comprise low-sand mass composition areas.
Multi-year instrumental records for input, throughflow and output waters of the Lilburn Cave system provide control on denudation rates as they respond to seasonal and spatial variability. Data suggest that maximum denudation is in the late fall and early winter. This is when non-snowmelt discharge is at its maximum. At lower discharge rates the volume of water moving through the cave system is the limiting control on the volume of denudation. During periods of snowmelt the limiting control is the rate at which the calcite dissolves. This is probably the result of water flowing through wider channels during these times. Based on instrumental measurements, there is considerable variation in terms of where denudation occurs inside the cave. The loci of dissolution change from year to year. This is to be expected in the dynamic environment of the cave where materials shift routinely. This variability should be studied over longer periods of time in order to more fully understand its extent. The relatively small area of carbonate exposure relative to the area of the drainage basin gives rise to relatively high denudation rates. The carbonate is being removed at a rate of about 5000 metric tons per year, or at about 830 mm/y. This is about five times the rate reported in the humid karst regions of Malaysia. This information indicates that the relative proportion of carbonate in the drainage basin needs to be considered when trying to estimate denudation in other areas.
The upper catchment region of the Baram River in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) is undergoing severe land degradation due to soil erosion. Heavy rainfall with high erosive power has led to a number of soil erosion hotspots. The goal of the present study is to generate an understanding about the spatial characteristics of seasonal and annual rainfall erosivity (R), which not only control sediment delivery from the region but also determine the quantity of material potentially eroded. Mean annual rainfall and rainfall erosivity range from 2170 to 5167 mm and 1632 to 5319 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively. Seasonal rainfall and rainfall erosivity range from 848 to 1872 mm and 558 to 1883 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1 for the southwest (SW) monsoon, 902 to 2200 mm and 664 to 2793 MJ mm ha-1h-1year-1 for the northeast (NE) monsoon and 400 to 933 mm and 331 to 1075 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1 during the inter-monsoon (IM) period. Linear regression, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall tests were applied. Considering the regional mean rainfall erosivity in the study area, all the methods show an overall non-significant decreasing trend (- 9.34, - 0.25 and - 0.30 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively for linear regression, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall tests). However, during SW monsoon and IM periods, rainfall erosivity showed a non-significant decreasing trend (- 25.45, - 0.52, - 0.40, and - 8.86, - 1.07, - 0.77 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively) whereas in NE, monsoon season erosivity showed a non-significant increasing trend (14.90, 1.59 and 1.60 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively). The mean erosivity density ranges from 0.77 to 1.38 MJ ha-1 h-1 year-1 and shows decreasing trend. Spatial distribution pattern of erosivity density indicates significantly higher occurrence of erosive rainfall in the lower elevation portion of the study area. The spatial pattern of mean rainfall erosivity trends (linear, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall) suggests that the study area can be divided into two zones with increasing rainfall erosivity trends in the northern zone and decreasing trends in the southern zone. These results can be used to plan conservation measures to reduce sediment delivery from localized soil erosion hotspots.