Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Azmi WN, Latif MT, Wahid NB, Razak IS, Suratman S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2014 Mar;92(3):306-10.
    PMID: 24414132 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-013-1194-1
    A study has been conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in runoff water in the semi-urban area of Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Runoff samples were collected from five different locations with contrasting functional activities and the colorimetric method was used to analyze the concentrations of surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) for anionic surfactants and as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) for cationic surfactants. The results showed that the highest surfactant concentrations of MBAS and DBAS in runoff water were recorded in the samples collected at the residential area, with the concentrations of 3.192 ± 0.727 and 0.170 ± 0.028 μmol/L, respectively. Anionic surfactants as MBAS were found to dominate the concentration of surfactants in both runoff and rainwater. The concentrations of both anionic and cationic surfactants in runoff water were recorded as being higher than in rainwater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  2. Mohamed I, Othman F, Ibrahim AI, Alaa-Eldin ME, Yunus RM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Jan;187(1):4182.
    PMID: 25433545 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4182-y
    This case study uses several univariate and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate and interpret a water quality data set obtained from the Klang River basin located within the state of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The river drains an area of 1,288 km(2), from the steep mountain rainforests of the main Central Range along Peninsular Malaysia to the river mouth in Port Klang, into the Straits of Malacca. Water quality was monitored at 20 stations, nine of which are situated along the main river and 11 along six tributaries. Data was collected from 1997 to 2007 for seven parameters used to evaluate the status of the water quality, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, pH, and temperature. The data were first investigated using descriptive statistical tools, followed by two practical multivariate analyses that reduced the data dimensions for better interpretation. The analyses employed were factor analysis and principal component analysis, which explain 60 and 81.6% of the total variation in the data, respectively. We found that the resulting latent variables from the factor analysis are interpretable and beneficial for describing the water quality in the Klang River. This study presents the usefulness of several statistical methods in evaluating and interpreting water quality data for the purpose of monitoring the effectiveness of water resource management. The results should provide more straightforward data interpretation as well as valuable insight for managers to conceive optimum action plans for controlling pollution in river water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Looi LJ, Aris AZ, Wan Johari WL, Md Yusoff F, Hashim Z
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Sep 15;74(1):471-6.
    PMID: 23809293 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.008
    The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  4. Najah A, El-Shafie A, Karim OA, El-Shafie AH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Feb;21(3):1658-1670.
    PMID: 23949111 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-2048-4
    We discuss the accuracy and performance of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in training and prediction of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The model was used to analyze historical data generated through continuous monitoring of water quality parameters at several stations on the Johor River to predict DO concentrations. Four water quality parameters were selected for ANFIS modeling, including temperature, pH, nitrate (NO3) concentration, and ammoniacal nitrogen concentration (NH3-NL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the input parameters. The inputs with the greatest effect were those related to oxygen content (NO3) or oxygen demand (NH3-NL). Temperature was the parameter with the least effect, whereas pH provided the lowest contribution to the proposed model. To evaluate the performance of the model, three statistical indices were used: the coefficient of determination (R (2)), the mean absolute prediction error, and the correlation coefficient. The performance of the ANFIS model was compared with an artificial neural network model. The ANFIS model was capable of providing greater accuracy, particularly in the case of extreme events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Chow MF, Yusop Z, Shirazi SM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Oct;185(10):8321-31.
    PMID: 23591675 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3175-6
    Information on the pollution level and the influence of hydrologic regime on the stormwater pollutant loading in tropical urban areas are still scarce. More local data are still required because rainfall and runoff generation processes in tropical environment are very different from the temperate regions. This study investigated the extent of urban runoff pollution in residential, commercial, and industrial catchments in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected from 51 storm events. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease (O&G), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus (TP), and zinc (Zn). It was found that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants varied greatly between storm characteristics and land uses. The results revealed that site EMCs for residential catchment were lower than the published data but higher for the commercial and industrial catchments. All rainfall variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants except for antecedent dry days (ADD). This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of ADD for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for O&G, NO3-N, TP, and Zn. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by rainfall depth, mean intensity, and max 5-min intensity in all the three catchments. Overall, ADD is an important variable in multiple linear regression models for predicting the EMC values in the tropical urban catchments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Othman F, M E AE, Mohamed I
    J Environ Monit, 2012 Dec;14(12):3164-73.
    PMID: 23128415 DOI: 10.1039/c2em30676j
    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as agricultural or urban runoff and commercial activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Fulazzaky MA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Jan;185(1):523-35.
    PMID: 22373956 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2572-6
    Surface water is one of the essential resources for supporting sustainable development. The suitability of such water for a given use depends both on the available quantity and tolerable quality. Temporary status for a surface water quality has been identified extensively. Still the suitability of the water for different purposes needs to be verified. This study proposes a water quality evaluation system to assess the aptitude of the Selangor River water for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport, irrigation use, livestock watering, and aquaculture use. Aptitude of the water has been classified in many parts of the river segment as unsuitable for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport as well as aquaculture use. The water quality aptitude classes of the stream water for nine locations along the river are evaluated to contribute to decision support system. The suitability of the water for five different uses and its aquatic ecosystem are verified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  8. Suratman S, Tahir NM, Latif MT
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2012 May;88(5):755-8.
    PMID: 22392007 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-012-0574-2
    The distribution of total petrogenic hydrocarbon was investigated in the subsurface water of Setiu Wetland from July to October 2008. The concentration was quantified by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy and ranged from 4 to 121 μg/L (mean 60 ± 41 μg/L). Higher total petrogenic hydrocarbon concentrations were found in area with high boating activities suggesting that the contribution is likely related to fossil fuel combustion. The present study also revealed that the total petrogenic hydrocarbon values are still lower that those reported in Malaysian coastal waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  9. Sapari P, Ismail BS
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Oct;184(10):6347-56.
    PMID: 22089624 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2424-9
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential risk of pretilachlor, thiobencarb, and propanil pollutants in the water system of the rice fields of the Muda area. The study included two areas that used different irrigation systems namely non-recycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Regular water sampling was carried out at the drainage canals during the weeding period from September to October 2006 in the main season of 2006/2007 and April-May 2007 in off season of 2007. The herbicides were extracted by the solid-phase extraction method and identified using a GC-ECD. Results showed that the procedure for identification of the three herbicides was acceptable based on the recovery test values, which ranged from 84.1% to 96.9%. A wide distribution pattern where more than 79% of the water samples contained the herbicide pollutants was observed at both the areas where N-RCL and RCL water was supplied for the two seasons. During September to October 2006, high weedicide residue concentration was observed at the N-RCL area and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. In the case of the area with RCL water, the weedicide residue ranged from 1 to 5 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. The highest residue level reached was 25-50, 50-100, and 100-200 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. During April to May 2007, high residue concentration frequently occurred at the area supplied with N-RCL irrigation water and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00, 10 to 25, and 25 to 50 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. The highest residue level reached was 25-50 μg/L for pretilachlor and 100-200 μg/L for propanil and thiobencarb. There was an accelerated increase in the concentration of the herbicide residues, with the maximum levels reached at the early period of weedicide application, followed by a sharp decrease after the rice fields were completely covered with the rice crop. During the main season of 2006/2007, the concentration of propanil residue gradually rose, although that of the other herbicides declined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  10. Zahed MA, Nabi Bidhendi G, Pardakhti A, Esmaili-Sari A, Mohajeri S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2009 Dec;83(6):899-902.
    PMID: 19760353 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-009-9874-6
    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was detected as isomer groups (congener numbers 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in the coastal water and sediment of four stations around Shadegan wetland protected area in the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf. Total PCB concentration range was 8-375 ng/L in water and 3.4-50.2 μg/g in sediment. Concentration of different congeners and chromatogram indicates that the source of PCB in this area can be Clophen A60; it used for long time in Iranian electronic industries. Other chlorinated hydrocarbons such as lindane, DDT and their metabolites were also present in the samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  11. Prasanna MV, Chidambaram S, Shahul Hameed A, Srinivasamoorthy K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2010 Sep;168(1-4):63-90.
    PMID: 19609693 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-1092-5
    Gadilam river basin has gained its importance due to the presence of Neyveli Lignite open cast mines and other industrial complexes. It is also due to extensive depressurization of Cuddalore aquifer, and bore wells for New Veeranam Scheme are constructed downstream of the basin. Geochemical indicators of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemistry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(+)), magnesium (Mg(+)), bicarbonate (HCO(-)(3)), sulfate (SO(-)(4)), phosphate (PO(-)(4)), and silica (H(4)SiO(4)) were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that leaching of ions followed by weathering and anthropogenic impact controls the chemistry of the groundwater. Isotopic study reveals that recharge from meteoric source in sedimentary terrain and rock-water interaction with significant evaporation prevails in hard rock region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  12. Zulkifli SZ, Mohamat-Yusuff F, Arai T, Ismail A, Miyazaki N
    Environ Monit Assess, 2010 Oct;169(1-4):457-72.
    PMID: 19856123 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-1189-x
    Concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Pb, and U) were determined in the intertidal surface sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. The average trace element concentrations are ranked as follows: Zn>V>As>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>U>g>Cd. Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQGs) employed in present study are the Australia and New Zealand joint guideline (ANZECC/ARMCANZ), and the Hong Kong authorities. From the pooled data, none of these trace elements have the average concentration above the ISQG-high values. However, As and Ag average concentrations were over the ISQG-low values. Some elements were found to have the average concentration above the ISQG-high and/or ISQG-low in certain locations, including Kampung Pasir Putih (JPP), Lumut Port (ALP), Kuala Perai (PKP), Port Dickson (NPD), and others. The lowest and highest concentrations in a specific sampling location and maritime area varied among the elements, variations that were greatly affected by natural and anthropogenic activities in a given area. For each trace element, there were various levels of concentration among the sampling locations and maritime areas. These patterns indicated pollutant sources of an element for each area perhaps derived from nearby areas and did not widely distributed to other locations. It is necessary for Malaysia to develop an ISQG for effective quick screening and evaluation of the coastal environment of Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  13. Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Feb 15;67(1-2):196-9.
    PMID: 23260650 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.037
    Tidal variation in tropical coastal water plays an important role on physicochemical characteristics and nutrients concentration. Baseline measurements were made for nutrients concentration and physicochemical properties of coastal water, Port Dickson, Malaysia. pH, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, salinity and electrical conductivity have high values at high tides. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to understand spatial variation of nutrients and physicochemical pattern of Port Dickson coastal water at high and low tide. Four principal components of PCA were extracted at low and high tides. Positively loaded nutrients with negative loadings of DO, pH and ORP in PCA outputs indicated nutrients contribution related with pollution sources. This study output will be a baseline frame for future studies in Port Dickson involving water and sediment samples. Water and sediment samples of future monitoring studies in Port Dickson coastal water will help in understanding of coastal water chemistry and pollution sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  14. Arai T
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Feb 15;67(1-2):166-76.
    PMID: 23246303 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.006
    The bioaccumulation of organochlorines (OCs) in the muscle tissue of sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (fluvial) white-spotted charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) was determined to assess the ecological risk related to intraspecies variations in diadromous fish life history as they migrate between sea and freshwater. Generally, there were significant correlations between the accumulation of OCs such as DDTs, HCB, HCHs and CHLs. In addition, various biological characteristics, such as total length (TL), body weight (BW) and age, and number of downstream migration (NDM) were correlated. A positive correlation occurred between the lipid content and the OC concentrations. Close linear relationships were found between TL, BW and NDM and the lipid content. Although they are both the same species, the OCs concentrations in the anadromous fish were significantly higher than those in the fluvial individuals. These results suggest that anadromous S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk for OCs exposure than the fluvial fish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  15. Ali HR, Arifin MM, Sheikh MA, Mohamed Shazili NA, Bachok Z
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 May 15;70(1-2):253-7.
    PMID: 23490347 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.02.024
    Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono-s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021 ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24 ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  16. Retnam A, Zakaria MP, Juahir H, Aris AZ, Zali MA, Kasim MF
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Apr 15;69(1-2):55-66.
    PMID: 23452623 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.01.009
    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in surface sediments within aquaculture areas in Peninsular Malaysia using chemometric techniques, forensics and univariate methods. The samples were analysed using soxhlet extraction, silica gel column clean-up and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 20 to 1841 ng/g with a mean of 363 ng/g dw. The application of chemometric techniques enabled clustering and discrimination of the aquaculture sediments into four groups according to the contamination levels. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices was used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, oil combustion and biomass combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores-multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are vehicle emissions 54%, oil 37% and biomass combustion 9%. Land-based pollution from vehicle emissions is the predominant contributor of PAHs in the aquaculture sediments of Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  17. Serrano O, Davis G, Lavery PS, Duarte CM, Martinez-Cortizas A, Mateo MA, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 Jan 15;541:883-894.
    PMID: 26437357 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.017
    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~100 years ago (AD ~1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~115 cal years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Sharifinia M, Mahmoudifard A, Imanpour Namin J, Ramezanpour Z, Yap CK
    Chemosphere, 2016 Sep;159:584-594.
    PMID: 27343865 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.06.064
    This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes. The water quality based on biotic indices was related to the anthropic activities; a clear deterioration of the water quality was observed from upstream to downstream sites. The water quality along the river changed from very good (class I; reference sites) to good (class II; midstream sites) and turned into moderate (class III) and poor (class IV) quality (downstream sites). These findings indicate that biotic indices are more powerful indicators in assessing water quality than physico-chemical indices. Allocapnia, Glossosoma and Hesperoperla were exclusively related to least disturbed sites, and Naididae, Orthocladiinae and Ecdyonurus were found in sites showing notable degradation. Our results recommended that the use of macroinvertebrates could be employed as a cost-effective tool for biomonitoring and controlling of polluted riverine ecosystems in the Middle East. Finally, the results from this study may be useful not only for developing countries, but also for any organization struggling to use macroinvertebrate based indices with restricted financial resources and knowledge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  19. Elias MS, Ibrahim S, Samuding K, Rahman SA, Wo YM, Daung JAD
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Mar 29;190(4):257.
    PMID: 29600468 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6632-4
    Rapid socioeconomic development in the Linggi River Basin has contributed to the significant increase of pollution discharge into the Linggi River and its adjacent coastal areas. The toxic element contents and distributions in the sediment samples collected along the Linggi River were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The measured mean concentration of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, U, Th and Zn is relatively higher compared to the continental crust value of the respective element. Most of the elements (As, Cr, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn) exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-threshold effect concentration (FSQG-TEC) value. Downstream stations of the Linggi River showed that As concentrations in sediment exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-probable effect concentration (FSQG-PEC) value. This indicates that the concentration of As will give an adverse effect to the growth of sediment-dwelling organisms. Generally, the Linggi River sediment can be categorised as unpolluted to strongly polluted and unpolluted to strongly to extremely polluted. The correlation matrix of metal-metal relationship, principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) indicates that the pollution sources of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb in sediments of the Linggi River originated from the industry of electronics and electroplating. Elements of As, Cr, Sb and Fe mainly originated from motor-vehicle workshops and metal work, whilst U and Th originated from natural processes such as terrestrial runoff and land erosion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data
  20. Wan Abdul Ghani WMH, Abas Kutty A, Mahazar MA, Al-Shami SA, Ab Hamid S
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Apr 19;190(5):297.
    PMID: 29675764 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6675-6
    In order to evaluate the water quality of one of the most polluted urban river in Malaysia, the Penchala River, performance of eight biotic indices, Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP), BMWPThai, BMWPViet, Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), ASPTThai, BMWPViet, Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Singapore Biotic Index (SingScore), was compared. The water quality categorization based on these biotic indices was then compared with the categorization of Malaysian Water Quality Index (WQI) derived from measurements of six water physicochemical parameters (pH, BOD, COD, NH3-N, DO, and TSS). The river was divided into four sections: upstream section (recreational area), middle stream 1 (residential area), middle stream 2 (commercial area), and downstream. Abundance and diversity of the macroinvertebrates were the highest in the upstream section (407 individual and H' = 1.56, respectively), followed by the middle stream 1 (356 individual and H' = 0.82). The least abundance was recorded in the downstream section (214 individual). Among all biotic indices, BMWP was the most reliable in evaluating the water quality of this urban river as their classifications were comparable to the WQI. BMWPs in this study have strong relationships with dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Our results demonstrated that the biotic indices were more sensitive towards organic pollution than the WQI. BMWP indices especially BMWPViet were the most reliable and could be adopted along with the WQI for assessment of water quality in urban rivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data*
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