Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Mandal BH, Rahman ML, Yusoff MM, Chong KF, Sarkar SM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Jan 20;156:175-181.
    PMID: 27842811 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.09.021
    Corn-cob cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) Cu(II) complex was prepared by the surface modification of waste corn-cob cellulose through graft copolymerization and subsequent hydroximation. The complex was characterized by IR, UV, FESEM, TEM, XPS, EDX and ICP-AES analyses. The complex has been found to be an efficient catalyst for 1,3-dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC) of aryl/alkyl azides with a variety of alkynes as well as one-pot three-components reaction in the presence of sodium ascorbate to give the corresponding cycloaddition products in up to 96% yield and high turn over number (TON 18,600) and turn over frequency (TOF 930h-1) were achieved. The complex was easy to recover from the reaction mixture and reused six times without significant loss of its catalytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  2. Chan HT, Bhat R, Karim AA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Jul 8;57(13):5965-70.
    PMID: 19489606 DOI: 10.1021/jf9008789
    The effects of oxidation by ozone gas on some physicochemical and functional properties of starch (corn, sago, and tapioca) were investigated. Starch in dry powder form was exposed to ozone for 10 min at different ozone generation times (OGTs). Carboxyl and carbonyl contents increased markedly in all starches with increasing OGTs. Oxidation significantly decreased the swelling power of oxidized sago and tapioca starches but increased that of oxidized corn starch. The solubility of tapioca starch decreased and sago starch increased after oxidation. However, there was an insignificant changed in the solubility of oxidized corn starch. Intrinsic viscosity [eta] of all oxidized starches decreased significantly, except for tapioca starch oxidized at 5 min OGT. Pasting properties of the oxidized starches followed different trends as OGTs increased. These results show that under similar conditions of ozone treatment, the extent of starch oxidation varies among different types of starch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  3. Lee JS, Ee ML, Chung KH, Othman Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2013 Sep 12;97(2):614-7.
    PMID: 23911492 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.047
    The effect of gamma-irradiation on formation of resistant starch (RS) in corn starch with different amylose content was examined. Normal corn starch, waxy corn starch, and high amylose corn starch (Hylon V and Hylon VII) were irradiated at 5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy. Gamma-irradiation at 5 kGy increased the amylose-like molecules in starches and thus significantly enhanced the RS content (p<0.05). Highest RS content was produced by 50 kGy irradiated in all the starch samples (p<0.05). The irradiation-induced RS was more evident in waxy corn starch, followed by high amylose corn starch and normal corn starch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  4. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  5. Kuan YH, Liong MT
    J Agric Food Chem, 2008 Oct 8;56(19):9252-7.
    PMID: 18788708 DOI: 10.1021/jf802011j
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of agrowastes derived from okara ( Glycine max), corn cob ( Zea mays sp.), wheat straw ( Triticum sp.), and rice husk ( Oryza sativa) for potential applications in foods. The fibrous materials (FM) were treated with alkali to yield fibrous residues (FR). Rice husk contained the highest ash content (FM, 8.56%; FR, 9.04%) and lowest lightness in color (FM, 67.63; FR, 63.46), possibly due to the abundance of mineral constituents. Corn cob contained the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), whereas okara had the highest total dietary fiber (TDF). The high dietary fiber fractions of corn cob and okara also contributed to the highest water- and oil-holding capacities, emulsifying activities, and emulsion stabilities for both FM and FR samples. These results indicate that these agrowastes could be utilized as functional ingredients in foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  6. Liew CW, Ramesh S
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Jun 25;124:222-8.
    PMID: 25839815 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.02.024
    Biopolymer electrolytes containing corn starch, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) are prepared by solution casting technique. Temperature dependence-ionic conductivity studies reveal Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) relationship which is associated with free volume theory. Ionic liquid-based biopolymer electrolytes show lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than ionic liquid-free biopolymer electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate higher amorphous region of ionic liquid-added biopolymer electrolytes. In addition, the potential stability window of the biopolymer electrolyte becomes wider and stable up to 2.9V. Conclusively, the fabricated electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) shows improved electrochemical performance upon addition of ionic liquid into the biopolymer electrolyte. The specific capacitance of EDLC based on ionic liquid-added polymer electrolyte is relatively higher than that of ionic liquid-free polymer electrolyte as depicted in cyclic voltammogram.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  7. Ali N, Hashim NH, Yoshizawa T
    Food Addit Contam, 1999 Jul;16(7):273-80.
    PMID: 10656052
    For application to the analysis of aflatoxins (AF) in commercial peanut and corn products, the ISOLUTE multimode column (IMC, solid phase multifunctional column) method was validated by comparing with the modified Florisil column (MFC) method. Twenty-two peanut and eight corn products from Malaysia and the Philippines were analysed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 firstly by the MFC method and then by the IMC method. For peanut products, 14 out of 22 samples were positive by the two methods in the range of 1-378 micrograms/kg of AF, and correlation coefficients (r) for AFB1 and AFB2 were 0.987 and 0.997, respectively. For corn and corn products, all the samples were positive in the range of 1-130 micrograms/kg, and r values were 0.992 and 0.805 for AFB1 and AFB2 respectively. Thus, the results were significantly (p < 0.01) in close agreement, particularly for lower range of 1-50 micrograms/kg of AF concentrations in all the samples. For the occurrence of AF, 11 (65%) of peanut products from Malaysia were contaminated with AF at a mean level of 50 micrograms/kg (maximum 180 micrograms/kg) and two (40% products from the Philippines were contaminated with as high as 375 micrograms/kg and 177 micrograms/kg of AF, respectively. All the corn products from the Philippines were contaminated with AF at a mean level of 44 micrograms/kg (maximum 130 micrograms/kg). Contamination of commercial foods with high levels of AF is a very important issue to both the countries since these foods are very popular among children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  8. Lubowa M, Yeoh SY, Easa AM
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2018 Sep;24(6):476-486.
    PMID: 29600879 DOI: 10.1177/1082013218766984
    This study investigated the influence of pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch and chilling treatment on the physical and textural properties of canned rice noodles thermally processed in a retort. Rice noodles were prepared from rice flour partially substituted with pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch (Hylon VII™) in the ratios 0, 5, 10, and 15% (wt/wt). High-amylose maize starch improved the texture and brightness of fresh (not retorted) noodles. Chilling treatment led to significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvement in the texture of fresh noodles at all levels of substitution with high-amylose starch. The highest hardness was recorded at 15% amylose level in chilled nonretorted noodles. Retort processing induced a major loss of quality through water absorption, retort cooking loss, decreased noodle hardness, and lightness. However, the results showed that amylose and chilling treatment positively reduced the impact of retorting. For each level of amylose substitution, a low retort cooking loss and increased noodle hardness were associated with a chilling treatment. For both chilled and nonchilled noodles, retort cooking loss and hardness increased with increasing levels of amylose substitution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  9. Abdul Rahman N, Abd Halim MR, Mahawi N, Hasnudin H, Al-Obaidi JR, Abdullah N
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:2038062.
    PMID: 28503566 DOI: 10.1155/2017/2038062
    Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32-37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control), B1 (L. plantarum), B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii), and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii). Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp.) and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g). The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP) and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  10. Thongprapai P, Cheewasedtham W, Chong KF, Rujiralai T
    J Sep Sci, 2018 Dec;41(23):4348-4354.
    PMID: 30267469 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201800441
    A magnetic nanographene oxide sorbent as a selective sorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection was developed and proved to be a robust method for zearalenone determination in corn samples. Optimum extraction of zearalenone (20 mg magnetic nanographene oxide sorbent, extraction for 15 min, desorption time of 15 min using 1 mL of 0.5% formic acid in methanol) resulted in low limits of detection (05 mg/L) and quantitation (0.13 mg/L) and good linearity range of 0.13-1.25 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.9957. Acceptable recoveries (79.3-80.6%) with relative standard deviations below 4% and satisfactory intra- and interday precisions (2-7.4%) were achieved. Additionally, the proposed method has been proved to be good in several aspects: easily prepared sorbent with high affinity to zearalenone, convenient and fast procedure, and high extraction efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  11. Fan HY, Duquette D, Dumont MJ, Simpson BK
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):263-273.
    PMID: 30130612 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.084
    Composite films comprised of salmon (Salmo salar) skin gelatin and zein were prepared via crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize film composition to maximize tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB), and to minimize water solubility (WS) of the films. The significant (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  12. Chen PW, Cui ZY, Ng HS, Chi-Wei Lan J
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2020 Aug;130(2):195-199.
    PMID: 32370929 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.03.011
    Ectoine production using inexpensive and renewable biomass resources has attracted great interest among the researchers due to the low yields of ectoine in current fermentation approaches that complicate the large-scale production of ectoine. In this study, ectoine was produced from corn steep liquor (CSL) and soybean hydrolysate (SH) in replacement to yeast extract as the nitrogen sources for the fermentation process. To enhance the bacterial growth and ectoine production, biotin was added to the Halomonas salina fermentation media. In addition, the effects addition of surfactants such as Tween 80 and saponin on the ectoine production were also investigated. Results showed that both the CSL and SH can be used as the nitrogen source substitutes in the fermentation media. Higher amount of ectoine (1781.9 mg L-1) was produced in shake flask culture with SH-containing media as compared to CSL-containing media. A total of 2537.0 mg L-1 of ectoine was produced at pH 7 when SH-containing media was applied in the 2 L batch fermentation. Moreover, highest amount of ectoine (1802.0 mg L-1) was recorded in the SH-containing shake flask culture with addition of 0.2 μm mL-1 biotin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of industrial waste as the nutrient supplement for the fermentation of ectoine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  13. Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, Ramaiya SD
    PLoS One, 2021;16(2):e0247327.
    PMID: 33626109 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247327
    Currently, bee-gathered pollen (bee pollen) is commonly used worldwide as a dietary supplement and is recognized for its curative properties. Floral pollen is also important but is less recognized due to a lack of investigation. This study aims to determine the morphological characteristics and nutritional and phytochemical properties of floral maize pollen. Fresh pollen grains harvested from a farm of maize plants are yellow in colour and spheroid in shape. They change to amber and indented prismatic solid shapes when dehydrated. The main composition of floral maize pollen is carbohydrates (44.30±3.73%), followed by moisture (23.38±5.73%), crude proteins (17.16±3.13%), crude fibres (9.56±0.92%), and ash (4.98±0.11%), while the lowest content is observed for crude fats (0.62±0.06%). The predominant mineral is potassium (768.50±11.40 mg 100 g-1), followed by sodium (695.10±9.70 mg 100 g-1), calcium (147.20±12.60 mg 100 g-1), and magnesium (97.30±2.9 mg 100 g-1). The microelements (with average values) consist of iron (49.50±3.30 mg 100 g-1) and zinc (30.00±3.70 mg 100 g-1). Excellent phytochemical properties add value to floral maize pollen. Maize pollen contains a high total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 783.02 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 1706.83 mg QE 100 g-1, respectively, and possesses strong antioxidant activity of 10.54 mg mL-1. Maize floral pollen and derived products can serve as future food resources for human consumption and as a source of functional and bioactive compounds in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  14. Jalil AA, Triwahyono S, Yaakob MR, Azmi ZZ, Sapawe N, Kamarudin NH, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Sep;120:218-24.
    PMID: 22820110 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.066
    In this work, two low-cost wastes, bivalve shell (BS) and Zea mays L. husk leaf (ZHL), were investigated to adsorb malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The ZHL was treated with calcined BS to give the BS-ZHL, and its ability to adsorb MG was compared with untreated ZHL, calcined BS and Ca(OH)(2)-treated ZHL under several different conditions: pH (2-8), adsorbent dosage (0.25-2.5 g L(-1)), contact time (10-30 min), initial MG concentration (10-200 mg L(-1)) and temperature (303-323 K). The equilibrium studies indicated that the experimental data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model. The use of 2.5 g L(-1) BS-ZHL resulted in the nearly complete removal of 200 mg L(-1) of MG with a maximum adsorption capacity of 81.5 mg g(-1) after 30 min of contact time at pH 6 and 323 K. The results indicated that the BS-ZHL can be used to effectively remove MG from aqueous media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  15. Soleimany F, Jinap S, Rahmani A, Khatib A
    PMID: 21337232 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2010.551547
    A new method for the simultaneous quantification of 12 mycotoxins was developed and optimized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence detector (FLD), a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection (PHRED) and post-column derivatization. The mycotoxins included aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3)), T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A double sample extraction with a phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) and methanol was used for co-extraction of mycotoxins, and a multifunctional immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. Optimum conditions for separation of the mycotoxins were obtained to separate 12 mycotoxins in FLD and PDA chromatograms with a high resolution. The method gave recoveries in the range 72-111% when applied to spiked corn samples. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.025 ng/g for AFB(1) and AFG(1), 0.012 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2), 0.2 ng/g for OTA, 1.5 ng/g for ZEA, 6.2 ng/g for FB(1), FB(3) and HT-2 toxin, 9.4 ng/g for FB(2) and T-2 toxin, and 18.7 ng/g for DON. In addition, the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.04 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2) to 62 ng/g for DON. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these mycotoxins in 45 cereal samples obtained from the Malaysian market. The results indicated that the method can be applied for the multi-mycotoxin determination of cereals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  16. Karim AA, Sufha EH, Zaidul IS
    J Agric Food Chem, 2008 Nov 26;56(22):10901-7.
    PMID: 18975963 DOI: 10.1021/jf8015442
    The effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the degree of corn and mung bean starch derivatization by propylene oxide was investigated. The starch was enzymatically treated in the granular state with a mixture of fungal alpha-amylase and glucoamylase at 35 degrees C for 16 h and then chemically modified to produce enzyme-hydrolyzed-hydroxypropyl (HP) starch. Partial enzyme hydrolysis of starch in the granular state appeared to enhance the subsequent hydroxypropylation, as judged from the significant increase in the molar substitution. A variable degree of granule modification was obtained after enzyme hydrolysis, and one of the determinants of the modification degree appeared to be the presence of natural pores in the granules. Enzyme-hydrolyzed-HP starch exhibited significantly different functional properties compared to hydroxypropyl starch prepared from untreated (native) starch. It is evident that the dual modification of starch using this approach provides a range of functional properties that can be customized for specific applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
  17. Rafiq MK, Bachmann RT, Rafiq MT, Shang Z, Joseph S, Long R
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0156894.
    PMID: 27327870 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156894
    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  18. Nazli MH, Halim RA, Abdullah AM, Hussin G, Samsudin AA
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2018 Jun;50(5):1119-1124.
    PMID: 29455428 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1538-2
    The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  19. Nasaruddin N, Jinap S, Samsudin NI, Kamarulzaman NH, Sanny M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Mar 30;101(5):1812-1821.
    PMID: 32893877 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10795
    BACKGROUND: Corn, a main feed ingredient in the livestock industry, is one of the most susceptible crops to fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination. Livestock feeding on aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed have been shown to experience feed refusal, and decreased growth rate, milk production, and feed efficiency. In poultry, AF poisoning causes weight loss, poor feed efficiency, and reduced egg production and egg weight. The present work therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of mycotoxigenic fungi and the occurrence of AF contamination along the integrated corn-based poultry feed supply chain in Malaysia. A total of 51 samples were collected from different points along the feed supply chain from integrated poultry feed companies. The samples were subjected to mycological analyses (fungal isolation, enumeration, identification), and AFs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD).

    RESULTS: Samples collected from sampling point 1 (company A) and sampling point 9 (company B) yielded the highest total fungal load (>log 4 CFU g-1 ). The prevalent fungal genera isolated were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.3% of corn samples, and 7.4% of corn-based poultry feed samples along the feed supply chain, whereas AFs B2 , G1 , and G2 were not detected.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi along the integrated poultry feed supply chain warrant continuous monitoring of mycotoxin contamination to reduce the exposure risk of mycotoxin intake in poultry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry*
  20. Azri FA, Eissa S, Zourob M, Chinnappan R, Sukor R, Yusof NA, et al.
    Mikrochim Acta, 2020 04 12;187(5):266.
    PMID: 32279134 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-020-4218-7
    An electrochemical aptasensor is described for determination of the phytohormone of zearalenone (ZEA). The gold electrode was modified with ZEA via covalent attachment using cysteamine-hydrochloride and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate linker. A truncated ZEA aptamer with a dissociation constant of 13.4 ± 2.1 nM was used in an aptasensor. The electrochemical property was investigated using square wave voltammetry for monitoring the change in the electron transfer using the ferro/ferricyanide system as redox probe. Under optimal experimental conditions, the response was best measured at a potential of 0.20 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The signals depended on the competitive mechanism between the immobilised ZEA and free ZEA for the aptamer binding site. The aptasensor works in the range 0.01 to 1000 ng·mL-1 ZEA concentration, with a detection limit of 0.017 ng·mL-1. High degree of cross-reactivity with the other analogues of ZEA was observed, whereas none towards other mycotoxins. The aptasensor was further applied for the determination of ZEA in the extract of maize grain and showed good recovery percentages between 87 and 110%. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the electrochemical determination of zearalenone based on indirect competitive assay. Step a Immobilisation of ZEA on the surface of gold electrode via covalent attachment, b competition for the ZEA aptamer binding site between immobilised and free ZEA, and c current signal of the binding event based on SWV technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zea mays/chemistry
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