This study was conducted to investigate on the effect of different sampling regions of palm-refined oils and fats on the 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) levels. The American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method Cd 29a-13 on the determination of MCPDE and GE in edible oils and fats by acid transesterification was successfully verified and optimised, with slight modification using 7890A Agilent GC system equipped with 5975C quadrupole detector. The determined limits of detection (LOD) for MCPDE were 0.02 mg kg-1 and 0.05 mg kg-1 for GE. The method performance has showed good recovery between 80% and 120% for all pertinent compounds with seven replicates assayed in three separate days. Round robin test with two European laboratories, i.e. Eurofins and SGS, has shown compliance results with those of the present study. Among the sampling regions, only one refinery located in the central region of Malaysia showed a significant increment of the MCPDE and GE levels after refining process. The GE level averaging at 2.5 mg kg-1 was slightly higher than that of 3-MCPDE averaging at 1.3 mg kg-1. Both esters were preferentially partitioned into the liquid phase rather than the solid phase after fractionation. However, the overall results exhibited no direct correlation between the esters content and the different sampling locations of the palm oil products in Malaysia. Analysis of total chlorine content also displayed significant variations between sampling locations which clearly show its effect on the chlorine content in the CPO samples.
The detection of 3- and 2-MCPD ester and glycidyl ester was transformed from selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by gas chromatography triple quadrupole spectrometry. The derivatization process was adapted from AOCS method Cd 29a-13. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of all detected compounds obtained from both detection mode was comparable, which falls between 0.997 and 0.999. The limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were improved in MRM mode as compared to SIM mode. In MRM mode, the LOD of 3- and 2-MCPD ester was achieved 0.01 mg/kg while the LOQ was 0.05 mg/kg. Besides, LOD and LOQ of glycidyl ester were 0.024 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. A blank spiked with MCPD esters (0.03, 0.10 and 0.50 mg/kg) and GE (0.06, 0.24 and 1.20 mg/kg) were chosen for repeatability and recovery tests. MRM mode showed better repeatability in area ratio and recovery with relative standard deviation (RSD %)
Quantifiable levels of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) were found in domestically manufactured soy-based sauces. Selected commercial foods in the Malaysian market (n = 43) were analyzed for their 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents of the analyzed food samples varied from not detectable levels to 0.1223 ± 0.0419 mg kg-1 and not detectable levels to 0.025 ± 0.0041 mg kg-1, respectively. High concentrations of 3-MCPD, exceeding Malaysia's maximum tolerable limit of 0.02 mg kg-1, were found in chicken seasoning cubes (mean = 0.0898 ± 0.0378 mg kg-1). Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk assessment revealed that 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP intakes in the 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were lower than 4 µg kg-1 bw day-1, the limit recommended by JECFA in 2016. Hence, it was concluded that the exposure of Malaysian citizens to chloropropanols through soy sauce consumption does not present a health risk.
The reduction of the 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) was successfully achieved by the optimization of four processing parameters: phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, bleaching earth dosage, and deodorization temperature by response surface methodology without the need for additional processing steps. The optimized processing conditions were 0.31% phosphoric acid dosage, 50 °C degumming temperature, 3% bleaching earth dosage, and 240 °C deodorization temperature. The optimization resulted in more than 80% and 65% reduction of 3-MCPDE and GE levels, respectively with color and FFA contents maintained in the acceptable range specified by Palm Oil Refiners Association of Malaysia. The optimized refining condition was transferred to macro scale refining units of 1 kg and 3 kg capacities to investigate its successful application during scale-up process.
The study aimed to establish the detection method for bound 3-, 2-MCPD, and glycidol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ASE was modified for reduced solvent volume and process time to extract lipid from the chocolate spread, infant formula, potato chips, and sweetened creamer. The solvent selected for ASE was a mixture of iso-hexane and acetone at 100°C with the lipid and analyte recovery ranging from 96.9% to 98.6% and 84.1% to 107.5%, respectively. The derivatisation of analytes was adopted from the AOCS method Cd29a-13 for GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of all analytes was >0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for both bound 3- and 2-MCPD and 0.2 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for bound glycidol. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.3 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for both bound 3- and 2-MCPD and 0.6 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for bound glycidol. A blank spiked with 3-monochloropropanediols fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and 2-MCPDE (0.3, 2.1, and 7.2 mg kg-1) and glycidol esters (0.6, 4.7, and 16.6 mg kg-1) were chosen for accuracy and precision tests. The recoveries were 91.7% to 105.9%. Both repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility of the analysis were within the acceptable level of precision ranging from 1.7% to 16%. This is the first time that a full validation procedure extending to both accuracy and precision tests has been carried out for sweetened creamer and chocolate spread. Overall, the combined protocol of ASE and AOCS Cd29a-13 was successfully validated for both solid and liquid food samples with lipid content from 10% to 30%.
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GE) are heat-induced contaminants which form during oil refining process, particularly at the high temperature deodorization stage. It is worth to investigate the content of 3-MCPD and GE in fries which also involved high temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters and GE were monitored in fries. The factors that been chosen were temperature and duration of frying, and different concentration of salt (NaCl). The results in our study showed that the effect was in the order of concentration of sodium chloride
Palm-pressed mesocarp oil has been found to contain plenty of naturally occurring valuable phytonutrients. The application and study of the oil are limited, therefore, quality assessment of refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is deemed necessary to provide data in widening the applications as a niche products or raw material for the nutraceutical industry. Results showed that refined PPMO has comparable physicochemical properties and oxidative stability with commercial cooking oil, palm olein (PO). The food safety parameters and contaminants (PAH, 3-MCPD ester, 2-MCPD ester, glycidyl ester and trace metals) analyses proven that refined PPMO is safe to be consumed. Besides, refined PPMO contains remarkably greater concentrations of phytonutrients including carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene and vitamin E than PO, postulating its protective health benefits. The overall quality assessment of refined PPMO showed that it is suitable for human consumption and it is a good source for food applications and dietary nutritional supplements.