METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene) and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS) and AmpC induction test.
RESULTS: Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5%) of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4%) E. cloacae and three (25%) E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2%) of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening) using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2%) and AmpC induction tests (50.5%). There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Besides MIR/ACT gene, a novel plasmid-mediated AmpC gene belonging to the DHA-type was identified in this study. Low agreement was noted between the D69C AmpC detection set and two other phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production in Enterobacter spp. As plasmid-mediated genes may serve as the reservoir for the emergence of antibiotic resistance in a clinical setting, surveillance and infection control measures are necessary to limit the spread of these genes in the hospital.
METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.
METHODS: CLSI broth microdilution methodology was used to determine antimicrobial activity and EUCAST breakpoints version 9.0 were used to determine rates of susceptibility and resistance. Isolates were also screened for the genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or carbapenemases (including metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs]).
RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2017, this study collected a total of 7051 Enterobacterales isolates and 2032 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. In the Asia-Pacific region, Enterobacterales isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (17.9%) were more frequently identified than isolates that were carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.7%) or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (1.7%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of P. aeruginosa were more commonly identified (23.4%) than isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (0.4%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.3%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (3.7%). More than 90% of all Enterobacterales isolates, including the ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative subset and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative subset, were susceptible to amikacin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Among the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset of Enterobacterales, susceptibility to the majority of agents was reduced, with the exception of colistin (93.4%). Tigecycline was active against all resistant subsets of the Enterobacterales (MIC90, 1-4 mg/L) and among Escherichia coli isolates, > 90% from each resistant subset were susceptible to tigecycline. More than 99% of all P. aeruginosa isolates, including MDR isolates and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset, were susceptible to colistin.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, amikacin, ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin and tigecycline appear to be potential treatment options for infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region.
Methods: Envelope permeability was estimated using a fluorescent dye accumulation assay. β-Lactam susceptibility was measured using disc testing. Total envelope protein production was quantified using LC-MS/MS proteomics and transcript levels were quantified using real-time RT-PCR.
Results: RamA overproduction enhanced β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance, in some cases dramatically, without altering β-lactamase production. It increased production of efflux pumps and decreased OmpK35 porin production, though micF overexpression showed that OmpK35 reduction has little impact on envelope permeability. A survey of K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates revealed ramA hyperexpression in 3 of 4 carbapenemase producers, 1 of 21 CTX-M producers and 2 of 19 strains not carrying CTX-M or carbapenemases.
Conclusions: Whilst RamA is not a key mediator of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae on its own, it is potentially important for enhancing the spectrum of acquired β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance. LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis has revealed that this enhancement is achieved predominantly through activation of efflux pump production.