Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Hwa WE, Subramaniam G, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2009 Feb;42(1):54-62.
    PMID: 19424559
    To detect and characterize class 1 integrons among carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  2. Hrabák J, Fridrichová M, Stolbová M, Bergerová T, Zemlickova H, Urbaskova P
    Euro Surveill., 2009 Jan 29;14(4).
    PMID: 19215712
    Since 2005, invasive isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been collected in the Czech Republic as part of the European Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Forty-eight microbiology laboratories throughout the country including approximately 81% of the population provide consecutive isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Surprisingly, no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) was found in 1,259 invasive isolates tested over the past three years until the detection of two MBL-producing strains in mid-2008. Both strains were isolated from patients hospitalised in one regional hospital. The MBL was identified as IMP-7, which had been seen previously in Canada, Japan, Malaysia and Slovakia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  3. Mohd Khari FI, Karunakaran R, Rosli R, Tee Tay S
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150643.
    PMID: 26963619 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150643
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC) genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined.

    METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene) and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS) and AmpC induction test.

    RESULTS: Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5%) of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4%) E. cloacae and three (25%) E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2%) of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening) using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2%) and AmpC induction tests (50.5%). There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Besides MIR/ACT gene, a novel plasmid-mediated AmpC gene belonging to the DHA-type was identified in this study. Low agreement was noted between the D69C AmpC detection set and two other phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production in Enterobacter spp. As plasmid-mediated genes may serve as the reservoir for the emergence of antibiotic resistance in a clinical setting, surveillance and infection control measures are necessary to limit the spread of these genes in the hospital.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  4. Al-Gheethi A, Noman E, Radin Mohamed RMS, Ismail N, Bin Abdullah AH, Mohd Kassim AH
    J Hazard Mater, 2019 03 05;365:883-894.
    PMID: 30497042 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.068
    Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals active compounds (PACs) in secondary effluents by using B. subtilis 2012WTNC as a function of β-lactamase was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) designed by central composite design (CCD). Four factors including initial concentration of bacteria (1-6 log10 CFU mL-1), incubation period (1-14 days), incubation temperature (20-40 °C) and initial concentration of PACs (1-5 mg L-1) were investigated. The optimal operating factors for biodegradation process determined using response surface methodology (RSM) was recorded with 5.57 log10 CFU mL-1 of B. subtilis, for 10.38 days, at 36.62 °C and with 4.14 mg L-1 of (cephalexin/amoxicillin) with R2 coefficient of 0.99. The biodegradation was 83.81 and 93.94% respectively. The relationship among the independent variables was significant (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  5. Ho SE, Subramaniam G, Palasubramaniam S, Navaratnam P
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2002 Oct;46(10):3286-7.
    PMID: 12234862
    We have isolated and identified a carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from Malaysia that produces an IMP-7 metallo-beta-lactamase. This isolate showed high-level resistance to meropenem and imipenem, the MICs of which were 256 and 128 micro g/ml, respectively. Isoelectric focusing analyses revealed pI values of >9.0, 8.2, and 7.8, which indicated the possible presence of IMP and OXA. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the IMP-7 determinant.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  6. Tan SH, Normi YM, Leow AT, Salleh AB, Murad AM, Mahadi NM, et al.
    J. Biochem., 2017 02 01;161(2):167-186.
    PMID: 28175318 DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvw058
    The effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics as chemotherapeutic agents to treat bacterial infections is gradually threatened with the emergence of antibiotic resistance mechanism among pathogenic bacteria through the production metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). In this study, we discovered a novel hypothetical protein (HP) termed Bleg1_2437 from the genome of alkaliphilic Bacillus lehensis G1 which exhibited MBL-like properties of B3 subclass; but evolutionary divergent from other circulating B3 MBLs. Domain and sequence analysis of HP Bleg1_2437 revealed that it contains highly conserved Zn2+-binding residues such as H54, H56, D58, H59, H131 and H191, important for catalysis, similar with the subclass B3 of MBL. Built 3-D Bleg1_2437 structure exhibited an αββα sandwich layer similar to the well-conserved global topology of MBL superfamily. Other features include a ceiling and floor in the model which are important for accommodation and orientation of β-lactam antibiotics docked to the protein model showed interactions at varying degrees with residues in the binding pocket of Bleg1_2437. Hydrolysis activity towards several β-lactam antibiotics was proven through an in vitro assay using purified recombinant Bleg1_2437 protein. These findings highlight the presence of a clinically important and evolutionary divergent antibiotics-degrading enzyme within the pools of uncharacterized HPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  7. Lin YW, Abdul Rahim N, Zhao J, Han ML, Yu HH, Wickremasinghe H, et al.
    PMID: 30670431 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02176-18
    Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 to 64 mg/liter) over 48 h. An in vitro one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model (IVM) was used to simulate humanized dosage regimens of polymyxin B (4 mg/liter as continuous infusion) and zidovudine (as bolus dose thrice daily to achieve maximum concentration of drug in broth [Cmax] of 6 mg/liter) against K. pneumoniae BM1 over 72 h. The antimicrobial synergy of the combination was further evaluated in a murine thigh infection model against K. pneumoniae 02. In the static time-kill studies, polymyxin B monotherapy produced rapid and extensive killing against all three isolates followed by extensive regrowth, whereas zidovudine produced modest killing followed by significant regrowth at 24 h. Polymyxin B in combination with zidovudine significantly enhanced the antimicrobial activity (≥4 log10 CFU/ml) and minimized bacterial regrowth. In the IVM, the combination was synergistic and the total bacterial loads were below the limit of detection for up to 72 h. In the murine thigh infection model, the bacterial burden at 24 h in the combination group was ≥3 log10 CFU/thigh lower than each monotherapy against K. pneumoniae 02. Overall, the polymyxin B-zidovudine combination demonstrates superior antimicrobial efficacy and minimized emergence of resistance to polymyxins.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  8. Hamzan NI, Yean CY, Rahman RA, Hasan H, Rahman ZA
    Emerg Health Threats J, 2015;8:26011.
    PMID: 25765342 DOI: 10.3402/ehtj.v8.26011
    Background : Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods : A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results : All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (blaKPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion : Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  9. Ahmad KA, Mohanmmed AS, Abas F, Chin SC
    Virol Sin, 2015 Feb;30(1):73-5.
    PMID: 25662886 DOI: 10.1007/s12250-014-3541-8
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  10. Ghafourian S, Sadeghifard N, Soheili S, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2015;17:11-21.
    PMID: 24821872
    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are defined as enzymes produced by certain bacteria that are able to hydrolyze extended spectrum cephalosporin. They are therefore effective against beta-lactam antibiotics such as ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and oxyimino-monobactam. The objective of the current review is to provide a better understanding of ESBL and the epidemiology of ESBL producing organisms which are among those responsible for antibiotic resistant strains. Globally, ESBLs are considered to be problematic, particularly in hospitalized patients. There is an increasing frequency of ESBL in different parts of the world. The high risk patients are those contaminated with ESBL producer strains as it renders treatment to be ineffective in these patients. Thus, there an immediate needs to identify EBSL and formulate strategic policy initiatives to reduce their prevalence.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  11. Kim DH, Choi JY, Kim HW, Kim SH, Chung DR, Peck KR, et al.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2013 Nov;57(11):5239-46.
    PMID: 23939892 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00633-13
    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  12. Khosravi Y, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Jul;60(Pt 7):988-994.
    PMID: 21436370 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.029868-0
    In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  13. Ikryannikova LN, Shitikov EA, Zhivankova DG, Il'ina EN, Edelstein MV, Govorun VM
    J Microbiol Methods, 2008 Dec;75(3):385-91.
    PMID: 18694787 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2008.07.005
    A minisequencing method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was developed for rapid identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms at bla(TEM) gene codons 104, 164 and 238 associated with extended-spectrum activity on TEM-type beta-lactamases. The method was validated by testing the Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains possessing the known bla(TEM) gene sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  14. Palasubramaniam S, Karunakaran R, Gin GG, Muniandy S, Parasakthi N
    Int J Infect Dis, 2007 Sep;11(5):472-4.
    PMID: 17337225
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  15. Bert F, Vanjak D, Leflon-Guibout V, Mrejen S, Delpierre S, Redondo A, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2007 Mar 1;44(5):764-5.
    PMID: 17278079
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  16. Nurul Atifah MA, Loo HK, Subramaniam G, Wong EH, Selvi P, Ho SE, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):75-81.
    PMID: 17191389
    Antimicrobial resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins is increasingly reported worldwide. In the local setting, nosocomial infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacilli are not uncommon and are a growing concern. However, there is limited data on the carriage rates of such organisms in the local setting. In May 2001, a prospective study was carried out to determine the enteric carriage rates of ceftazidime-resistant Gram negative bacilli (CAZ-R GNB) among residents of nursing homes and from in-patients of the geriatric and adult haematology wards of University Malaya Medical Centre. Ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CAZ-R GNB) were detected in 25 samples (30%), out of which 6 were from nursing home residents, 5 from geriatric in-patients and 14 from the haematology unit. A total of 28 CAZ-R GNB were isolated and Escherichia coli (10) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7) were the predominant organisms. Resistance to ceftazidime in E. coli and Klebsiella was mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). Although the majority of the CAZ-R GNB were from patients in the haematology ward, the six nursing home residents with CAZ-R GNB were enteric carriers of ESBL-producing coliforms. Prior exposure to antibiotics was associated with carriage of ESBL organisms and to a lesser extent, the presence of urinary catheters.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  17. Ahmad N, Hashim R, Shukor S, Mohd Khalid KN, Shamsudin F, Hussin H
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2013 May;62(Pt 5):804-806.
    PMID: 23449878 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.050781-0
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism*
  18. Wong JS, Mohd Azri ZA, Subramaniam G, Ho SE, Palasubramaniam S, Navaratnam P
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Dec;25(2):113-9.
    PMID: 16196367
    beta-Lactamases have been identified as the major cause of antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Escherichia coli. The activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate as well as a range of beta-lactam antibiotics were studied with 87 clinical E. coli isolates from patients of the University Malaya Medical Center using the disc diffusion technique. Susceptible, intermediate and resistant categories were established based on the diameter of zones of inhibition set by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The isolates were then classified into 6 phenotypes according to the criteria stated in the methodology: S (susceptible to all beta-lactams); TL (resistant to aminopenicillins; amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptible and susceptible or intermediate to ampicillin-sulbactam); TI (resistant to aminopenicillins and ampicillin-sulbactam; susceptible to amoxicilin-clavulanate); TH-IRT (resistant to aminopenicillins; intermediate or resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate; resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam); ESBL (resistant to aminopenicillins and oxyimino cephalosporins; positive results with the double-disc diffusion test); and CP (resistant to aminopenicillins, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, oxyimino cephalosporins and cephamycins). Results showed that the TL phenotype was the commonest (40.2% of the isolates) followed by S (31%), TH-IRT (16.1%), ESBL and CP (3.4% each) and TI (2.3%). One isolate showed both ESBL and CP phenotypes while two isolates were classified as inconclusive. Representatives from each phenotype were further analysed for the presence of beta-lactamases which revealed a predominance of TEM and SHV enzyme producers. PCR-SSCP analysis of the SHV gene from all the ESBL and CP isolates revealed the predominance of SHV 5-type enzyme which was concurrent with our previous studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  19. Parasakthi N, Vadivelu J, Ariffin H, Iyer L, Palasubramaniam S, Arasu A
    Int J Infect Dis, 2000;4(3):123-8.
    PMID: 11179914
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, genomic profiles, and control of a nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MRKP) that occurred in the pediatric oncology unit of the University of Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective epidemiologic and microbiologic study was conducted of MRKP isolated from the blood and wound of a boy with necrotizing fasciitis after a 7-day course of ceftazidime and amikacin. In the following 2 weeks, phenotypically similar MRKP were isolated from the blood cultures of four other patients and rectal swabs of another three patients and two liquid soap samples located in the same ward.

    RESULTS: Antimicrobial profiles demonstrated that all the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, sensitive to imipenem and ciprofloxacin, and confirmed to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Plasmids of varying molecular weights were present in all isolates. In eight of these isolates, which included four from blood, there were common large molecular weight plasmids ranging from 80 kb to 100 kb. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI demonstrated six different DNA profiles, A to F. Profile A was shared by two blood culture isolates and were related by 91%. Profile B was found in one rectal swab isolate and one isolate from liquid soap and were related by 94%. Profile C was shared by one blood isolate and one liquid soap isolate and showed 100% relatedness. Profiles D, E, and F each were demonstrated by one blood isolate and two rectal swab isolates, respectively. These showed only 65% relatedness.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MRKP strains in this outbreak were not clonal in origin. The decline of the outbreak after 4 weeks was attributed to the reemphasis of standard infection control procedures and the implementation of a program that addressed sites of environmental contamination.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
  20. Chung PY
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2016 10;363(20).
    PMID: 27664057
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections in the urinary tract, respiratory tract, lung, wound sites and blood in individuals with debilitating diseases. Klebsiella pneumoniae is still a cause of severe pneumonia in alcoholics in Africa and Asia, and the predominant primary pathogen of primary liver abscess in Taiwan and Southeast Asia, particularly in Asian and Hispanic patients, and individuals with diabetes mellitus. In the United States and Europe, K. pneumoniae infections are most frequently associated with nosocomial infections. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae worldwide has become a cause of concern where extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemase-producing strains have been isolated with increasing frequency. The pathogen's ability to form biofilms on inserted devices such as urinary catheter has been proposed as one of the important mechanisms in nosocomially acquired and persistent infections, adding to the increased resistance to currently used antibiotics. In this review, infections caused by K. pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance and formation of biofilm will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/metabolism
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