Affiliations 

  • 1 Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Electronic address: adel@uthm.edu.my
  • 2 Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), KM11 Jalan Panchor, 84000, Pagoh, Muar, Johor, Malaysia; Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen
  • 3 Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • 4 School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia
  • 5 Department of Architecture and Engineering Design, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
J. Hazard. Mater., 2019 03 05;365:883-894.
PMID: 30497042 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.068

Abstract

Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals active compounds (PACs) in secondary effluents by using B. subtilis 2012WTNC as a function of β-lactamase was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) designed by central composite design (CCD). Four factors including initial concentration of bacteria (1-6 log10 CFU mL-1), incubation period (1-14 days), incubation temperature (20-40 °C) and initial concentration of PACs (1-5 mg L-1) were investigated. The optimal operating factors for biodegradation process determined using response surface methodology (RSM) was recorded with 5.57 log10 CFU mL-1 of B. subtilis, for 10.38 days, at 36.62 °C and with 4.14 mg L-1 of (cephalexin/amoxicillin) with R2 coefficient of 0.99. The biodegradation was 83.81 and 93.94% respectively. The relationship among the independent variables was significant (p 

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.