Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 844 in total

  1. Zhang Y, Liu X, Yusoff M, Razali MH
    Scanning, 2021;2021:3839235.
    PMID: 34630820 DOI: 10.1155/2021/3839235
    Flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are successfully synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel and a simple hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized using various techniques to study their physicochemical properties and was tested as a photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation and as an antibacterial material. Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern show that the phase structure of the synthesized TiO2 is anatase with 80-100 nm in diameter and 150-200 nm in length of flower-like nanostructures as proved by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure found that only titanium and oxygen elements are present in the sample. The anatase phase was confirmed further by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) result shows that the sample had a large surface area (108.24 m2/g) and large band gap energy (3.26 eV) due to their nanosize. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the formation of Ti4+ and Ti3+ species which could prevent the recombination of the photogenerated electron, thus increased the electron transportation and photocatalytic activity of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure to degrade the methyl orange (83.03%) in a short time (60 minutes). These properties also support the good performance of flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure as an antibacterial material which is comparable with penicillin which is 13.00 ± 0.02 mm inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  2. Ali SE, Mahana O, Mohan CV, Delamare-Deboutteville J, Elgendy MY
    J Fish Dis, 2022 Dec;45(12):1857-1871.
    PMID: 36057979 DOI: 10.1111/jfd.13710
    In recent years, Egyptian tilapia aquaculture has experienced mortality episodes during the summer months. The causative agents responsible for such mortalities have not been clearly identified. A total of 400 fish specimens were collected from affected tilapia farms within five Egyptian governorates. A total of 344 bacterial isolates were identified from the examined fish specimens. Bacterial isolates were grouped into seven genera based on API 20E results. The most prevalent pathogens were Aeromonas spp. (42%), Vibrio spp. (21%), and Streptococcus agalactiae (14.5%). Other emerging infections like, Plesiomonas shigelloides (10%), Staphyloccocus spp. (8%), Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and Acinetobacter lwoffii (2.3%) were also detected. Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial gene of some isolates, confirmed the phenotypic identification results. The analysis of antibiotic resistance genes revealed the presence of aac(6')-Ib-cr (35.7%), blaCTX gene (23.8%), qnrS (19%), ampC (16.7%), floR (14.3%), sul1, tetA, and van.C1 (2.4%) genes in some isolates. The antimicrobia resistance gene, qac was reported in 46% of screened isolates. Bacterial strains showed variable virulence genes profiles. Aeromonas spp. harboured (act, gcat, aerA, lip, fla, and ser) genes. All Vibrio spp. possessed the hlyA gene, while cylE, hylB, and lmb genes, were detected in S. agalactiae strains. Our findings point to the possible role of the identified bacterial pathogens in tilapia summer mortality syndrome and highlight the risk of the irresponsible use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  3. Ng JML, Ngeow YF, Saw SH, Ng HF, Zin T
    J Med Microbiol, 2022 Dec;71(12).
    PMID: 36748567 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001618
    Introduction Listeriosis, a foodborne infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, could lead to febrile listerial gastroenteritis and a more invasive form which is often associated with a high mortality and hospitalisation rate. Gentamicin, used as an adjunct therapy with ampicillin, remains the treatment of choice for this life-threatening and invasive infection.Gap statement Nevertheless, there is little data on gentamicin resistance determinants in L. monocytogenes.Aim In this study, we selected and characterised B2b, a gentamicin-resistant mutant derived from L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 to determine the target(s) of resistance in L. monocytogenes after exposure to gentamicin.Methodology Whole-genome sequencing was carried out to identify the mutation site(s) and possible mechanism(s) of resistance. The mutant was characterised using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR. For biological verifications, complementation and allelic exchange mutagenesis were carried out.Results We found that the gentamicin resistance in B2b was caused by a 10 bp deletion in atpG2 which encodes a gamma subunit of the ATP synthase in L. monocytogenes. Using atpG2 PCR, various other mutations were identified in other gentamicin resistant mutants derived from ATCC 19115. In addition, the mutation from B2b, when introduced into L. ivanovii, also caused gentamicin resistance in this Listeria species.Conclusion Hence, atpG2 mutations appear to be important determinants of gentamicin resistance not only in L. monocytogenes but possibly also in other Listeria species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  4. Nicdao MA, Ingalla PC, Ingalla J
    Trop Biomed, 2023 Mar 01;40(1):14-22.
    PMID: 37355999 DOI: 10.47665/tb.40.1.006
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health crisis. Despite the drug discovery efforts, AMR is increasing, and discoveries are nearly nil. It is thus critical to design new strategies. Probiotics are tapped as alternatives to antibiotics for the treatment of gut-associated diseases. Lactobacillus species, common in food products, can inhibit the growth of gut pathogens. Here, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus species - Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are enhanced when cocultured with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from cocultures of Lactobacillus spp. and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium more potently inhibit pathogen growth than their monoculture counterparts. Interestingly, we discovered that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium could enhance the production of antimicrobials from Lactobacillus spp., most evident in L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Also, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFCS upregulates key Salmonella virulence genes, hilA and sipA. Whether this increases Salmonella's pathogenicity in vivo or reduces pathogen fitness and growth inhibition in vitro warrants further investigation. We propose that these probiotic isolates may be utilized for innovative natural food processing and preservation strategies to control Salmonella food contaminations. Importantly, our findings that Salmonella elicits an enhanced antimicrobial activity from Lactobacillus spp. provide evidence of a pathogen-mediated elicitation of antimicrobial production. Therefore, extending this phenomenon to other microbial interactions may help augment the strategies for drug discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  5. Chua RW, Song KP, Ting ASY
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2023 Oct;116(10):1057-1072.
    PMID: 37597137 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-023-01870-9
    A rare fungal endophyte, identified as Buergenerula spartinae (C28), was isolated from the roots of Cymbidium orchids and was characterised and evaluated for its antimicrobial activities. Bio-guided fractionation revealed 4 fractions from B. spartinae (C28) having antibacterial activities against at least one bacterial pathogen tested (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). However, inhibitory activities were absent against pathogenic fungi (Ganoderma boninense, Pythium ultimum and Fusarium solani). Fraction 2 and fraction 4 of B. spartinae (C28) exhibited potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus (MIC: 0.078 mg/mL) and B. cereus (MIC: 0.313 mg/mL), respectively. LCMS analysis revealed the presence of antibacterial agents and antibiotics in fraction 2 (benoxinate, pyropheophorbide A, (-)-ormosanine and N-undecylbenzenesulfonic acid) and fraction 4 (kaempferol 3-p-coumarate, 6-methoxy naphthalene acetic acid, levofuraltadone, hinokitiol glucoside, 3-α(S)-strictosidine, pyropheophorbide A, 5'-hydroxystreptomycin, kanzonol N and 3-butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide), which may be responsible for the antibacterial activities observed. Most of the bioactive compounds profiled from the antibacterial fractions were discovered for the first time from endophytic isolates (i.e. from B. spartinae (C28)). Buergenerula spartinae (C28) from Cymbidium sp. is therefore, an untapped resource of bioactive compounds for potential applications in healthcare and commercial industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  6. Wang Z, Xu J, Zeng X, Du Q, Lan H, Zhang J, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2024 Jan 10;72(1):80-93.
    PMID: 38152984 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.3c07217
    Traditional antibiotics are facing a tremendous challenge due to increased antimicrobial resistance; hence, there is an urgent need to find novel antibiotic alternatives. Milk protein-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently attracting substantial attention considering that they showcase an extensive spectrum of antimicrobial activities, with slower development of antimicrobial resistance and safety of raw materials. This review summarizes the molecular properties, and activity mechanisms and highlights the applications and limitations of AMPs derived from milk proteins comprehensively. Also the analytical technologies, especially bioinformatics methodologies, applied in the process of screening, identification, and mechanism illustration of AMPs were underlined. This review will give some ideas for further research and broadening of the applications of milk protein-derived AMPs in the food field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  7. Porter GC, Safii SH, Medlicott NJ, Duncan WJ, Tompkins GR, Coates DE
    Planta Med, 2021 Mar;87(3):253-266.
    PMID: 33434939 DOI: 10.1055/a-1330-8765
    Manuka oil, an essential oil derived from the Leptospermum scoparium, has been traditionally used for wound care and as a topical antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory. However, the essential oil is not well retained at mucosal sites, such as the oral cavity, where the benefits of the aforementioned properties could be utilized toward the treatment of persistent biofilms. Within this study, L. scoparium essential oil was incorporated into a semisolid emulsion for improved delivery. The safety profile of L. scoparium essential oil on human gingival fibroblasts was determined via cell viability, cytotoxicity, and caspase activation. The minimal bactericidal concentration of L. scoparium essential oil was determined, and the emulsion's antibiofilm effects visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. L. scoparium essential oil demonstrated a lower IC50 (0.02% at 48 h) when compared to the clinical control chlorhexidine (0.002% at 48 h) and displayed lower cumulative cytotoxicity. Higher concentrations of L. scoparium essential oil (≥ 0.1%) at 6 h resulted in higher caspase 3/7 activation, suggesting an apoptotic pathway of cell death. A minimal bactericidal concentration of 0.1% w/w was observed for 6 oral bacteria and 0.01% w/v for Porphyromonas gingivalis. Textural and rheometric analysis indicated increased stability of emulsion with a 1 : 3 ratio of L. scoparium essential oil: Oryza sativa carrier oil. The optimized 5% w/w L. scoparium essential oil emulsion showed increased bactericidal penetrative effects on Streptococci gordonii biofilms compared to oil alone and to chlorhexidine controls. This study has demonstrated the safety, formulation, and antimicrobial activity of L. scoparium essential oil emulsion for potential antibacterial applications at mucosal sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  8. Rachmawati D, Fahmi MZ, Abdjan MI, Wasito EB, Siswanto I, Mazlan N, et al.
    Molecules, 2022 Dec 15;27(24).
    PMID: 36558064 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27248935
    An anti-biofilm that can inhibit the matrix of biofilm formation is necessary to prevent recurrent and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. This study aimed to design compounds with a new mechanism through competitive inhibitory activity against phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM), using in vitro assessment and a computational (in silico) approach. The active site of PMM/PGM was assessed through molecular redocking using L-tartaric acid as the native ligand and other small molecules, such as glucaric acid, D-sorbitol, and ascorbic acid. The docking program set the small molecules to the active site, showing a stable complex formation. Analysis of structural similarity, bioavailability, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties proved the potential application of ligands as an anti-biofilm. In vitro assessment with crystal violet showed that the ligands could reach up to 95.87% inhibition at different concentrations. The nitrocellulose membrane and scanning electron microscopic visualization showed that the untreated P. aeruginosa biofilm was denser than the ligand-treated biofilm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  9. Wiart C, Kathirvalu G, Raju CS, Nissapatorn V, Rahmatullah M, Paul AK, et al.
    Molecules, 2023 May 04;28(9).
    PMID: 37175283 DOI: 10.3390/molecules28093873
    This review identifies terpenes isolated from the medicinal Angiosperms of Asia and the Pacific with antibacterial and/or antifungal activities and analyses their distribution, molecular mass, solubility, and modes of action. All data in this review were compiled from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, ChemSpider, PubChem, and library searches from 1968 to 2022. About 300 antibacterial and/or antifungal terpenes were identified during this period. Terpenes with a MIC ≤ 2 µg/mL are mostly amphiphilic and active against Gram-positive bacteria, with a molecular mass ranging from about 150 to 550 g/mol, and a polar surface area around 20 Ų. Carvacrol, celastrol, cuminol, dysoxyhainic acid I, ent-1β,14β-diacetoxy-7α-hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one, ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide, geranylgeraniol, gossypol, 16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13 (14)Z-diene-15,16-olide, 7-hydroxycadalene, 17-hydroxyjolkinolide B, (20R)-3β-hydroxy-24,25,26,27-tetranor-5α cycloartan-23,21-olide, mansonone F, (+)-6,6'-methoxygossypol, polygodial, pristimerin, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol are chemical frameworks that could be candidates for the further development of lead antibacterial or antifungal drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  10. Farhan N, Al-Maleki AR, Sarih NM, Yahya R
    Bioorg Chem, 2023 Nov;140:106786.
    PMID: 37586131 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2023.106786
    Recent studies show that some metal ions, injure microbial cells in various ways due to membrane breakdown, protein malfunction, and oxidative stress. Metal complexes are suited for creating novel antibacterial medications due to their distinct mechanisms of action and the variety of three-dimensional geometries they can acquire. In this Perspective, the present study focused on new antibacterial strategies based on metal oleoyl amide complexes. Thus, oleoyl amides ligand (fatty hydroxamic acid and fatty hydrazide hydrate) with the transition metal ions named Ag (I), Co (II), Cu (II), Ni (II) and Sn (II) complexes were successfully synthesized in this study. The metals- oleoyl amide were characterized using elemental analysis, and fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The antibacterial effect of metals- oleoyl amide complexes was investigated for Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) by analysing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that metal-oleoyl amide complexes have high antibacterial activity at low concentrations. This study inferred that metal oleoyl amide complexes could be utilised as a promising therapeutic antibacterial agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  11. Maniam L, Vellasamy KM, Ong TA, Teh CSJ, Jabar KA, Mariappan V, et al.
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e15305.
    PMID: 37361034 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.15305
    BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant agent causing various categories of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). Although existing data reveals that UPEC harboured numerous virulence determinants to aid its survival in the urinary tract, the reason behind the occurrence of differences in the clinical severity of uninary tract infections (UTI) demonstrated by the UPEC infection is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the distribution of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among different phylogroups of UPEC isolated from various clinical categories of cUTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) E. coli isolates. The study will also attempt a relational analysis of the genotypic characteristics of cUTI UPEC and ASB E. coli isolates.

    METHODS: A total of 141 UPEC isolates from cUTI and 160 ASB E. coli isolates were obtained from Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Phylogrouping and the occurrence of virulence genes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to different classes of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method.

    RESULTS: The cUTI isolates were distributed differentially among both Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and non-ExPEC phylogroups. Phylogroup B2 isolates were observed to possess the highest average aggregative virulence score (7.17), a probable representation of the capability to cause severe disease. Approximately 50% of the cUTI isolates tested in this study were multidrug resistant against common antibiotics used to treat UTI. Analysis of the occurrence of virulence genes among different cUTI categories demonstrated that UPEC isolates of pyelonephritis and urosepsis were highly virulent and had the highest average aggregative virulence scores of 7.80 and 6.89 respectively, compared to other clinical categories. Relational analysis of the occurrence of phylogroups and virulence determinants of UPEC and ASB E. coli isolates showed that 46.1% of UPEC and 34.3% of ASB E. coli from both categories were distributed in phylogroup B2 and had the highest average aggregative virulence score of 7.17 and 5.37, respectively. The data suggest that UPEC isolates which carry virulence genes from all four virulence genes groups studied (adhesions, iron uptake systems, toxins and capsule synthesis) and isolates from phylogroup B2 specifically could predispose to severe UTI involving the upper urinary tract. Therefore, specific analysis of the genotypic characteristics of UPEC could be further explored by incorporating the combination of virulence genes as a prognostic marker for predicting disease severity, in an attempt to propose a more evidence driven treatment decision-making for all UTI patients. This will go a long way in enhancing favourable therapeutic outcomes and reducing the antimicrobial resistance burden among UTI patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  12. Leong MY, Kong YL, Harun MY, Looi CY, Wong WF
    Carbohydr Res, 2023 Oct;532:108899.
    PMID: 37478689 DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2023.108899
    Nanocellulose (NC) is a natural fiber that can be extracted in fibrils or crystals form from different natural sources, including plants, bacteria, and algae. In recent years, nanocellulose has emerged as a sustainable biomaterial for various medicinal applications including drug delivery systems, wound healing, tissue engineering, and antimicrobial treatment due to its biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and exceptional water holding capacity for cell immobilization. Many antimicrobial products can be produced due to the chemical functionality of nanocellulose, such disposable antibacterial smart masks for healthcare use. This article discusses comprehensively three types of nanocellulose: cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) in view of their structural and functional properties, extraction methods, and the distinctive biomedical applications based on the recently published work. On top of that, the biosafety profile and the future perspectives of nanocellulose-based biomaterials have been further discussed in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  13. Hassan SN, Mohamed Yusoff AA, Idris Z, Mohd Redzwan N, Ahmad F
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2023 Oct;37(5):918-927.
    PMID: 37069134 DOI: 10.1111/fcp.12900
    The resistance, plasticity and heterogeneity of cancer cells, including glioblastoma (GB) cells, have prompted the investigation of various agents for possible adjuncts and alternatives to existing therapies. This includes a macrolide antibiotic, azithromycin (AZI). It possesses intriguing anticancer properties in a range of cancer models in vitro, such as antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-autophagy and anti-angiogenic effects. In fact, AZI is renowned for its ability to eradicate cancer stem cells by inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. AZI-containing regimens in cancer patients for different purposes have shown favourable (i.e., attributed to its antibacterial activity) and unfavourable outcomes. Whilst its direct anticancer effects have yet to be clinically proven. To that end, this review provides a summary of AZI anticancer studies and delineates its potential activities in overcoming the challenges of GB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  14. Samrot AV, Abubakar Mohamed A, Faradjeva E, Si Jie L, Hooi Sze C, Arif A, et al.
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2021 Aug 18;57(8).
    PMID: 34441045 DOI: 10.3390/medicina57080839
    Biofilms comprising aggregates of microorganisms or multicellular communities have been a major issue as they cause resistance against antimicrobial agents and biofouling. To date, numerous biofilm-forming microorganisms have been identified, which have been shown to result in major effects including biofouling and biofilm-related infections. Quorum sensing (which describes the cell communication within biofilms) plays a vital role in the regulation of biofilm formation and its virulence. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms responsible for biofilm resistance (including quorum sensing) will assist in developing strategies to inhibit and control the formation of biofilms in nature. Employing biological control measures (such as the use of bioactive compounds) in targeting biofilms is of great interest since they naturally possess antimicrobial activity among other favorable attributes and can also possibly act as potent antibiofilm agents. As an effort to re-establish the current notion and understanding of biofilms, the present review discuss the stages involved in biofilm formation, the factors contributing to its development, the effects of biofilms in various industries, and the use of various bioactive compounds and their strategies in biofilm inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  15. Polapally R, Mansani M, Rajkumar K, Burgula S, Hameeda B, Alhazmi A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2022;17(4):e0266676.
    PMID: 35468144 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0266676
    The present study reveals the production of dark, extracellular melanin pigment (386 mg/L) on peptone yeast extract iron agar medium by Streptomyces puniceus RHPR9 using the gravimetric method. UV-Visible, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H) (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of melanin. Extracted melanin showed antibacterial activity against human pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli except for Klebsiella pneumoniae. A potent free radical scavenging activity was observed at 100 μg/mL of melanin by the DPPH method with a concentration of 89.01±0.05% compared with ascorbic acid 96.16±0.01%. Antitumor activity of melanin was evaluated by MTT assay against HEK 293, HeLa, and SK-MEL-28 cell lines with IC50 values of 64.11±0.00, 14.43±0.02, and 13.31±0.01 μg/mL respectively. Melanin showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity with human red blood cells (hRBC) (78.63 ± 0.01%) and minimum hemolysis of 21.37±0.2%. The wound healing potential of the pigment was confirmed on HeLa cells, cell migration was calculated, and it was observed that cell migration efficiency decreased with an increase in the concentration of melanin. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of melanin produced from S. puniceus RHPR9 that exhibited profound scavenging, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  16. Tiran Gunasena M, Hussein MZ, Ali A, Wahab MAA, Bashir Kutawa A, Rafif A, et al.
    Chem Biodivers, 2023 Dec;20(12):e202300686.
    PMID: 37905394 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.202300686
    Ginger essential oils (GEO) shows exceptional antimicrobial properties against plant pathogens. Due to its high volatility and low stability, it requires encapsulation to retain its effective properties. The GEO-Chitosan (GEO-CS) nanobactericide was developed using the ionic gelation method. The nanobactericides show particle diameters of 465, 28, 35, 48 and 500 nm when sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentrations used in the preparation were 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 %, respectively. The X-ray diffraction and the UV-vis studies revealed that the GEO was encapsulated into the chitosan nanoparticles with an encapsulation efficiency of around 46 % and a loading capacity of 27-34 %. The antibacterial activity of GEO-chitosan nanobactericide against Burkholderia glumae (Bg) was found to be 7.5-11.8 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 15.6 μl/mL and 31.25 μl/mL, respectively. Hence, these findings indicate that the prepared GEO-CS nanobactericides were found to be effective against Bg. This preliminary study is toward the development of new agronanobactericides using a natural product to control Bg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  17. Thakur P, Arivarasan VK, Kumar G, Pant G, Kumar R, Pandit S, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2024 Jan;196(1):491-505.
    PMID: 37145344 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-023-04550-6
    The current study reports the synthesis of sustainable nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) using a wet chemical precipitation approach. The materials used in the green synthesis of nHAp were obtained from environmental biowastes such as HAp from eggshells and pectin from banana peels. The physicochemical characterization of obtained nHAp was carried out using different techniques. For instance, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy were used to study the crystallinity and synthesis of nHAp respectively. In addition, the morphology and elemental composition of nHAP were studied using FESEM equipped with EDX. HRTEM showed the internal structure of nHAP and calculated its grain size which was 64 nm. Furthermore, the prepared nHAp was explored for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activity which has received less attention previously. The obtained results showed the potential of pectin-bound nHAp as an antibacterial agent for various biomedical and healthcare applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  18. Amil MA, Rahman SNSA, Yap LF, Razak FA, Bakri MM, Salem LSO, et al.
    Chem Biodivers, 2024 Mar;21(3):e202301836.
    PMID: 38253795 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.202301836
    Essential oils have been recognised for their potential benefits in oral care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antiproliferative activity of essential oils derived from four Zingiberaceae species. A combination of GC/MS and GC-FID was employed to analyse these essential oils. The results showed that β-myrcene (79.77 %) followed by ethyl-cinnamate (40.14 %), β-curcumene (34.90 %), and alloaromadendrene (25.15 %) as the primary constituents of Curcuma mangga, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and Curcuma aeruginosa, respectively. The Zingiberaceae oils were tested for their antibacterial activity against oral bacteria using the disc diffusion test. Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil showed the largest inhibition zones against Streptococcus mitis (19.50±2.22 mm) and Streptococcus sanguinis (15.04±3.05 mm). Similarly, Curcuma mangga oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans (12.55±0.45 mm) and mixed oral bacteria (15.03±3.82 mm). Furthermore, the MTT viability assay revealed moderate inhibitory activity of these essential oils against H103 and ORL-204 oral cancer cells. The study findings demonstrate that Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuma mangga essential oils have potent antibacterial properties, suggesting their potential use as natural alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents in oral care products. However, further investigations are necessary to fully explore their therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  19. Jeevajothi Nathan J, Mohd Taib N, Mohd Desa MN, Masri SN, Md Yasin R, Jamal F, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):119-24.
    PMID: 23629556 MyJurnal
    The in vitro activities of 6 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) were investigated and the erythromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were correlated with the two major macrolide resistance determinants, mef(A) and erm(B). MICs of commonly used antibiotics as well as the presence of macrolide resistance determinant genes in all isolates were tested. Seventy one pneumococcal isolates collected at Institute for Medical Research (IMR) were included in this study. Phenotypic characterization, MIC determination using E-test strips and polymerase chain reactions for antibiotic resistance determination were included. Among the isolates, 25 (35.2%) isolates were erythromycin susceptible, 3 (4.2%) were intermediate and 42 (60.6%) were resistant. Fifty three isolates (74.7%) were found with mef(A) alone, 15 (21.1%) isolates with erm(B) + mef(A) combination and 3 (4.2%) isolates with none of the two genes. The in vitro activity of penicillin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime is superior to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In conclusion, pneumococcal isolates in this study were highly susceptible to penicillin with very low MICs. However, a very high prevalence rate of erythromycin resistance was observed. Erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae isolates with both mef(A) and erm(B) showed very high MICs ≥256 μg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  20. Puthucheary SD, Chen ST, Dugdale AE
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Jun;26(4):262-5.
    PMID: 5069415
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*
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